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Computer Ethics, Privacy

* Computer Ethics * Are the moral guidelines that govern the use of computers and information systems. Information Accuracy * Information accuracy today is concern because many users access information maintained by other people or companies, such as on the internet. * Do not assume that because the information is on the web that is correct * Users should evaluate the value of the web page before relying on its content.

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Intellectual property rights

* Intellectual property (IP) refers to unique and original works such as ideas, inventions, art, processes, company and product names and logos. IP are the right to which creators are entitled for their work. * Copyright * Gives authors and artists exclusive rights to duplicate, publish and sell their materials. A copyright protects any tangible form of expression. * Piracy is the common infringement of copyright. Information Privacy * refers to the right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of information about them. How to safeguard personal information 1. Fill in only necessary information on rebate, warranty and registration forms. 2.

Do not preprint your telephone number or social security number on personal checks. 3. Have an unlisted or unpublished telephone number. 4. If caller ID is available in your area, find out how to block your number from displaying on the receiver’s system. 5. Do not write your telephone number on charge or credit receipts. 6. Ask merchants not to write credit card numbers, telephone numbers, social security numbers and driver’s license numbers on the back of your personal checks. 7. Purchase goods with cash, rather than credit or checks.

8. Avoid shopping club and buyer cards. . If merchants ask personal questions, find out why they want to know before releasing the information. 10. Inform merchants that you do not want them to distribute your personal information. 11. Request in writing, to be removed from mailing lists. 12. Obtain your credit report once a year from each of the three major credit reporting agencies and correct any errors. 13. Request a free copy of your medical records once a year from the medical Information Bureau. 14. Limit the amount of information you provide to web sites. Fill in only required information. 15.

Install a cookie manager to filter cookies. 16. Clear your history file when you are finished browsing. 17. Set up a free mail account. Use this e-mail address for merchant forms. 18. Turn off file and computer sharing on your internet connection. 19. Install a personal firewall. 20. Sign-up for e-mail filtering through your internet service provider or use an anti-spam program such as Brightmail. 21. Do not reply to spam for any reason. 22. Surf the web anonymously with a program such as freedom web secure or through an anonymous web site such as anonymizer. om Electronic Profiles * When you fill out a form such as a magazine subscription, product warranty registration card, or contest entry form the merchant that usually enters it into a database. Likewise, every time you click an advertisement on the Web or register software online ,your information and preferences enter a database. * Cookies E-commerce and other Web applications often rely on cookies to identify users.

Cookie files typically contain data about you, such as your user name or viewing references. Spyware and Adware Spyware is a program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user. * Spyware can enter a computer as a virus or as a result of a user installing a new program. * Spyware program communicates information it collects to some outside source while you are online. * Adware is a program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-out window on Web pages, e-mail messages or other internet services. Phishing * Phishing is a scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking e-mail messages that attempts to obtain your personal and financial information.

Pharming is a scam similar to phishing where a perpetrator attempts to obtain your personal and financial information, except they do so via spoofing. Spam * Spam is an unsolicited e-mail messages or newsgroup posting sent to multiple recipients or newsgroups at once. * Spam is Internet junk mail * The content of spam ranges from selling a product or service, to promoting a business opportunity, to advertising offensive material. Privacy Laws * The concern about privacy has led to the enactment of federal and state laws regarding the storage and disclosure of personal data. refers to the laws which deal with the regulation of personal information about individuals which can be collected by governments and other public as well as private organizations and its storage and use.

Social Engineering * Defined as gaining unauthorized access or obtaining confidential information by taking advantage of the trusting human nature of some victims and the naivety of others. * Some social engineers trick their victims into revealing confidential information such as usernames and passwords on telephones, in person or on the Internet. Employee Monitoring Involves the use of computers to observe, record and review an employee’s use of computer, including communication such as e-mail messages, keyboard activity and Web sites visited. Content filtering * Is the process of restricting access to certain material on the web. * Content filtering opponents argue that banning any materials violates constitutional guarantees of free speech and personal rights.

* Web filtering software is a program that restricts access to specified Web sites. Computer Forensics * Also called digital forensics, network forensics or cyber forensics. Is the discovery, collection and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks. * Forensic analysis, involves the examination of computer media, programs, data and log files on computers, servers, and networks. Health Concerns of Computer Use Computer health risks * Repetitive strain Injury (RSI) * is an injury or disorder of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments and joints. * Computer relate RSIs include tendonitis and carpal tunnel syndrome. * Tendonitis Is inflammation of tendon due to some repeated motion or stress on that tendon. * Carpal Tunnel syndrome

In inflammation of the nerve that connects the forearm to the palm of the wrists. * Computer Vision syndrome * You may have CVS if you have sore, tired, burning, itching or dry eyes, blurred or double vision, distance blurred vision after prolonged staring at a display device, headache or sore neck, difficulty shifting focus between device and documents. Ergonomics and Workplace Design * Ergonomics * Is an applied science devoting to incorporating comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of items in the workplace. * Workplace design * has a profound impact on the productivity of workers.

Making the best use of space through optimum placement of equipment, integrating the human factor into workplace design, and effectively aligning the workplace into the surrounding environment are important aspects of ergonomics. * The workplace design should aim to propagate intuition, teamwork, and more importantly, provide a safe and comfortable environment. Computer Addiction * Occurs when the computer consumes someone’s entire social life. Computer addiction is a growing health problem. * Symptoms of a user with computer addiction include the following:

* Craves computer time * Overjoyed when at the computer Unable to stop computer activity * Irritable when not at the computer * Neglects family and friends * Problems at work and school * Computer addiction is a treatable illness through therapy and support groups. Green Computing * Involves reducing the electricity and environmental waste while using a computer. * Green computing is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources. Such practices include the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units (CPUs), servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste (e-waste).