Andragogy: Self-Directed Learning in My Personal Perspective
Yet it is interesting to note that it was not Lineman who taught Knowles the term ‘androgyny; Lineman used the word in Cavities, introduced Knowles to the word and its meaning, since the term has had much more currency in the Eastern European countries than it has had until recently n the West.20th Century Thinkers in Adult Education by Peter Serves THE ANDROGYNY When applying androgyny to learning, task or goal of the learner will determine if direct or indirect methods of instruction should be used.If a concept is one that is previously unknown to the learner, then more direct instruction will be necessary.
An effective method is to address specific topics of immediate concern and then expand to how it can be applied in other situations.
However, the learner needs to know why the concept to be learned is important in order for the learner to remain motivated. Despite the learner ultimately having control of learning through self-directed means, the instructor and instructional designer needs to facilitate the opportunities for the learner to experience growth. Androgyny reorients adult educators from educating people to helping them learn.
The methods used may range from isolated instruction within a curriculum or integrated instruction. It may also encompass intentional and unintentional learning situations. As an example, when designing materials to facilitate learning a computer program, providing a list of commands that must be memorized is inadequate. The instructions need to be organized by task and presented in a manner similar to how it will be used. There is a significant amount of flexibility provided in regards to the development of interpersonal and interpersonal dimensions.
However, the learner must be within an environment that values self-directed learning. Knowles places an emphasis on the concept of the safe environment. In particular with workplace training and development, McGregor Theory X ; Theory Y Management Philosophy comes into play. If an organization is based in Theory X and they attempt to utilize training ; development based n the principles found in Rorer’s Experiential Learning, then there will be resistance to the training that could prevent its success.
Knowles envisioned that learning was lifelong. A particular skill might be taught once; however, within a supportive environment, the learner might learn new approaches or methodologies from their fellow learners over time. Even though there is a lot of emphasis on the self-directed learner, this person cannot exist in a vacuum. They need to be surrounded by other self-directed learners and grouped in a manner that they can learn new perspectives from learners with different, but applicable experiences. Androgyny, Malcolm Knowles, by Steven R.
Crawford THE SIX ASSUMPTIONS OF ANDROGYNY Knowles had already begun building a comprehensive theory of adult learning that is anchored in the characteristics of adult learners. Beginning with concepts researched by Cross (Adult Learning Theory), Eagan (Conditions of Learning), Hole, Rogers (Experiential Learning), Tough, and others, he developed the angelical model based on several assumptions that differed from the accepted pedagogical models. The Need to Know An adult needs to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it. Similar to myself, the decision I had made to further my study in knowledge.
Knowledge can be gain anywhere, I can improve my knowledge Just trough reading education material in National Library or buying books from the books store. The main reason first come up in my mind was I need to improve my colonization with people and build confidence in myself while communicate with other people in proper manner. We can communicate with our friends, neighbors, siblings or relatives but usually we use our own mother tongue language and sometimes I do not know how to explain, describes or give opinion so that people can understand and not keep hurt feeling if I was wrong in using word.
From my point of view, learning to use correct word according to situation is only can be tough in formal classroom because I will force myself to accept other people comment toward me. The Learner’s Self-concept Adults have a self-concept of being responsible for their own decisions, for their own lives. Once they have arrived at that self-concept they develop a deep psychological need to be seen by others and treated by others as being capable of self-direction. When making decision to continuing my study, I had put all important things in my fife into consideration and isolate unimportant things.
The hard thing for me to made decision is I do not have financial support as I Just quit from my Job because I felt not confidence to communicate because my Job was as customer service, at the same time I had car loan, personal loan to be paid and daily expenses to be put in count so yet I decide to do part-time work during my study and my parents lend me their money before I got my scholarship. All this decision I made nevertheless not depending on others decision and I bared all the consequences if a failed to finish my study with flying colors.
The Role of the Learner’s Experience Adults come into educational activity with both a greater volume and a different quality of experience from youths. Differ from my experience when study in diploma, all decision is made by my parents and influence from friends. I Just follow directly what course I should choose to learn and what university I had to go. This kind of experience give me lack value of knowledge, I Just study to pass not for my own sake. This decision, the way I am study and what sort of material I need to prepared is guidance by past experience, I become more tolerate in time schedule and more Ochs on my study.
Opportunity to improve soft skills such as communication skill is grabbing when time has come. Take example when international student asking me about subject being taught in class I force myself trying hardly to explain so that they can really understand me and that give me very high satisfaction. Readiness to Learn Adults become ready to learn those things they need to know and be able to do in order to cope effectively with their real-life situation. Every subject I been taught in class will be relate to my real-life, question will floating in my mind what if I used this teeth in my work or use it in my daily life.
I love new experience and ready to be out from my comfort zone. That is means; I ready to learn something new or used different method to solve problem even thought I already have my own method that I familiar with. Take example, when your friend told you there is other way to understand one paragraph, event I used to with my own may, but I try to do with their way which is new to me. Usually I am easy to cope with new environment and environment does not mean that I forget my own culture, I will used it to compare, adapting good thing and share it with my own people.
Orientation to Learning In contrast to children’s and youths’ subject-centered orientation to learning (at least in school), adults are life-centered (or task-centered or problem-centered) in their orientation to learning. Exactly, when I want to learn something I will find solution by collecting data from many sources such as magazines, internet or books that give me immediate solution for example if I got new knowledge on how to planning my work schedule I will immediately practice it with my daily life so that it will easier for me to familiar with new schedule.
Outside from class room or formal learning, I also learn from informal learning such as, understand other people culture as study in Universities Ethnology Malaysia (TM) need me to socialize with foreign student, in the way to have good relationship with them I need to try at least to understand the way of their thinking sometimes their culture might be different from my own culture.
Having good relationship with other people is actually a ticket for me to learn how they develop their culture and successful in what they are doing especially the Chinese and also the Arabic people. Motivation While adults are responsive to some external motivators (better Jobs, promotions, higher salaries, and the like), the most potent motivators are internal pressures (the desire for increased Job satisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life and the like).
It is hard for me to find a good Job that relate to what I had study in my undergraduate because in Malaysia’s Job market, there is so many applicant that compete for the position which is at the same level of our certificate especially in government sector. The position for grade 41 usually offered only quartile (in my point of view) from total applicant under same certification level and this give very tough competition among us.