An Examination of Eating Patterns
The restraint model of BED theorized that dietary restriction originated from the weight and shape, which lead to dietary restraint, then binge eating, consecutively followed by an ongoing cycle of restraint and binge eating (Elran-Barak et al., 2015).Those with BED tend to eat higher calorie meals, eat more often, and experience weight fluctuation in comparison to individuals with other ED and behavior characteristic with the restraint model (McCuen?Wurst, Ruggieri & Allison, 2018).
The affect regulation model is a strategy describing BE as a distracting coping mechanism implemented to reduce negative feelings by reinforcing reduction in negative effect manifesting through BE.Escape theory explains binge eating as a way of escaping from self-awareness as a strategy aiming to avoid one’s feelings and thoughts and redirect attention towards the binge eating instead of the real problem (Haedt?Matt et al., 2014).
Theory and research suggest that symptomatic onset, clinical course as well as maintenance of eating disorders (EDs) can be explained by personality traits (Farstad, McGeown, & von Ranson, 2016).
According to Schulte, Grilo and Gearhardt (2016) mechanism of BED was deeply imbedded on reward system, dietary restraint, impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, cravings and body and shape concerns. McCuen?Wurst, Ruggieri and Allison (2018) reported that symptoms of BE are strongly correlated with higher risk of psychopathology as anxiety, sleep problems and mood swings.
BED as a result of combination of psychological and biological factors described as chronic brain dysfunction (Volkow & Morales, 2015), underpinned by neurodevelopmental, sociocultural and genetic dysfunction, with activation of ventromedical prefrontal cortex for adults suffering with BED (Aviram-Friedman et al., 2018).
As argued by Nunes-Neto et al. (2018) highly processed food make the situation even worse due to the impact on the dopamine system by significantly inhibiting the reward sensitivity, as well when exposed to non-food stimuli and hyper-reward response to food compared to those individuals without BED.
As reported by Mason et al. (2017) BED was one of the most common and one of the most prevalent form of eating disorder (Blanchet et al., 2018) after anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) with the highest recurrence among obese individuals (Duncan, Ziobrowski & Nicol, 2017) with an estimated lifetime prevalence rate of 2% among men and 3,5% among women in United States (Juarascio., 2017).
Those with BED have a high prevalence of psychiatric and physical comorbidities; nearly 80% individuals with BED suffered from psychopathology, including mood, anxiety, substance use and sleep problem (McCuen?Wurst, Ruggieri & Allison, 2018).
As reported by Hilbert, Hoek and Schmidt (2017) a growing body of literature demonstrates that individuals with eating disorders (ED) often do not receive evidence-based treatment for their disorder despite the advances in clinical research on ED. The role of primary care physician (PCP) is profound when comes to diagnose BED as they are patients’ first point of contact and effective screening and referral in the primary care setting will optimize the likelihood that patients obtain empirically supported treatment (Saules, Carey, Carr, & Sienko, 2015).
Improvement in detection of BED within primary care settings could lead to prompt referral, reduce the duration of exposure to the illness, and reduce lifetime psychiatric and somatic illness burden (Thornton et al., 2017).
Association of BED with many somatic illnesses as neurologic, immune, respiratory, gastrointestinal, skin, musculoskeletal, genitourinary, circulatory, and endocrine system diseases (Kessler et al.,2018). It highlights the morbidity experienced by individuals with BED and had substantially higher healthcare utilization and costs in the years prior to and after diagnosis of BED (Watson at al., 2018).
The existing literature provides scientific support for the efficacy of CBT and interpersonal therapy (IPT) in the treatment of BED (Gorman & Nathan, 2015). Taking into account the comprehensive nature of humans being a multifaceted approach to treatment should reflect this. Blend of mindfulness, CBT, and hypnosis techniques refer to as an integrative method for the sake of simplicity, brevity should be seriously explored when looking for successful treatment of clients with physical, cognitive and emotional distress (Daitch, 2018).