1.1 Background of the study
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In today’s turbulent, often chaotic environment, commercial success depends on employees using their full talents. Yet in spite of the myriad of available theories and practices, managers often view motivation as something of a mystery. In part, this is because individuals are motivated by different things and in different ways. (Susan M. Heathfield, About.com)
The term “motivation” is derived from the word “motive” which influences the behaviour of individuals. Motives are the expression of needs of a human being. Motivation is a process of getting the needs of the people realized to induce them to work for the accomplishment of organizations’ objectives. Motivation is a behavioural psychological concept. It seeks to understand why people behave as they do. The intention is to produce goal-oriented behaviour. It aims at influencing good results and arises from inside the individual. The inner feeling balances the perception of an individual and satisfaction of his needs that influence the direction, volume, behavior, limitations and efforts of an individual. Hence motivation is an inducement of inner feelings of an individual. It cannot be forced upon from outside. (Williams Chuck, 2003).
The presence of motivation influence the performance on the job and this is no disputing fact that business cannot function without human resources since the overall performances of an organization depends on the performance of its individual and group.
According to Twyla Dell, the heart of motivation is to give people what they really want most from work. The more employers are able to provide what employees want, the higher expectations demanded from them in terms of productivity, quality, and service. (An Honest Day’s Work (1988))
An employee may be defined as: “A person in the service of another under any contract of hire, express or implied, oral or written, where the employer has the power or right to control and direct the employee in the material details of how the work is to be performed.” (Black’s Law Dictionary, 1999).
Employee motivation can often be in direct conflict with control mechanisms of employers, and can be broadly defined as that which energizes, directs and sustains human behaviour (Stone, 2005)
Motivation is important because of its significance as a determinant of performance. For an organization to achieve its goals, it is necessary for management to assess the performance of the employees. However, performance is defined as the action or process of performing a task or function. (Concise Oxford Dictionary). Understanding the forces that shape employee performance is no simple task.
Why does one employee tackle every project with enthusiasm and consistently succeed, when another grumbles at every new task and often fails to meet minimum expectation?
What causes an employee with a record of low performance to suddenly ‘catch fire’ and become an important contributor in the organizationWhy does a star employee lose energy and begin to lack commitment to the organization?
This study seeks to assess the effect of motivation on employee’s performance: A case study of Vanguard Assurance Company Limited.
Vanguard Assurance Company Limited, Incorporated on 3rd May 1974 as a composite insurance company, is the first indigenous private insurance company in Ghana. .
Their mission is to become the preferred insurance company in Ghana by providing their customers and other stakeholders with valuable product and services while ensuring consistent improvement in corporate performance. (Vanguard Assurance Company Limited’s profile (2008). Retrieved December 6, 2008).
1.2 Problem Statement
It has been observed that most organizations focus so much on goal achievement or increase in productivity. They tend to get satisfaction for their jobs without thinking about how their subordinates receive their satisfaction thereby ignoring the needs of their most important assets who are their employees. When motivation is ignored, it creates conflict within the organization and high labour turnover. These obviously affect organizational growth or performance.
The research conducted by the research team revealed that, most employees in Vanguard Assurance Limited were agitated and tried to express their dissatisfaction during their leisure time. Management of Vanguard Assurance Limited would be stunned at the findings which spelt out how less motivated their employees are.
The purpose of the research was to understand the effect of motivation on employees’ performance at Vanguard Assurance Company Limited.
The aim of this study is to find out the effect of motivation on employees performance, using Vanguard Assurance Company Limited as a case study.
1.4 Objective of the Study
The objectives of the study are as follows;
i.To assess the impact of motivation on employees performance at vanguard Assurance Company Limited
ii.To evaluate the motivational factors that influence employees performance at vanguard Assurance Company Limited
iii.To recommend possible policies and interventions for improved motivational policies.
1.5 Research Questions
The research conducted in Vanguard Assurance answered the following questions:
Is motivation necessary for employees at Vanguard Assurance
Is there a significant relationship between motivation and performance
To what extent does motivation of employees of Vanguard Assurance have an effect on their performance
1.6 Significance of the Study
An effective motivation is extremely important for the fulfilment and achievement of organizational objective. Companies must understand the mechanisms and operations of motivation which have a strong impact on employees’ performance. The significance of the study therefore seeks to:
Help companies formulate motivational plans and policies that will ensure high employee performance.
Serve as a secondary source of information for other researchers in motivational studies
Arouse interest, provoke reactions and counter reactions that will encourage further research in the area under study.
To serve as part of the educational institutions curricula.
1.7 Organisation of the Study
The research was made up of five main characters; introduction, literature review, methodology, findings and discussions and finally conclusions and recommendation.
The first chapter, which is introduction, provides a background to the study and enumerate the problem that motivates the author to embark on the study. Based on the research question raised in the problem statement the objectives of the study were stated.
The significance and the limitations of the study were included. The Chapter was concluded with the organization of the study.
The chapter 2 was dedicated to the literature on the subject area and review the work previously done by other researchers and draw in the relevance of works to the current study.
The methodology adopted in the study was presented in chapter 3, where data requirement and sampling procedures as well as analytical tools were presented.
The results of the analyzed data were presented in chapter 4 with critical discussion of the various findings of the study. The summary of the work as well as conclusion and policy recommendation was presented in chapter 5.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
All organizations are concerned with what should be done to achieve sustainable high levels of performance through people. This means giving close attention to how individuals can best be motivated in the work they do.
2.2 Theoretical Literature
Definitions of motivation
Many contemporary authors have defined motivation. Motivation has been defined as; the psychological process that give behaviour, purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1989); an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need (Higgins, 1994).
