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A Market Economy And In A Command Economy Economics Essay

Construction Economics is a nucleus topic to Quantity Surveyors which will use the cognition of it for future profession judgements. Quantity Surveying is besides known as Building Economist. Therefore, application of Economics is compulsory in building sector specially to be a qualified Surveyor.

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base replies larning will assist to cover important sum of capable country which I believe more effectual. The format of this assignment will follow the same inquiry order as given in the appraisal standard and some subheadings were added to presentation intents to better the quality of the reply.

1. Question ONE

Q1.i – Briefly explicate how scarce resources are allocated in a Market Economy and in a Command Economy.

A market economic system is an economic status in which the production and distribution of goods and services takes topographic point through the mechanism of free markets led by a free monetary value system. It is reciprocally good and exchange between consumers and Producers. Market economic system is besides known as free market economic system and free endeavor economic system

Typically a bid system is connected with a socialist or communist economic system. Largely, scarce resources are owned by authorities or province of the society. The authorities allocates sets resources, rate of growing and marks of production inA to people ‘s wants.A The authorities will make up one’s mind the distribution of concluding income and wealth. The market monetary values are minimum alteration and queuing rations for scarce goods can be expected from such a system.

Scarcity is kind of tenseness between our limitless wants & A ; demands and the limited resources in the planet. Insufficient production from limited resources to carry through the human wants and demands are take a firm standing for this planetary issue.

Production of goods, ingestion of goods and services in return for money is the basic construct of an economic system.

Scarcity of resources shall non depend with the type of the economic system. In a bid economic system if a commercial value of such resources can be pre determined, it would be low-cost to everyone. However, the monetary value of such resource would be really high in a market economic system.

Q1.ii – See the undermentioned demand and supply informations of Product X.

Price ( Rs. )

Demand Quantity ( Units )

Supply Quantity ( Units )

10

900

80

20

800

180

30

700

280

40

600

380

50

500

480

60

400

580

70

300

680

80

200

780

Table 1

Use a graph paper to pull the demand and supply curves for Product X and find the followers

Market equilibrium monetary value – Rs.51.00

Market equilibrium measure – 490 units

Graph 1

Q1.iii – Explain the consequence of subsidies and revenue enhancements utilizing the demand and supply curves

Effectss of subsidies: –

Price $ /unit

Supply Curves

Consumption

Demand Curves

S Sub

P s ‘

Phosphorus

P s

Q s ‘

Q

Second

Graph 2

Supply curve will switch to the right in Subsidies on production until the perpendicular distance between the 2 curves is equal to the per unit subsidy.

This will diminish monetary value paid by the consumers and increase the monetary value received by the manufacturers, when other things remain equal.

Otherwise, demand curve will switch to the right a subsidy on ingestion.

This will diminish the monetary value paid by consumers. Besides it will increase the monetary value received by manufacturers by the same sum as if the subsidy had been imposed on the manufacturers, when other things remain equal,

Although in this instance, the new market monetary value will be the monetary value received by manufacturers.

The terminal consequence, once more, is that no affair who is subsidized, the monetary values manufacturers and consumers face will be the same.

The analysis of the consequence of a subsidy is basically similar to enforcing a revenue enhancement.

A subsidy is simply a negative revenue enhancement.

Subsidy consequence will switch the supply curve downward by the sum of the subsidy.

Efficaciously this causes an addition in supply.

Effectss of revenue enhancements: –

Impact of a 50 cents Tax Levied on Buyers

Supply – S1

Monetary value of Ice Cream Cone

Measure of Ice Cream Cone

Equilibrium without revenue enhancement

Equilibrium with revenue enhancement

$ 3.30

$ 3.00

$ 2.80

Monetary value purchasers pay

Monetary value without

revenue enhancement

Monetary value Sellerss receive

0

90

100

D1

D2

Graph 3

Taxs are used to raise money for the authorities

Taxs are discourage market activity

When a good is taxed, the measure sold is smaller

Buyer and Sellerss portion the revenue enhancement load

Who bears the load of revenue enhancement the most

Q1.iv.a – Briefly explain the undertaking appraisal method of Net Present Value ( NPV ) method

The Net Present Value of a undertaking is the amount of present values of discounted benefits and costs ( A negative value can anticipate as the cost here )

In general it is the difference among hard currency flows in present and future. Once the all future hard currency in subtraction, present hard currency out of the undertaking, the terminal consequence would give the NPV. NPV is a cardinal tool in discounted hard currency flow analysis to measure long-run undertakings and besides it is a standard method for utilizing the clip value of money.

