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Challenges Faced by Pvos in Effective Mobilization of Communities in Rural Agriculture Projects in Kirinyaga District

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CHALLENGES FACED BY PVOS IN EFFECTIVE MOBILIZATION OF COMMUNITIES IN RURAL AGRICULTURE PROJECTS IN KIRINYAGA DISTRICT Name: PATRICK KARIMI Adm No: EMB/0088 COURSE: DIPLOMA IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT Subject: Project Research Methods (DPM 5) Lecturer: Mr. J. Ndukanio Due Date: 15th Aug 2009 A Research Proposal Presented In Partial Fulfillment for the Award of Diploma in Project Management Kenya Institute of Management AUG, 2009 DECLARATION Declaration by Student I do here declare this is my original work and has not been presented for exams before.

Signature………………………………………………Date……………………. Patrick Karimi Adm No: EMB/0088 Declaration by Supervisor LETURER: Mr. Ndukanio Signature………………………………. …… Date…………………… DEDICATION To My wife and friend.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Thanks to my lecturers at KIM and class mates. Thanks also to my workmates and friends TABLE OF CONTENTS Title pagei Declarationii Dedication iii Acknowledgementiv Table of contentsvii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1. Introduction 1. 1 Background of the study 1. 2 Statement of the problem . 3 Objective of the study 1. 4 Research questions 1. 5 Significance of the study 1. 6 Limitations of the study 1. 7 Scope of the study 1. 8 Conceptual framework CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 0 Introduction————————————————————————————– 2. 1 Empirical review 2. 2 Critical review 2. 3 Research gaps CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3. Introduction 3. 1 Research design 3. 2 Target population 3. 3 Accessible population 3. 4 Sampling technique 3. 5 Data collection method and procedures 3. Data analysis technique References APPENDICES APPENDIX 1………………….. Questionnaire APPENDIX II………………… Time line APPENDIX III…………… Budget CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. Introduction This chapter will cover the background of the study, purpose of the study, problem statement, objectives of the study, research questions, importance of the study, limitations of the study, scope of the study and the conceptual framework 1. 2. The Background of the study Agricultural production and productivity in the EAC is largely constrained by natural factors, policy and adoption of technologies.

The reasons for poor performance of the agricultural sector include:  Policy related factors, Technology related factors, Nature related factors, Cross cutting and cross-sectorial related factors. The above constraints have inhibited the rural economy’s potential to: alleviate poverty through employment creation and income generation, meet growing food needs driven by rapid population growth and urbanization; stimulate overall economic growth, given that agriculture is the most potential lead sector for growth and development; and conserve natural resources.

The main challenge facing the rural sector is to increase productivity and economic growth in order to halt the worsening food security and to reduce poverty by 50 percent by the year 2015. This is at a time when East Africa faces declining financial resource base, HIV and AIDS pandemic, globalization and declining natural resources, which reduce availability of investment funds. East Africa has a significant irrigation potential that remains unexploited.

Irrigation can play an important role in increasing agricultural productivity, expanding area under production and stabilizing agricultural production in situations of adverse weather conditions. Opportunity to expand irrigated agriculture exists. Utilization of this opportunity would boost agricultural production. From past studies in community projects, it is clear that meaningfully involving communities at all phases of a development project are determinant to ensuring development.

Only in such a manner can people become leading actors in and generators of their own development, rather than being passive recipients of external support (Bessette, 1996). 1. 3. The Problem Statement The Community is faced with a number of challenges: harmonizing various policies and legislations; increasing involvement of local communities in planning and decision making; increasing production and economic growth; elimination of trans boundary pests and diseases including wildlife diseases; expanding irrigated agriculture; reducing poverty levels; combating the HIV and AIDS pandemic; slowing down the environmental egradation and desertification process; sustaining utilization of natural resources; establishing an effective early warning system and improving governance, security and political stability Government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other stakeholders in Kenya have of late been exerting great efforts to increase communities’ access to sanitation and hygiene facilities and to promote safe hygienic behavior, especially in rural areas. However, their efforts have not been able to bring about the desired output.