For the purpose of this study a more operational definition of motivation is defined as the psychological process that causes the arousal, direction and persistence of behaviour. (Oxford Dictionary of Business, 2003)
There is no one theory of motivation that can be claimed to embrace the entire range of organizational and personal circumstances that exist. Motivation of an individual today may not work tomorrow yet may become viable again the next day after, perhaps due to mood swings and factors outside the work settings. Equally, every individual employee is different and will respond to particular motivation process differently (Martin, 2001). The manager’s job becomes one of identifying the right chord to play to influence each group members to achieve the group goals. However, the study of motivation addresses the distinctiveness of each individual, for each individual has a number of different motivators (Robert and Hunt, 1991).
The nature of motivation might differ from one organization to another and might not be simple since it reflects a multifaceted nature. Understanding what motivates employees and how they are motivated will be more appropriate to look at the various theories proposed by the known theorist of the concept.
Motivation as a factor of inducing personnel to perform has been viewed by many writers from different perspectives. Armstrong (1991) considers motivation as “why people at work behave in the way they do in terms of their efforts and the directions they are taking and what they organizations can do to encourage people to apply their efforts and abilities in ways that will further the achievement of the organizations goals as well as satisfying their own needs.” Cole (2002) relates this to human behavior and defines it as “a process in which people choose between alternative forms of behavior in order to achieve personal goals”. Rollinson (2001)also describes it as “ a state arising in processing, that are internal and external to individual, in which the person perceives that it is appropriate to pursue a certain course of action (or action directed at achieving a specified outcome/s) in which the person chooses to pursue those outcomes with a degree of vigor and persistence”. Motivation according to Stoner et al (1995) is “a human psychological characteristic. Weihrich et al (1994) see it as “a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces”. Mitchell (1982) however considers it as “the degree to which an individual wants and chooses to engage in certain specified behavior”.
All these definitions are based on the three components of motivation as listed by Arnold et al (1991) as:
(i) Direction, that is, what a person is trying to do
(ii) Effort, that is, how hard a person is trying and
(iii) Persistence, that is, how long a person keeps on trying.
Relating the definitions above it is evident that motivation is concern with the drive in an individual or group of people to behave in a certain way to acquire some satisfaction or achievement they need in life. It is also a goal directed behaviour. The issue here is that the nature of human behaviour and how best he/she can use his/her ability and environment to determine performance.
Psychologically, (Rollison, 2001) describes motivation as essentially “an explanatory concept need to explain why a person behaves in certain way”. It describes three component of behaviour that has an impact on performance as:
Direction of behaviour , which is greatly influenced by what a person most desires to do,
Intensity of behaviour , which roughly equates to how hard the individual strives to go in that direction, and
Persistence, which is the willingness with which an individual stay focused when obstacles are encountered.
The relationship between the organization and it members is governed by what motivates them to work and the fulfilment they derive to perform well. The importance of this study is the link between motivation and performance of employees. These issues are of interest in this study as the intention to look at them in relation to the performance of employees at Vanguard Assurance Company Limited.
The basic concept of motivation
The basic concept of motivation is some driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goals in order to fulfill some needs or expectation. People’s behaviour is determined by what motivates them. Their performance is a product of both ability level and motivation. Thus
Performance = function (ability + motivation)
Kreithner et el. Suggest that although motivation is a necessary contributor for job performance, it is not the only one. Along with ability, motivation is also a combination of level of skills, knowledge about how to complete the task, feelings and emotions, facilitating and inhibiting conditions. However, what is clearly evident is that if the manager is to improve the work of the organization, attention should be given to the level of motivation of it members. The manager must also encourage staff to direct their efforts (their driving force) towards the successful achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization.
Needs and the Expectation at work
Motivation is a complex problem it is a very personal thing and it is influence by many variables. Farren reminds us of the 12 human needs that have been around since the beginning of recorded history; family, health and well being, work or career, economic, learning, home or shelter, social relationships, spirituality community leisure mobility and environment or safety. ‘Work and private life in the new millennium will continue to revolve around the twelve human needs.
The various needs and expectation at work can be categories in number of ways-for example the simple divisions into physiological and social motives or into intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
Extrinsic motivation is related to tangible rewards such as salary and fringe benefit, security promotions contract of service the work environment and conditions of work. Such tangible rewards are often determined at the organizations level and largely outside the control of individual managers.
Intrinsic motivation is related to ‘psychological’ rewards such as the opportunity to use one’s ability, a sense of challenge and achievements, receiving appreciation, positive recognition, and being motivated in a caring and motivated manner. The psychological rewards are those that can usually be determined by the actions and behaviour of individual managers.
Theories of Motivation
There are many competing theories that attempt to explain the nature of motivation. These theories may all be at least partially true and help to explain the behaviour of certain people at certain times.
The theories of motivation will be classified according to the use of conventions namely
Content theories concentrate on identifying the motives that produce behaviour. Processtheories emphasis those mechanisms that encourage or reward behaviour and the dynamic context (Martin, 2001).
Content theories emphasis particular aspect an individual’s need or needs or the goals that they seek to achieve as the basis for motivated behaviour. The major theories falling into this classification include.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
Herzberg’s two factor theory
Alderfer’s existence, relatedness and growth (ERG) theory.
McClelland’s achievement motivation theory
1. Maslow’s Needs Theory
Maslow 1943 views human motivation as “a hierarchy of five needs, ranging from the most basic physiological needs to the highest needs for self actualization”.
Psychological needs include the wide range of basic needs that every human body required in order to stay alive and function normally. Example would include the need for food, air, water and sleep.
Safety needs incorporate needs that provide for the security of the individuals in their normal environment. These include safety and security, freedom from pain or threat of physical attack, protection from danger, the need for predictability and orderliness.
Love (social) needs, from this category individual would look to draw on social support necessary to life, friendship, a sense of belonging, affection, giving and receiving love.
Esteem needs (sometimes referred to as ego needs) consist of having self-respect and the esteem of others. Self respect involves a desire for confidence, strength, independence, freedom and achievements. Esteem for others involves reputation or prestige, status, recognition, attention and appreciation.
Self actualization need relate to the opportunity to realize and develop one’s full potential. Maslow sees this as: ‘what humans can be, they must be or becoming everything that one is capable of becoming’.