56bdc7353b83add5f8b9bf9ab910465e.png

When, t = the clip of hard currency flow, one = price reduction rate, Rt = net hard currency flow

Q1.iv.b – A building company wishes to put aside adequate money today in an involvement bearing history to hold $ 100,000 five old ages from now for the purchase of a replacing piece of equipment. If the company can have 12 % involvement on the investing, how much should be set aside now to accrue the $ 100,000 five old ages from now?

F = P ( 1 + I ) N

P = F / ( 1+i ) N

P = 100,000 / ( 1+0.12 ) 5

= $ 56,742.69

Q1.iv.c – What is the one-year sedimentation that has to be made at the terminal of twelvemonth if Rs. 500,000 is to be accumulated after 15 old ages at a bank where involvement rate is 7 % per annum?

A = F { i/ [ ( 1 + I ) n-1 ] }

A = 500,000 { 0.07/ [ ( 1 + 0.07 ) 15-1 ] }

A = Rs. 19,897.31

2. QUESTION TWO

Q2.i – Briefly explain the four market constructions you have studied.

There are four classs of market construction exist in an economic sciences.

Perfect Structures

Monopolistic Competition

Oligopoly

Monopoly

Perfect Structure

This is a conjectural economic system in which no consumer or manufacturer has any market power to take a firm stand the monetary values described perfect construction. This sort of market based on six premises.

Atomicity.

Homogeneity.

Perfect and complete information.

Equal entree.

Free entry.

Individual purchasers and Sellerss act independently

Monopolistic Competition

Monopolistically Competition house acts like a monopolizer. The house will be able to act upon the market monetary value of its merchandise by altering the production rate of the merchandise.

There are four sub features of a Monopolistic Competition market.

Many consumers and manufacturers in a given market

Non-price differences among the rival ‘s merchandises can be preserved by consumers.

Barriers to entry and issue to the market.

Degree of control over monetary value to manufacturers

The features of monopolistically competitory market are about the same as in perfect competition, with the freedom of heterogenous merchandises, and that monopolistic competition involves a great trade of non-price competition.

Oligopoly

Market or industry is dominated by a little figure of Sellerss in an Oligopoly market. The determination of one house influence, and are influenced by the determination of other houses. This involves higher hazard of collusion in markets and industries.

Monopoly

Monopoly exists in an economic system when a specific person or endeavor has sufficient control over a peculiar service or merchandise. That will do to find the footings on which other persons shall hold entree to it significantly.

Largely, in monopoly economic system, the authorities statute laws restrict to come in in to the monopoly market. In Sri Lanka, there was a period, where Shell gas had a monopoly control over domestic gas monetary values which the demand side suffers lot due to monetary value hiking.

Q2.ii – Do you believe a monopoly is good for the society? In what peculiar state of affairs a monopoly would be appropriate? Discuss

Monopoly economic system will non give a competitory monetary value for clients for a good or service. This happen specially the control over the monopoly Markss retain with private sector. Therefore, clients largely suffer if the monopoly is under private sector control.

However, an economic system over public sector control would do different status towards clients. Such organisation will stand as none net income organisations. The purpose is established towards public satisfaction. Railway section, postal service, toll roads are illustrations for monopoly services provides by the authorities for the low-cost value.

Q2.iii – The undermentioned tabular array gives the labor input per twenty-four hours and the end product per twenty-four hours of a certain undertaking carried out by a Contractor.

Complete the following table demoing the contractor ‘s economic costs. Assume the day-to-day pay rate per worker is ?50

Labour per twenty-four hours

Output per twenty-four hours

Fringy Merchandise

Variable Cost

Average Cost

Fringy Cost

0

0

1

5

5

50

10.00

50

2

12

7

100

8.33

50

3

20

8

150

7.50

50

4

31

11

200

6.45

50

5

40

9

250

6.25

50

6

46

6

300

6.52

50

7

50

4

350

7.00

50

8

52

2

400

7.69

50

Table 2

Pull the graph of variable cost curve

Graph 4

Pull the graph of fringy and mean cost curves ( on one graph )

Graph 5

3. QUESTION THREE

Q3.i – In what manner does the building industry differ from the fabrication industry? Explain your reply with appropriate illustrations.

