This assignment will discuss two well known theories of effective communication. Firstly it will look at Michael Argyle (1972), the cycle of communication and then it will discuss Bruce Tuckman (1965) stages of communication. Michael Argyle (1972) looks at the cycle of communication which involves six stages this is about sending receiving and the decoding of messages between individual and also groups.
- An ideas occurs – when one has thought of an idea that they want to express with another person/s
- Message coded – when the idea has been thought through, there is a thought process of how this idea is going to then be communicated. There is a thought as to how this message is going to express it, as it could be through language, writing, sign or symbols or whatever it may be.
- Message sent – articulate the message, may it be verbal, written, sign or use what would be most appropriate in order to communicate effectively.
- Message received – when the message has been heard or seen, depending on how the message was sent in the first place.
- Message decoded – this is where the person who had received the message is starting to make sense of the message. As one tries to decode the message is received is at this point where they can miss interpret the message.
- Message understood – providing that all goes well the initial idea is then understood but sometimes this doesn’t always happen.
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Once there is understanding then Bruce Tuckman’s (1965), stages of communication looks at how a group of people have to develop their behaviour in order to become an effective group, all to reach a common goal.
His sequential theory has four stages of communication.
Forming – has been considered to be the introduction stage, where it is not clear to the group what their purpose is. At the same time they put one another under scrutiny as they are not too familiar with each other, so there in not much in the way of trust either.
So as a result of this some may not be happy with the idea. Some may be feeling frustrated where as others may just have some issues about working with particular people. There could be a lack of values and some prejudices may possibly be expressed initially to some members of the group.
Storming – when putting certain characters together that usually don’t work with one another, it at this stage where the competition is rife as there is a power struggle within the group as some may try to change the team’s mission. This could result in arguments about how the group is going work and what roles each member will be having. Eventually the team itself could splint. As a result of putting different people together, the group begins to form relationships with each other and can sometimes for smaller group. This causes the lack of motivation, anxiety and frustration resulting in the groups failure to complete the mission.
Norming – during this stage the trust and respect is developing amongst the members of the group, since it becomes clear that each member has a role and they are aware of what their role will be. As a result of them coming together with a common goal they all have a shared expectation of each other, which is known as norm. They have fully established norm, a set of common beliefs and values. Individuals become more motivated and commitment is demonstrated with each member of the group, whilst the team is being creative.
The group now have a fully defined purpose and so success begins to flow within the group.
Performing – the group now demonstrates that actually they are able to perform the task effectively as members feel comfortable, at ease and have a sense of belonging to the group as a whole. There is a high sense of morale as the group experience high levels of trust, pride and support from each other and so now this group begin to feel that their performance has been of better-quality. More often than not I believe that the patterns of behaviour do actually arise in some individuals.
There are those that are more extreme than others, whereas some are less extreme but none the less this does not suggest that people cannot work well together. According to Tuckman’s theory these stages can be very effective in breaking down the barriers of communication within a group of individuals that have a common goal. With Argyle’s theory it is agreed that this very process does actually taken place when communication but at the same time it could easily breakdown when the message has been misunderstood of misheard.
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