According to Maslow (1943) individuals will be motivated to fulfill whichever need is most powerful, for them at all given time. Maslow’s theory of motivation states that when a lower need is satisfied, the next highest becomes dominant and the individual’s attention is turned to satisfying this higher need. He recognizes that there are different in an individual’s motivational content in a particular culture. Maslow further points out that when a person’s need for something is not met, the person feels driven or motivated to meet that need. The relative importance of these needs changes during the psychological development of the individual.
An obvious conclusion of Maslow (1943) asserts that, employees first need a wage sufficient to feed, shelter and protect them and their families satisfactorily, as well as a safe working environment. Then their security needs must be met, freedom from coercion arbitrary treatment and clearly defined regulations. Maslow further states that when all other needs have been adequately met, employees will become motivated by the needs of self-actualization. They will look for meaning and personal growth in their work and actively seek out new responsibilities.
2. McClelland’s Needs Theory
McClelland 1975 identifies three needs that motivate managers and agrees with Maslow (1943) that needs motives are part of the personality, which he believes are triggered off by environmental factors. He further identifies these most important needs as;
i) The need for achievement is the desire to do something better or more efficiently than it has been done before — to achieve. Some people are strongly motivated by the need for achievement. They are likely to be happiest working in an environment in which they can create something new which will give them a competitive success measure against a personal standard of excellence
ii)The need for affiliation is the need to be liked—to establish or maintain a friendly relation with others. Some people are strongly motivated by the need for affiliation. These people usually enjoy working with other people. They are motivated by the prospect of having people like them.
iii) The need for power, the need for power is basically a concern for influencing people— to be strong and influential. They are likely to be happiest in jobs that give them control over budget, people and decision making.
McClelland’s need correspond roughly, to Maslow’s Self-actualization, esteem and love needs. These needs vary between individuals and between different occupations. Some have a greater need for achievement; others a stronger need for affiliation, and still others have a stronger need for power. McClelland 1975, see the achievement need as the most critical for the country’s economic growth and success. According to him, individuals are challenged by opportunities and to work hard to achieve a goal. For people with higher achievement motivation, money is not an incentive but may serve as means of giving feedback on performance. High achievers seem unlikely to remain long with organizations that do not pay them well for good performance. Money may seem to be important to high achievers, but they value it ore as symbolizing successful task performance and goal achievement need is not hereditary but results from environmental influence.
3. Growth Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Alderfer 1972, describes a three- level hierarchy, compared to the five levels proposed by Maslow. They are:
Existence Needs – This category is grounded in the survival or continued existence, of the person. As such it would include many of the issues covered by the physiological and safety needs identified by Maslow.
Relatedness Needs – this category is based on the need for people to live and function in a social environment. It would embrace the need to be part of a group and belong to a valued organization. It would incorporate many of the issues covered by the safety, belonging and esteem needs described by Maslow.
Growth needs – this category is grounded in the need for people to develop their potential. As such it would cover the self-actualization and much of the esteem needs described by Maslow.
2.2.2 Process Theories
The process theories attempt to provide a model of the interactions between the variables involved in the motivation process. Some of the major process theories include:
Vroom expectancy model
Adams’ equity theory
1. Vroom’s 1964 Expectancy Theory
The expectancy theory of motivation was initially presented in 1964 by psychologist, Victor Vroom. He views motivation as a process which governs choices. He suggests that individuals are motivated at work to make choices among different behaviour – for example, intensities of work efforts. A person may choose to work at a moderate rate or an accelerated rate according to his expected level of motivation. The choice is made by the individual. If a person believes that his or her work effort will be adequately rewarded, there will be motivated effort: a choice will be made to work so that a preferred reward is received. The logic behind the expectancy theory is that individuals exert work effort to achieve performance that results in preferred rewards.
2. Equity Theory
Equity theory concerns with the perceptions people have about how they are being treated as compared with others. To be dealt with equitably is to be treated fairly in comparison with another group of people or a relevant other person. Equity involves feelings and perceptions and is always a comparative process. It is not synonymous with equality, which means treating everyone the same, since this would be inequitable if they deserve to be treated differently.
Equity theory also postulates that the presence of inequity in a person creates tension in a person that is proportional to the magnitude of the inequity. Furthermore, the tension will motivate the person to achieve equity or reduced inequity. The strength of the motivation varies directly with the amount of inequality.
As suggested by Adams(1965),there are two forms of equity: distributive equity, which concerns with how people feel they are rewarded in accordance with their conditions and in comparison with others ;and procedural equity, which also concerns with the perceptions of employees have about fairness with which company procedures in such areas as performance appraisal, promotion and discipline are being operated .He further explains that an employee may in increase or decrease the level of his or her inputs, for example through the amount of quality of work ,resigning from the organization altogether.
3 .Work and Need-Satisfaction
Graham and Bennett (1992) explain that work is an ‘activity which is directed by others as regard purpose, methods, materials, time and space.’ Its usual aim is to contribute towards the production of good states and service they further explain that work concerned with things that others require are willing to pay some for obtain some satisfaction. The normal contract of employment states that in return for an employee’s service, the employer will have to make a monetary payment and sometimes provide fringe benefits, reasonable working conditions that may satisfied the need of the employees. Finally they concluded that work could be more satisfying by giving greater attention to affection, ego and self-actualization needs. Work is looked at not simply as a means of efficiently carrying out a specified function but as something which could intrinsically satisfy to workers. The reward for this can go beyond pay or fringe benefits. From the above it can be seen that motivation is only likely when relationship exists between performance and outcome, and the outcome is seen as a means of satisfying needs. In regards to the theories above it is clearly observed that almost all the originators acknowledge that the perception of the employees is critical in designing an effective motivation plan. Its purpose is to predict the behaviour of individuals. Thus the perception of the employees is based therefore on their expectation about factors that will motivate them. It will therefore be of interest to find out some motivational factors which usually promote staff performance.
4. Staff motivation
Some factors which promote motivation create a conducive working environment and develop policies and practices that will result in a higher level of performance of employees. The following are some of the major motivational factors.