Underlying reasons for this failure are that most of the projects were supply-driven; top-down interventions designed and implemented with little or no involvement by the user communities. In fact, most of the projects were forced interventions designed and implemented with little or no involvement by the user communities. In fact, most of the projects were forced interventions rather than agreed-upon involvements. There has been more emphasis on the construction of latrines than on the promotion of their proper use and usage and technologies employed were, by and large, expensive.

Thus, coverage, access and usage of sanitation are still inadequate. In other words, with regard to safe hygienic behavior, much remains to be desired. Consequently, diarrhea morbidity and mortality originating from fecal contamination, especially among under-five children, are still high. Demographic health statistics show that 46% of childhood deaths in Ethiopia are caused by diarrhea, and 80% of the diarrhea is attributable to unsafe water supply and poor sanitation and hygiene.

These suggest the need for a development approach that empowers communities mentally and psychologically; and promotes self-respect and self-reliance for communities to properly plan and act. Programs designed should center on needs-based and community-led panning and implementation of projects to create a strong sense of ownership on the part of the user communities. This study therefore seeks to address the challenges faced by PVOs in effective mobilization of community participation in rural agriculture projects in Kirinyaga District. . 4 Research Objectives: 1. 4. 1 General Objective The research Project aims to improve the mobilization approaches to community agriculture productivity and sustainability of existing small and medium farmer-managed irrigation systems suffering from low productivity and poverty in Central Kenya and thereby enhancing the livelihoods of the poor. 1. 4. 2 Specific Objectives 1. To examine the challenges caused by incidence of poverty in effective mobilization of community participation in rural agricultural project 2.

To investigate the challenges caused by social infrastructure in effective mobilization of community participation in rural agricultural project 3. To find out the challenges caused by Gender balancing in effective mobilization of community participation in rural agricultural project 1. 5. Research Questions 1. To what extent does incidence of poverty a challenge in effective mobilization of community participation in rural agricultural project? 2. What challenges are caused by social infrastructure in effective mobilization of community participation in rural agricultural project? . Are there challenges caused by Gender balancing in effective mobilization of community participation in rural agricultural project? 1. 7. Significance of the Study • To community workers and stake holders: The research project will enhance the livelihood of rural smallholders by improving the performance of the existing farmer-managed irrigation systems. • By establishing sound evidence on service delivery mechanisms and community institutions to support such initiatives To future researchers; As this research study is limited to the challenges faced by PVOs in effective mobilization of community participation in rural agriculture projects in Kirinyaga District, it can be used as a platform for further research studies to identify additional challenges and also explore how these challenges can be overcome. 1. 8. Limitations of the Study ? Collection of data: Lack of extensive data in some aspects of the study will be overcomed by making use of a diverse range of sources for the data including the internet, newspapers, magazines, books, business journals, and any other available material. Questionnaire responses So that respondents would not find it time consuming to complete the questionnaire, the researcher attempted to simplify the questionnaire as much as possible so as to make it easier to complete without it being time consuming. 1. 9. Scope of the Study The study covers agricultural based irrigation projects in Kirinyaga District. The study will cover the challenges faced by PVOs in effective mobilization of community participation in rural agriculture projects in Kirinyaga District. The study duration will be October-December 2009. . 10. Conceptual Frame Independent variables Dependent variable CHAPTER TWO 2. 0. LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1Introduction The Chapter reviews literature related to agriculture based project and its impact on community mobilization done by different writers and researchers. 2. 2. Main Review The main challenge facing the rural sector is to increase productivity and economic growth in order to halt the worsening food security and to reduce poverty by 50 percent by the year 2015.

This is at a time when East Africa faces declining financial resource base, HIV and AIDS pandemic, globalization and declining natural resources, which reduce availability of investment funds. East Africa has a significant irrigation potential that remains unexploited. Irrigation can play an important role in increasing agricultural productivity, expanding area under production and stabilizing agricultural production in situations of adverse weather conditions. Opportunity to expand irrigated agriculture exists. Utilization of this opportunity would boost agricultural production.