Manufacturing tends to do the same merchandise over and over called as line production. But building makes a alone merchandise, one at a clip.

Soap Manufacture would bring forth 100s of soaps per twenty-four hours and it would go on. But building a edifice is alone and a one end of 100s yearss attempt.

Once the building work is completed, it moves to following location in a certain clip period. But Manufacturing is go oning in a lasting topographic point like mills, workshops or paces which will non alter the location clip to clip under normal fortunes.

Builder will travel to new site after passing over the old undertaking to its proprietor. A undertaking for today could be in Galle whilst the following undertaking in following twelvemonth in Kandy to the same contractor.

The building merchandise would devour a long clip before it reaches to concluding result. But fabricating is required short clip.

To finish the southern freeway it took 12 old ages from Galle to Colombo. But to fabricate vehicle suites to go in main road may merely take few hours in a large Fabrication pace in Japan

The building industry is more consequence oriented. The client concern and ever insist to keep the consequence in to his demand. In fabrication industry, the client or end-user engagement is really rare. The fabrication industry is more with procedure oriented. The workers purpose is to keep the procedure, efficiency and efficaciously towards what they produce.

Construction of a land grade edifice, client will name his squad to do certain the undertaking is being delivered in to his demand. But in fabricating a computing machine, no 1 knows who is the terminal user or who is traveling to have it. So the quality is fixed and end-user must follow with available quality.

Potential change can be happened during building. But in fabrication is pre defined. So no alterations would go on unless otherwise, bring forthing a new merchandise with different marks.

Typical house contraction, the proprietor may wants to alter the original design clip to clip. But in fabricating paracetamal tablet will ne’er alter its ingredients.

Manufacturing points are off the shelf but building is non.

An point which has been manufactured can be purchased from a store. But building undertaking would non be available due to mainly the cost of making so.

Q3.ii – Explain the importance of authorities intercession in the building industry with appropriate illustrations.

Government intercession to the building industry is more of import due to Nemours grounds. In Sri Lanka, Institute for Construction Training And Development ( ICTAD ) has been established as the regulative organic structure for Construction Industry. So it will do a clear image how Sri Lankan authorities has intervened to the industry.

To do certain the building would non harm the environment and pubic: –

As a consequence of improper building behaviours and Acts of the Apostless, it would potentially foul the environment and injury to the public public assistance. To supervise or to modulate such from building activities, it is compulsory engagement of authorities for building industry.

To do certain the building is suite with town program: –

As a consequence of hapless planning, the metropolis country would be supplying best service choices to public convenience. Therefore, it is of import the building site to follow with town program.

To avoid corruptness and to do certain the terminal user or client gets the best value for his money

Construction is the most reasonable factor behind a development of a state. In the manner for development, the positive influence to promote the building by a authorities will do a important part towards a developed state.

To do certain the authorities is gaining due revenue enhancements: –

The chief income for a authorities is revenue enhancements. Every different industry, merchandise, or services, authorities will hold its ain part of income as revenue enhancements. To do certain the authorities is acquiring due revenue enhancements for the contraction, the intercession is of import.

Particular grants: –

In Sri Lanka, as an action to promote the building industry, authorities has non charged revenue enhancements against the contraction vehicles. Government ever to do certain the cement monetary value of the state to remain in a low-cost zone for the populace.

Education degree and Construction Professionals: –

By bettering the instruction system and increasing the Construction Profession in university plan is besides a good intercession by authorities to do the industry live in the state.

Duties of Regulatory Body: –

Contractors are registered in the ICTAD to make the trust on building clients.

Price bulletin publish by authorities besides help to cipher the sum of existent monetary value escalation within a concern period.

4. Decision

This appraisal was significantly enhanced my cognition towards the Construction Economics topic. Some countries are really of import like for Net Present Value non merely merely for a Quantity Surveyor or Economist, but for any sensible adult male who make investing or do any minutess with a bank to set up or be after the investings efficaciously.

I strongly believe that I will be able to use the cognition on the topic to confront future challenges on the profession.

The all inquiries were answered and provided all sufficient information as required.

.

5. Recommendation

The inquiry base reply format will be given a more specific testing of pupil ‘s cognition. The inquiries were asked in this appraisal have been covered more of import country of jurisprudence and contract. Knowledge and minimizing on some of import theories are of import to any profession. Therefore, I suggest adding the Economicss topics to other suited professional instruction systems.