This is relevant to the effective use of human resources, because it is one of the experience, creativity and other productive enhancing attitudes that are embedded in a person. According to (Mullins, 1995) staffs are crucial, but expensive resource. In order to sustain economic and effective performance it is important to optimize the contribution of employees to the aims and goals of the organization. He further contends that training leads to many potential benefits for both individuals and the organization. Training can:
increase the confidence, motivation and commitment of staff;
provide recognition, enhanced responsibility, and the possibility of increase pay and promotion;
giving a feeling of personal satisfactions and achievement, and broaden opportunities for career, and
Help to improve the availability and quality of staff.
Training is therefore a key element of improving organizational performance. It increases the level of individual and organizational competence. As a result of training, employees become more flexible, productivity and quality of work might improve, job satisfaction might increase thereby reducing absenteeism and staff turnover rates. (Certo, 2002) opines that employee training that is well conducted meets important needs of the organization and best equip employees to contribute in a changing workplace when they have the opportunity to learn new skills. He continues that it is likely to promote satisfaction among employees since it is an attempt to improve their current and future performance.
Providing Valued Rewards
Moorhead and Griffin, 1995 explain that rewards involved in allocating compensation and benefits to employees in exchange for their contributions to the organization. They further contend that rewards also satisfy some needs of employees’ attempts to meet through their choice of wok related behaviours. The purpose of reward in most organizations is to attract, retain, and to motivate qualified employees. (Mullins, 1995) suggests that these various needs and expectations of employees can be categorized in a number of ways. The most common categorization of motivational rewards is extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Extrinsic rewards are related to those rewards like salary, security, promotion and the work environment. These rewards often motivate workers by satisfying their social needs. However with Intrinsic rewards are those related to psychological factors, such as receiving appreciation, positive recognition of work done and being treated in a caring and considerate manner. These factors determine the actions and behaviour individual employees. It is believed that these rewards influence employees to give up their best to the job. Thus, rewards covey to workers not only how much they are valued by the organization but how the management relates to them.
Weihrich et al (1994) states that, one technique that has been given strong support is the increased awareness and use of participation. Consequently, the right kind of participatory yields both motivation and knowledge valuable for the organization’s success. According to them participation is also a means of recognition .It appeals to the need for affiliation and acceptance above all, it gives employees a sense of accomplishment.
Armstrong (1999) adds that if employees are made to participate, it makes them feel that they are valued. This means investing in their success, trusting and empowering them, giving the opportunity to be involved in matters with which they are concerned. Also treating them fairly and like human beings rather than ‘resources’ and providing them with reward that demonstrate the extant to which they are valued.
Quality of working Life
Weihrich et al (19940 further suggest that one of the most interesting approaches to motivation is the quality of working life. This is a system approach to job enrichment. It is an interdisciplinary field of inquiry and action. It is a means of increasing productivity and reducing inflations as a way of obtaining individual democracy and minimizing labour disputes .the systems of job enrichment involves:
giving freedom to workers in deciding about such things as work methods etc;
encouraging participation of subordinates and interaction between employees;
giving employees feedback on their job performance
taking steps to make sure that workers can see how their tasks contribute to a finished product and the welfare of the company, and
Involving workers in the analysis and change of physical aspects of the work environment.
According to (Martocchio, 2003) compensation package offered by employees other than hourly wage or salary includes paid vacation, medical insurance coverage, reimbursement etc. All these benefits are essential to employees as they serve as motivation and an impact on performance or productivity.
Health Insurance Coverage
Both employees and employers place great deal of significance on company sponsored health insurance benefits. Employer sponsored program provide employees the financial means to afford expensive health care services. Health insurance coverage varies by size, industry, group and union presence. Most large companies are more likely to offer health benefits than smaller companies. A healthier workforce should experience a lower incidence of sickness absenteeism. By keeping absenteeism in check, overall productivity and product or service quality goes high.
This allows organizations to gain from sponsoring such benefits .Thus the presence of health insurance programs in many companies and organizations .These benefits must cover dependants of employees as well(usually spouse and children ) this insurance serve as a benefit package for employees. Many companies discontinue healthy benefit or limit it to only to their employees such because it serve as business expenses to the organization. The withdrawal of such benefits creates discontent among employees, who view such benefit as entitlement. In legal battles, health protection is a fundamental right to employees but most organizations offer insurance at a cost far below what individuals will pay to buy insurance themselves. (Martocchio, 2003)
Social Security (Pension Plan)
Social security according to the (Chambers 21st Century Dictionary) is a system by which members of a society pay money unto a common fund from which payment are made to individuals in times of unemployment, illness and old age. (Martocchio, 2003) explains it as the sum of employee’s contribution and that of the employer. He further asserts that it is also known as the permitted disparity rules, allow companies to explicitly take into account old age, survivor, and disability insurance benefit under qualified pension. These rules of benefits provide a greater proportion of a plan’s benefits to its highly compensated employees than will otherwise be permitted. The main idea behind the scheme according to (Martacchio, 2003) is to fund all employees account sufficiently well so that each employee will likely achieve a similar hypothetical retirement benefit. However it has been found that most employers especially some entrepreneurial and small businesses ignore to acknowledge such benefit for their employees.
Such unfortunate employees go home in their old age with no compensation to rely on.
From the above it is seen that the benefits deservers to be instituted in all organizations as a source of motivation.
Some employers sponsor transportation services to facilitate travel from home to work and back to help their employees manage daily challenges (Martocchio, 2003). Employers may sponsor public transportation or subsidized vans or buses that transport employees between their homes and the workplace. Employers generally offer this service to promote recruitment and retention, and to reduce tardiness and absenteeism due to transportation difficulties. Thus Martocchio advices that employers must offer this service to their employees to increase productivity. This can be seen in saving of time and money (cost such as fuel, insurance, car maintenance and repairs and parking place) and reporting to work early to reduce absenteeism. This serves as a motivation to most employees as it saves them in using their time more productively.