The Community is faced with a number of challenges: harmonizing various policies and legislations; increasing involvement of local communities in planning and decision making; increasing production and economic growth; elimination of trans boundary pests and diseases including wildlife diseases; expanding irrigated agriculture; reducing poverty levels; combating the HIV and AIDS pandemic; slowing down the environmental degradation and desertification process; sustaining utilization of natural resources; establishing an effective early warning system and improving governance, security and political stability Government agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other stakeholders in Ethiopia have of late been exerting great efforts to increase communities’ access to sanitation and hygiene facilities and to promote safe hygienic behavior, especially in rural areas. However, their efforts have not been able to bring about the desired output. Underlying reasons for this failure are that most of the projects were supply-driven; top-down interventions designed and implemented with little or no involvement by the user communities. In fact, most of the projects were forced interventions designed and implemented with little or no involvement by the user communities. In fact, most of the projects were forced interventions rather than agreed-upon involvements.

There has been more emphasis on the construction of latrines than on the promotion of their proper use and usage and technologies employed were, by and large, expensive. Thus, coverage, access and usage of sanitation are still inadequate. In other words, with regard to safe hygienic behavior, much remains to be desired. Consequently, diarrhea morbidity and mortality originating from fecal contamination, especially among under-five children, are still high. Demographic health statistics show that 46% of childhood deaths in Ethiopia are caused by diarrhea, and 80% of the diarrhea is attributable to unsafe water supply and poor sanitation and hygiene.

These suggest the need for a development approach that empowers communities mentally and psychologically; and promotes self-respect and self-reliance for communities to properly plan and act. Programs designed should enter on needs-based and community-led panning and implementation of projects to create a strong sense of ownership on the part of the user communities. Accordingly, in early 2007, plan Ethiopia and Plan Regional Office for Eastern and Southern Africa (RESA) learned that the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach proved successful in countries of Southeast Asia and Latin America in producing desired outcomes. Thus, inviting the pioneer of CLTS, Dr. Kamal Kar it introduced the approach in eight kebeles in Shbedino District of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and peoples’ Region (SNNPR).

CLTS works by encouraging communities to “call a spade a spade,” thereby creating an element of shame, of disgust, and of fear as triggering elements. Dr. Kar also admonishes facilitators, or experts, not to dictate communities but, instead, to encourage them to identify their problems and come up with solutions. He also recommends close follow-up and periodic monitoring. In March 2007, Plan Ethiopia’s Shebedino program unit, together with the Shebedino District Health Office, Water Action, Kebele health extension workers, health messengers, community leaders, and communities themselves began exercising the CLTS approach. Members of Fura’s community ere highly triggered and they promised to proactively involve in sanitation activities: dig pit latrines and put an end to open defecation in their kebeles by mid-April 2007. Their motto was “No to open defecation! ” “No to eating and drinking shit! ” They then made good on their promise. With only some facilitation and follow-up by plan Ethiopia’s Shebedino Program Unit, the Shebedino Wereda Health Office, the health extension workers, the health messengers, and the community leaders, the communities in many of these kebeles registered impressive achievements. For instance, 465 of the 1265 households in the Fura kebele constructed household pit latrines after introduction of CLTS.

That was about one-hundred-percent pit latrine coverage in the kebele. Furthermore, determined to make their kebele open-defecation-free (ODF), the residents of Fura built nine communal pit latrines for passers-by and for the pupils of the Fura Elementary School. They did it all on their own initiative, and with no subsidy, using only locally available materials. The pit latrine construction has accelerated in many her keeles, too. Monitoring reports indicate the communities in Taremessa, Midre Genet, Morancho Negash kebeles as well have constructed pit latrines and reached almost one hundred percent coverage, as compared to 28%, 25%, and 65% coverage respectively.

Plan Ethiopia supported this initiative at negligible cost: around US$ 2,000 to train community leaders and other facilitators in Fura and other kebeles as well as staff members from partner institutions.. In the past, plan Ethiopia spent about US$ 25 per household for san plat provision alone. Thus, to support the construction of 465 pit latrines in Fura would have, therefore, cost plan Ethiopia more than US$ 11,625. Children, women and men are involved not only in construction pit latrines but also in keeping a watchful eye to make sure that passers-by do not defecate out in the open in Fura. They have set rules for penalizing offenders: offenders scoop their feces into nearby toilets and penalize and amount of US$ 0. 5-1. 00. Data from clinics operating in these areas indicate that the number of diarrhea cases is continuously declining.