Hackett (1996) explains that some organizations have practices of making additional payments to employees at particular points in the year. They are normally payable in relation to some specified criterion such as profit or productivity. Such payments may be in kind which may be extra cash or goods during Christmas period to all employees and this is graded by seniority. Bonuses of these take several forms like continued good service bonus, merit bonus and profit related bonus. Bonuses of these kinds are normally traditional way of acknowledging the employees.
Hackett (1996), describes this as “a midday and meal and other refreshments provided free or at a normal charge to the employee and employers as well”. He contends that a workforce who is properly fed is likely to be more effective and less prone to accidents and ill health than on which is left to fend for itself. Most often organization sited on trading estate, some distance from shops and restaurant, employees may not return back from lunch break early if they try reaching those distances of selling. This delays work even though a specific time is given. Marks and Spencer among the leading employers in Managing People Success literature believe that high quality meals at nominal prices are something to which employees are entitled during working hours. But many employers assume great difficulties and cost; meanwhile employees are well motivated through this by saving extra time to see to pending matters in the office.
The above benefits are used to achieve certain level of performance and expectation in work places. It can also be seen that employees can be well motivated by providing them with health insurance coverage, social security (pension plan), transportation services, bonuses and services etc.
Impact of motivation on performance
However, (Rue and Lloyd, 2003) in their study on the topic “the use of management skills and applications to in motivation” defined performance as the degree of accomplishment of the task that makes up an employee’s job. It reflects how well an employee is fulfilling the requirement of the job. Often confused with effort, which refers to energy expended, performance is measured in terms of results. For example, a student may exert a great deal of efforts in preparing for an examination and still make a poor grade. In such a case, the efforts is expended is high, yet the performance is low.
Torto (2005) in his article Motivation: an ingredient of productivity opines that the heart of motivation is to give employees what they really want from their work. The more employers are able to provide what employees want, the more they should expect what they really want in terms of productivity, quality and service. He continues that positive motivation and practice improve productivity, quality and service. Showing an appreciation to employees at workplace can be a strong mechanism that enhances productivity. In another study (Certo, 2003) also asserts that motivation is a key for improving productivity because employees are (often in the best position to think of ways to achieve their objectives more efficiently).
The basic requirement for motivation may include accommodation, an equitable payment system, and real opportunities for promotion, considerate and participative management. The degree of motivation obtained by individuals however depends largely upon their own needs and expectations and the environment in which they work. A satisfied worker is not necessarily a high producer, and a high producer is not necessarily a satisfied worker. From the human relations perspective, it has been observed that people are motivated by things other than money; in particular employees are motivated by responding to their social environment at work, attitudes, such as job satisfaction, minimize tardiness, result in improving employees performance, by (Moorhead and Griffin, 1995).
Determinants of Performance
Job performance is the net effect of an employer’s effort as modified by abilities and role perceptions. This implies that performance in a given situation can be viewed as resulting from the interrelationships between effort, abilities and role perceptions. Effort, which results from being motivated, refers to the amount of energy used by an employee in performing a job. Abilities are personal characteristics used in performing a job. Abilities usually do not fluctuate widely over short periods of time. Role perception refers to the direction in which employees believe they should channel their efforts on their jobs. The activities and behaviour that employees believe are necessary are necessary in the performance of their jobs define their perceptions.
To attain an acceptable level of performance, a minimum level of proficiency must exist in each of the performance components. Similarly, the level of proficiency in any one of the performance components can be placed as upper boundary on performance. If employees put forth much effort and have excellent abilities but lack a good understanding of their roles, performance will probably not be as high as it could be. Much work will be produced, but little will be misdirected. Likewise, an employee who puts forth a high degree understands his or her job but lacks the ability which will probably result in a low rate on performance.
The environmental challenges on performance
Rue and Lloyd (2003) further identify other factors beyond the control of the employee that can also negatively affect performance. Although such obstacles exist they stated that these obstacles are sometimes used merely as excuses, they are often real and should be recognised.
Some common potential challenges on performance includes
Conflicting demands on the employee’s time.
Inadequate work facilities and equipment
Restrictive policies that affect the job,
Lack of co-operation from others,
Style of management,
Temperature lighting, noise, and shifts.
Environmental factors should not be viewed as direct determinants of employee performance, but as modifying the effects of effort, ability, and role perception. Please see the figure below
Source: Leslie W. Rue and Lloyd L. Byars (2003)Figure: (b)
Larger companies are more likely to offer health benefits than smaller companies. Thus this study will seek to find out from Vanguard Assurance Company Limited workers how the benefits they receive motivated them to give up their best.
Performance as defined by Vanguard Assurance
Performance in Vanguard is done yearly by setting a premium target which based on departmental level. The business development unit is base on how much profit one brings in thus the number of people one is able to solicit for business from through the sale of insurance policies. These profits are matched with expenses made on claims therefore performance is acknowledged when one is able to meet or exceed its targets.
Retail department these department are basically the underwriter for the company. They see to it that customers’ needs are well satisfied to prevent complains. Their performance is based on how efficient and diligent one generate a policy document
The accounts department is concerned with the finances of the company. In case of the credit controller they are concerned with the number of debtors of the company and the ability to reduce the number of debtors is considered to be performance. Thus the lower the debtors the higher the performance level in the accounts department.
Vanguard Assurance has a performance policy which engages customers to be those to evaluate the performance of the employees in the organization.
2.3 EMPERICAL LITERATURE
2.3.1 Herzberg Two Factor Theory
An interesting theory propounded by Fredrick Herzberg is the two- factor theory of Motivation. His theory was based on research conducted among middle managers in engineering and accounting firms. Herzberg’s original study consisted of interviews with 203 accountants and engineers chosen because of their growing importance in the business world, from different industries in the Pittsburgh area of America. He used the critical incident method. Subjects were asked to relate to times when they felt exceptionally good or exceptionally bad about their present job or any previous job. They were asked to give reasons and a description of the sequence of event giving rise to that feeling. Responses to the interviews were generally consistent, and revealed that there were two different sets of factors affecting motivation and work this lead to the two factor theory of motivation and job satisfaction. (Mullins, 2005)
The theory offers some insight into the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction. The hygiene factors were those that, if absent caused dissatisfaction. These factors are related to job context, their concern with job environment and extrinsic to the job itself.
The other set of factors are those that if present serve to motivate the individual to superior effort and performance. These factors are related to job content of the work itself. They are the ‘motivators’ or growth factors. The strength of these factors will affect feelings of satisfaction or no satisfaction, but not dissatisfaction. The presence of these factors will not motivate individuals as such, but their absence will serve to create dissatisfaction with the job and organization. They include:
Company policies and administrative procedures
Level and quality of supervision
Interpersonal relationship at work
The motivating factors were those that could motivate the individuals to improve their work performance. They were primarily concerned with the content of the work, together with the way in which it formed a meaningful whole (intrinsic factors). They include:
Sense of achievement
Nature of the job
( Herzberg et al, 1959).
3.1 Study design
This research was a cross- sectional survey which is descriptive in nature and employed both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The qualitative research was based on the knowledge, observation, opinions, and perception that people hold about the effect of motivation on employees’ performance. The quantitative was based on designing questionnaires to solicit for the objectives of the topic under study.
3.2 Population of the study
All employees in Vanguard Assurance Company Limited and the sample size was 50
3.3 Sampling Technique
Convenience sampling as a non probability sampling was used as the technique for the research. This method was chosen to get a gross estimate of the results.
3.4 Data Sources
Both secondary data and primary data sources were used Secondary data, collected previously for a similar project such as journals, books, and internet, newsletter, and conference and seminar papers were used. Theses were collected to serve as a supplementary material to support the primary data which completes the research. Primary data were data gathered for a specific purpose and were used to get an accurate, complete and a reliable source of data. This was done by interviewing employees, officials, and other relevant groups of the study.
3.5 Research Instrument/Data Collection
Questionnaires were administered to employees and management of Vanguard Assurance Company Limited. These were done by the Assistant Human Resource Manager. The questions were in the form of close – ended and open- ended. The research team also conducted personal interviewing with some of the employees.
3.6 Reliability and Validity
This research instrument used is accurate and reliable because it has yielded consistent results overtime. It has been observed that most researchers utilise this sturdy instrument.
3.7 Procedure and Time Frame
The research study and reporting began on the first (1st) week of the final semester. The proposal was carried out in the first two (2) weeks and pretesting of the measuring instruments was done in the third (3) week. The research study was carried out through the forth (4th) to the seventh (7th) week. The concluding three (3) weeks were used in writing and presentation of the research report.
3.8 Sampling Plan
The sampling unit defines the target population, which are the employees of Vanguard Assurance Company. The sample size is defined as the number of people who were sampled. 50 employees of Vanguard Assurance Company were administered the questionnaires and some were interviewed. This was done by interviewing as well as administering questionnaires to workers throughout the various departments of the company. The departments include the following
Retail Relations Department,
Business Development Units ,
Corporate Relations Department,
Broker Relations Department
The Accounts Department.
Here the use of convenient sampling procedure to select respondent from such respective department was applied. The convenient sampling is a non probability sampling method in which the sample is arbitrary selected. This is done to get more accessible employees.
3.9 Analytical Tools
The statistical package for social science was used in analyzing the data collected through the questionnaire developed. In addition pie chart, histogram and frequency table was used for pictorial presentation of the data.
4.0 Results and Discussion
This chapter deals with the analysis, interpretations and detailed discussion of the findings in the questionnaire, it is concerned with the presentation of data collected for the research and testing of hypothesis. It also covers areas such as the readiness of member countries in meeting the convergence criteria and its associated problems.
ANALYSIS ON BIO-DATA OF RESPONDENTS
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009. Figure 1
From the above, figure one indicate the distribution of the respondants ages in percentages. From the table it can be seen that:
Seventy four point two percent (74.2%) of the respondent ranges from the ages of 25-35,
19.4% of the respondent ranges from the ages of 36-45 and
6.5 of the respondent ranges from the ages of 46-55 years.
None of the respondants has obtained the age of 56 years. The result shows that majority of the respondants are in their prime age because insurance needs more active and vibrant people to solicite for clients and to cater for their diverse needs. Plesase refer to Table 1 below.
Table 1: Ages
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009.
Analysis on Gender.
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009. Figure 2
From the Figure 2 above it can be observed that the male dominate their female counterpart. Taking their qualifications into consideration, four (4) of the male which constitute 12.1% and three (3) which constitute 9.1% have HND. Thirty three point three percent (33.3%) of the male and 24.2% of the female have degree. 3 of the male which is 9.1% have masters degree whiles none of the female have masters degree. Also two male and two female which constitute 6.1% respectively possess professional certificates. However it can be deduced that the male which dominate have also acquired higher levels of education. Please refer to Table 2 and Figure 3.
Table 2: Gender and level of qualification
Level of Qualification
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009.
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009. Figure 3
Analysis on whether there is staff motivation at Vanguard Assurance
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009 Figure 4
Table 3: Staff motivation at Vanguard Assurance Company Limited
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009.
From the illustration above, majority of the workers agreed that there is staff motivation at Vanguard Assurance. They constitute 83.4% which is 28 out of 34 respondents. Three (3) of workers did not affirm to this and they represent only 8.8%. The remaining respondent had no idea of what staff motivation is about. It can be concluded that most of the workers know what staff motivation is about. Please see table 3.
Analysis on whether Appraisal system in Vanguard is Formal or Informal
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009. Figure 5
Table 4: appraisal system at Vanguard
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009.
From the illustration above, one can deduce at glance that appraisal systems are made formally. 29 of the workers which is made up of 85.3% affirm to this. Two (2) of the workers which constitute 5.9% assumed that it is informal. Three workers had no response for this question. It can be deduced from this response that there are appraisal system in place. Please refer to Table and figure 4.