The residents of the Fura kebele designated September 02, 2007 as Open-Defecation- Free Environment Day. Around 500 people, including community members of the Fura keble, various government officials, health extension workers of the 35 kebles in the Woreda, staff members of Water Action and staff members of plan Ethiopia attended the celebration. Success recorded was however, not without challenges. Lack of efficiency and commitment on the part of the community leaders in some areas or among stakeholders was one of the problems. The fact that the various beneficiaries of the CLTS approach did not always reach a consensus also posed challenges. At times there have been problems of regressing to the old, unhygienic practice.

From this project it is clear that meaningfully involving communities at all phases of a development project are determinant to ensuring development. Only in such a manner can people become leading actors in and generators of their own development, rather than being passive recipients of external support (Bessette, 1996). CHAPTER THREE 3. 0 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Introduction This chapter outlines the process the researcher uses to identify the target population, research design, sampling design, data collection methods and data analysis methods. 3. 2 Research Design The research design that will be adopted in this research study is the descriptive survey research design.

Descriptive case study is a method of collecting information by interviewing or administering a questionnaire to a sample of individuals (Orodho, 2003). It can be used when collecting information about people’s attitudes, opinions, habits or any of the variety of education or social issues (Orodho and Kombo, 2002). The design adopted is an investigative design since it will be easy and efficient to use and is an accurate counter and indicator to measure (Pamela, 2003). The researcher chose this research design because the study aims at collecting information from respondents on their experiences, perceptions and opinions in relation to the challenges of marketing the credit card services to teachers. Both primary and secondary data will be colleted.

Primary data will be obtained using questionnaires while secondary data will be from the internet, newspapers, magazines, journals, government publications, published company records and reports. 3. 3. Study population The target population will be all PVOs involved in community agriculture projects in Kirinyaga district. The accessible population is 12 PVOs. 3. 4. Sample Size The researcher selected 32 respondents on whom to conduct the survey. The choice of 32respondents will be based on Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) recommendation. The accessible population consisted of 32 respondents and so the sample size of 32respondents will be 100% as recommended by Mugenda and Mugenda (2003). 3. 5 Sampling design

The research will be use a Stratified random sampling method to ensure that all categories are equitably represented in the sample. Then the researcher adopted case study census. 3. 6. Data collection instrument The researcher will be use a questionnaire for the teachers and an interview guide for the Bankers as the data collection instruments. The interview guide will be enable collection of in-depth information and they are appropriate where the population size is not large (Kothari 2007). The questionnaire is made up of both structured and unstructured questions so that qualitative and quantitative data is collected for the study. The researcher chose to use a questionnaire because of the following benefits.

First, the questionnaire enables the researcher to ask structured or closed-ended questions which are easier to analyses as well as to administer since each question is followed by alternative answers. Secondly, the questionnaire also enables the researcher to use open-ended questions thus permitting a greater in-depth response from the respondents. These particular responses enable the researcher to get greater insight into the feelings, decisions and thinking of the respondents (Fraenkel, 2000). 3. 6 Data collection procedure Questionnaires were self administered as all respondents are literate enough to for purpose of the questionnaire items. The questionnaires will be conveyed to the respondents by use of the drop and pick method.

An introductory letter from the KIM authorizing the research to be undertaken will be used by the researcher to assure the authenticity of the study. 3. 7. Reliability and validity Data reliability and validation will be done to maintain accuracy. Data reliability is the degree to which research instrument yield consistent results or data after repeated trials Mugenda and Mugenda (2003). To achieve this, the questionnaire has been designed with systematic and comprehensive questions to enable respondents to answer them without much reference. Data validity refers to the degree to which results obtained from analysis of data actually represents phenomenon under study, Mugenda and Mugenda (2003).

To achieve content validity the researcher will seek assistance from the experts (supervisor) on various sections in the questionnaire as instruments for data collection. 3. 7 Data Analysis Procedure Analysis of raw data collected will enable the researcher to generate information. Data analysis will involve reducing accumulated data looking for patterns and applying statistical techniques. Data analysis will be done using both qualitative and quantitative analysis, because it is important to obtain data on the study by trying to establish trends. Patterns and relationships from the data gathered. The procedure included recording results from respondents and, evaluating the accuracy and relevance of data.

Quantitative analysis will be used since the distribution of measures or scores need to be extensively described using descriptive statistical analysis as these are suitable in giving accurate findings revealed by research. Data will be presented in form of tables, graphs, charts, figures, to give meaning to the responses. APPENDIX I REFRENCES Thomas F. Patterson (1987) (HTML). Refining Performance Appraisal. http://www. joe. org/joe/1987winter/a5. html. Retrieved on 2007-01-18. Joyce Margulies (2004-03-24) (PDF). Performance Appraisals. http://www. bnabooks. com/ababna/eeo/2004/eeo55. pdf. Retrieved on 2007-01-18. Archer North & Associatiates (1998), Introduction to Performance Appraisal, http://www. performance-appraisal. com/intro. htm U. S. Department of the Interior, Performance Appraisal Handbook Mugenda A & Mugenda, O. 2003). Research Methods. Nairobi: Focus Hashemi, S. , Scholar, S & Riley, A. (1996). Rural Credit Programmes and Women Empowerment in Bangladesh. World Development 24(4). Pgs 635-653. Wall JA Jr, Callister RR. Conflict and its management. Journal of Management(21:3), 1995, pp 515-558 APENDIX II Questionnaire for Respondents Name ……………………………………………………….. (optional) Organization/ NGO………………………………………………. Designation…………………………………………………………. 2. (a) How did you come to learn about PVOs In Embu? i. Founder member ii. Through a friend iii. Through the radio/TV iv. From church / chief (b) To what extend do the following motivate membership? |Very much |Much |Not much |Not very much |Not at all | |To get an income | | | | | | |To keep you busy | | | | | | |To help your relatives | | | | | | |To help community | | | | | | |Because your friends were members | | | | | | 2 (i) Are you involved in formulating the activities of your organization? Yes No (ii) If no, who formulates the activities of the organization / group? The chairman The donors The committee All the members 3 (i) Are there benefits for success in the activities of the group? Yes No (ii) If yes, kindly rate the nature of the relationships of each stakeholder using the scale below. a) Committee of the group 12345 b) Donors to the activity 12345 c) Other group members 12345 ) The non participating group members 12345 e) Other CBOs 12345 Key 1= very supportive 2=supportive 3= just supportive 4= not supportive 5=not at al supportive 4 (i) Are your activities competitive in nature? Yes No (ii) If yes, answer question (a-b) and if no skip question (c-d) start at question e. (a) Briefly state, two recent activities of the organization. 1. ——————————————————————————————————— 2. ——————————————————————————————————— (b) Kindly rate the involvement of the groups in the following issues involved. |Very much involved |Involved |It depends |Not very involved|Not at all | | | | | | |involved | |Group management | | | | | | |Group reconcile | | | | | | |Selection of group team members | | | | | | |Group activity selection | | | | | | (c) State two recent activities of the organization. 1. ——————————————————————————————————— 2. ——————————————————————————————————– (d) Briefly state two methods used to accomplish organization activities. 1. ——————————————————————————————————— 2. ——————————————————————————————————— 6 (i) How does the group choose the activities engage in In a meeting Informed by chairman Through lettersInformed by committee (ii) Do you always agree on the priorities of the group activities? Yes No (iii) If no, what causes most conflict disagreement? Kindly rate the following Determining the activity| | | | | |Choosing participants | | | | | |Allocating resources for | | | | | |activity | | | | | |Planning the activity | | | | | |Determining how much to | | | | | |do. | | | | | 7 (i) As group members what three issues about group leadership don’t your like? a) b) c) (ii) What two things about the group have made you feel appreciated? a) b) ‘ASANTE SANA’ ———————– Gender imbalances High incidence of poverty

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