Analysis on how performance is being awarded
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009.Figure 5
Table 5: How performance is awarded at Vanguard
Non- Monetary Reward
None of the Above
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009.
It can be deduced from the above Figure that performance in vanguard assurance is awarded in different forms. Some workers affirm that performance is awarded monetarily and this constitutes 64.7% which is 22 out of 34 respondents. Five (5) workers exclaimed that awards are non monetary are given. 5.9% supposed that the awards are meritorious. Again one out of 34 respondents assumed that performance is not awarded. However four respondents had no response. It can be concluded from the majority respondent that performance is awarded by giving out monetary rewards to employees at Vanguard Assurance. Please refer to Table 6.
Assessment of Motivation Levels by Employees
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009. Figure 7
Table 6: How do you assess the motivation level given by your employer?
From the above, it was realized that, employees assessed the motivation level given to them to be average which recorded the highest number of people representing 77.4, followed by 19.4% representing those who assessed to be high. Then 3.2% representing those who assessed the motivation level given them to be high. Please refer to table 7
Analysis on whether Management offers opportunities for advancement
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009. Figure 8
Table 7: Management offers opportunities for advancement
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009.
From the illustration above, 50% which is a representative of 17 out of 34 workers agreed that management offers opportunities for advancement. One worker strongly disagreed. This presentation shows to some extent that there are opportunities available for workers to advance themselves in Vanguard Assurance. Please refer to Table
Analysis on factors that will give Satisfaction to Employees (First Choice)
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009. Figure 9
Table 8: Factors that will give Satisfaction in your Employment (First Choice)
Congenial Work Environment
Orderly Job Progression
Use of state of the Art Equipment
Adequate Retirement Package
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009.
From the above, it was realized that ten people chose each of these: congenial work environment, orderly job progression, and adequate allowance, which constitute 29.4% for respectively. Use of state of art equipment recorded 5.9% which is two people; adequate retirement package recorded 2.9% representing 1 person. No response was 1 constituting 2.9%. These were their first choice.
Analysis on factors that will give Satisfaction to Employees (Second Choice)
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009. Figure 10
Table 9: Factors that will give Satisfaction in your Employment (Second Choice)
Congenial Work Environment
Orderly Job Progression
Use of state of the Art Equipment
Adequate Retirement Package
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009.
This figure represents the second choice or the workers at Vanguard Assurance. Congenial work environment recorded the same number which is 6 representing 17.6% for each. Orderly job progression and adequate allowance also recorded the same number 5 constituting 14.7% for each. Use of state of art equipment recorded 11.8% representing 4 people, 8 had no response which constituted 23.5%
Analysis on whether such Benefits Work
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009. Figure 11
Table 11: Benefits Effect on Work Rate
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009.
This figure represents whether the benefits actually increase their work rate. 29 workers constituting 85.3% affirmed to that where as 5 people constituting 14.7% answered no.
Incentives suggested to Management in Order of Priority
Source: Field work by researchers, 2009. Figure 12
From the above it was realised that 16 employees representing the highest number suggested increment in salary, this was followed by Car/house loan suggested by 10 people. Also adequate office space recorded 5 employees and finally, scholarship for children placing last with 4 employees.
This section presents the discussion of the data gathered. This is in relation to the main objectives of the study with reference to the literature review
Employee satisfaction with their job
This section of the study reveals that employees were satisfied with their job. The observation indicated that even though they seem to be satisfied now, it was realized that there was the need to satisfy their next highest needs as were recorded in the questionnaires. That is to say when the lower need is satisfied the next highest becomes dominant and the individual attention is turned to satisfying this higher need, and this is in agreement with (Maslow, 1943) view on hierarchy needs.
Factors that give job satisfaction to employees
On the above it was found out that the majority of the employees gave their opinion about their job satisfaction at work. All these suggestions were in agreement with the five basic hierarchy needs as stated by (Maslow, 1943). It was also recognized that there are differences in an individuals motivational content in a particular culture and individuals are motivated to fulfil whichever need is most powerful to them at any given time. The observation was also supported by the view of (Adams, 1965). According to him people’s feelings and performance are about how they are rewarded in accordance with their contribution. It also implies that employees of Vanguard Assurance have various ways of being satisfied with their jobs. Again it is in agreement with Herzberg two factor theory of need.
Types of motivation given to the employees
This section reveals that majority of the respondents assess the motivation level given them as normal. The observation shows that the degree of motivation obtained by individuals depends largely upon their own needs and expectations and the environment in which they work, which in agreement with (Torto’s, 2005) view.
It also agrees to what (Moorhead and Griffin, 1995) says that employees are motivated by responding to their social environments and work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, minimise tardiness, results in improving performance.
The study found out that the relationship between employers or organizations and its employees is governed by what motivates them to work and the fulfilment they derive to perform well. These findings revealed that although respondents assess motivation as normal it was not up to their expectation and this was in agreement with Vroom’s Expectancy theory.
Motivating employees to give out their best
Under this it was found out that majority of the employees were not motivated enough to give out their best. Motivating employees mainly involve employers giving or supplying the necessary needs to their workers to enable them put up their best.
The more motivation employers give to their employees, the more they should expect higher performance and quality of services delivery as observed by (Torto, 2005).
In reality performance goes with rewards and in an advert failure by management to recognize workers contributions leads to poor or low productivity. This is also in agreement with the works of (Mullins, 2005) that rewards influence employees to give out their best.
Motivation factors at the company.
The result also showed that respondents are motivated with the provision of transportation services, canteen services, granting of loans and payment of hospital claims. Payment of hospital claim was the highest priority of most respondents followed by transportation services, canteen services and granting of loans. This may be due to the fact that employees were more concern about their health. Thus a healthier workforce should experience a lower incidence of sickness and absenteeism, as was indicated by (Martocchio, 2003).
In life transportation services is one of the beneficiaries to employees because it facilitates travelling from home to work and manage daily challenges. Moreover, canteen services provided to employees who are properly fed is likely to be more effective and less prone to accidents and ill health than which is left to fend for itself as also in agreed by (Martocchio, 2003), (Hackett, 1996). Thus it can be seen that Vanguard Assurance Company is more likely to offer such benefits to its employees.
Benefits accessed by the employees
This section of the study reveals that respondents have accessed training, promotion bonuses and adequate compensation. This observation indicates that training as a benefit is a key element of improving organizational performance. It also improves individual and organization competences as observed by (Mullins, 1995). It can also be seen that training increases confidence, motivates, provides recognition, promotes, achieves the required skill and gives a feeling of personal satisfaction within employees. Training also makes employees more flexible: improve performance and quality of work, thereby reduces staff ineffectiveness and efficiency, such as absenteeism and staff turnover rate.
This observation shows that management of Vanguard Assurance Company takes training as one of the most important package to employees and as organizational performance.
How benefits increase work rate
On the above, it was found that motivation, as a tool is means of increasing work rate or performance in an organization. The observation shows that positive motivation and practice, improves performance, quality and service. It also shows an appreciation to employees at a work place and can be a strong mechanism of motivation that enhances performance as in agreement with what (Torto, 2005) view as training being an effectiveness of performance and promotion.
It also agrees to what (Certo, 2003) says that motivation improves performance because employees are often in the best position to think of ways to achieve their objectives more efficiently.
The result also shows that respondents’ suggested for increment in salary. This observation indicates that money may seem to be important to high achievers, but they value it more as symbolizing successful task performance and goal achievement. This is in agreement with what (McClelland, 1975) says about money not being an incentive but means of giving feedback on performance.
This observation may indicate that employees still have that drive, desire, needs and wishes to persist, when the need for something is not met. Thus even though employees had obtained some motivational packages, their salaries were still low.
Employees view on other motivational schemes
This section of the study reveals that employees would be very satisfied if management introduced such schemes. This observation indicates that work is looked at as not simply a means of efficiently carrying out a specified function but as concurred with (Graham and Bennet, 1992) is viewed that rewards for motivation can go beyond pay or fringe benefits. This may properly be due to the fact that respondents still have that drive to work hard and improve upon their performance if they are well motivated.
5.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS
The main focus of this project work is on “The effect of Motivation on Employees performance”. This research was a cross- sectional survey which is descriptive in nature and employed both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The qualitative research was based on the knowledge, observation, opinions, and perception that people hold about the effect of motivation on employees’ performance. The quantitative was based on designing questionnaires to solicit for the objectives of the topic under study and this was both in close-ended and open- ended form.
In analyzing data collected tables and graphs were used to summarize and clarify issues. The study reveals that when employees are motivated with some fringe benefits and motivational packages existing in rules governing conditions of services they put up their best in their duties of work. These packages though were provided, was not up to their expectations.
The study also reveals that employees were willing to work harder if management improves upon it. Thus motivation really has an effect on employees’ performance.
From the findings acquired, it can be observed that motivation has an effect on performance therefore the need for recommendations. This is to bridge the gap between the findings and what should be real life practices in the world of business. The recommendations will go a long way to help management to ensure that employees are well motivated to give forth their best in improving performance.
Management should take the grievances of the workers into consideration so that they can meet their needs because these workers are the prime assets of the company and without them work will not move smoothly.
Performance appraisal systems should be well communicated through out the organization to enable workers understand its importance to their work. Management must specify as acknowledged by Jack Welsch former president of General Electric (1981-2001) as to whether appraisal systems are done based on results or process.
Also management should not only concentrate on widening up advancement opportunities for workers but also system must be put in place to ensure that the knowledge these workers acquire would be brought back into the company to improve upon existing ways of doing things in order to help reduce employee turnover
It would be fallacious to claim that the research was constraint free. The research project was limited to several constraints. These include;
Limited financial resources to obtain materials collect data and other related issues.
Limited information from the respondent since some questions were left unanswered.
Limitations in collecting the questionnaires thereby reducing the number of intended respondent made by the research team.
Since the research project aims at considering a single company, the sample size was a limitation.
Time constraint was a major factor, thus not allowing the research team to have ample time for the research. More so the research team did not have enough time to collect and collate more passed studies on the topic for evaluation.
Questionnaires were not evenly distributed since the numbers of people in each department are not the same consequently some departments had more than the other.
The researchers were not able to collect all the questionnaires since they relocated to a new office, which made it very difficult to find some of the questionnaires.
This chapter of the study represents the conclusion and recommendations. In this an attempt has been made to find out the effect of motivation on employees of vanguard Assurance Company Limited performance. The objectives of this research was mainly to assess the impact of motivation, to evaluate the motivational factors that influence employees performance and finally recommend possible policies and interventions for improved motivational policies.
The method that was adopted for data collection was a non random sampling (convenient sampling) and a sample of 50 respondents made up of management and employees were selected from Vanguard Assurance Company Limited for the study. The research came up with the following conclusions:
That workers at Vanguard Assurance Company Limited were mostly satisfied with their Job .The most important factor that gives them the satisfaction in the employment was the congenial working environment.
That although they assessed the motivation packages given to them as normal ,it was not up to expectation consequently not giving out their best.
It came out that management have incentives schemes in place for employees some of which are ,transportation service, canteen service, granting of loans ,payment of all hospitals claims, training, promotion, bonuses and adequate compensation among g others .However they only had accessed just a few.
It was also found out that the benefits they had accessed increased their work rate.
5.5 Further Studies
While there is still much to be learned about motivation and its effects on employee performance, this study will make valuable contributions to most Insurance Companies and service providers. The study and its findings will confirm and expand on previous research on the role motivation plays on employee performance. In terms of the research, the conceptual framework of the study can guide future organizations and students who would like to study this topics
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What is the effect of motivation on employees of vanguard assurance company ltd?. (2019, Mar 28). Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/what-is-the-effect-of-motivation-on-employees-of-vanguard-assurance-company-ltd/