INSTITUTE OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT AURANGABAD, INDIA Tourism planning aims at reducing damage which might be caused by tourism while ensuring maximum benefits for the socio-economic development for the nation”(Shashi Prabha Sharma, 2004) Abhishek Mohan (H-17005) Module: Tourism Planning and Development Module Tutor: Mr. Subhasis Mandal “Submitted in fulfillment of the requirement for B. A. (Hons. ) in hotel Management” UNIVERSITY OF HUDDERSFIELD, U. K. Synopsis This essay states the positives and negatives of tourism and the negative impacts that tourism has on different systems of a country such as economic, social and environment.
It also focuses on the Tourism industry of Australia and the negative impact it has on the various attractions. It comprises of facts and figures from the tourism extracts of Australia. The essay explains the stages of tourism planning with its importance and function. It will enable the reader to connect the concepts of tourism of planning with the tourism impacts and how it can be beneficial for minimizing the negative impacts. List Of Contents TopicPage Number 1. Introduction 2. Damages Caused by Tourism and its Impacts 3. Tourism Impacts: Australia 4.
Tourism Planning 5. Critique 6. Suggestions and Recommendations 7. Conclusion 8. Bibliography Introduction As stated by _________ tourism is defined as “The temporary movement of people of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and the facilities created to cater to their needs”. It is the business of travel with no political, ideological, geographical or cultural boundaries. As a industry it is very vast including wide array of people, activities and facilities.
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Although tourism is not identified as a distinctive industry but a unique grouping of industries tied together by a common denominator - the traveling public. As claimed by the World Tourism Organization (WTO) the tourism industry is currently the worlds largest industry with annual revenues exceeding 3 trillion dollars. The tourism industry is a very old industry dating back up to Mayan period, which developed as civilizations became established and spread geographically. It mostly developed during the empire era, which started from the time of the Egyptians who had centralized government locations.
As travel became common, food and lodging had to be provided which started a new wave of growth in the industry. Further the tourism industry is sub divided into various parts on the basis of the major stimuli attracting the people. The most common forms are: Medical tourism, Cultural tourism, sports tourism, eco tourism and many more. The new concept in the industry is of sustainable tourism which involves using all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity.
Many countries have tourism as their main economic base, i. e. they totally depend on tourism for their income. Tourism also plays the role of a major income base for many other countries around the globe. In India in the year 1989, tourism marked as the largest foreign exchange earner for the countries. Even developed nations like Canada (which derived 11% of its GDP from the tourism in the year 1989) rely heavily on tourism for their income. Other than this tourism is also one of the most labour intensive industries offering jobs to skilled and semi skilled people.
It is a major source of employment for the countries having scarce natural resources which cannot support the economy. Although tourism has been always identified as a industry for growth and development of a nation, but it has an other side also which involves the depletion and damage of the tourist places because of excess movement of travelers and many other reasons. Governments of many countries as well as social firms are now diverted towards the conservation of these unique tourism sites so that their beauty remains intact and they are preserved for the future generations.
Tourism is an important human activity of great significance but it has negative sides also which are the social, cultural and political impacts on the region. Damages Caused by Tourism and Their Impacts Tourism is considered as an important factor for a country’s development, it has its impacts on the economy as a whole. With the economic impacts it is really important to focus on the impact of tourism on nature, people and cultures of a region. At a certain point of time if tourism is not properly managed it can lead to “overpopulation” of tourists in a region.
Every region has its own carrying capacity of the tourists which is divided into three categories: •Physical Capacity •Environmental Capacity •Ecological capacity If the Carrying capacities are not controlled it can lead to multiple problems leading to depletion of tourism in that location. Economic Impact Tourism industry is one of the major industries that have a huge impact on country’s economy. Therefore governments are spending so much on the development of tourism, which in turn helps their economy in terms of GDP growth, employment, and development.
It also has an impact on the foreign exchange, it has been seen that tourist arrivals increase with decrease in currency value. Tourism industry stabilizes the economy; even at the time of recession the industry had only minor declines in revenue based on the fact that citizens of most industrial nations have come to view vacationing as a necessity of life. Tourism also provides the economic incentives to developed infrastructure, which in turn can e enjoyed by the residents also. On the negative side overdependence on tourism can lead to a dangerous lack of economic diversity.
If the tourism in a totally tourism dependent economy fails then they have no other option to support the economy. Tourism can also highlight too much of a good thing for a region and bring too many visitors to the area, this increased tourist arrivals can lead to increased prices and the increase of population in the region, increased number of residents will lead to strain the basic public services like hospitals and schools. Environmental Impacts The term environment has been defined in many ways. It can be simply defined as “a given set of conditions in which one lives and is influenced and in turn influences these set of conditions”.
It was only after 1960’s that people realize that environment is a perishable resource and tourism has bad impacts on the environment too. To provide adequate services to the visitors, a region must first developed the necessary infrastructure to support these services. The development of infrastructure for tourism will have a direct impact on the environment of the area. With increased level of tourist movement on the road as well as the air, there is an increase in the consumption of fuel as well as pollution being spread in the air harming the natural habitat and the forest cover of the region.
Historical site detonation is also a cause of major concern. From tourism prospective the environment comprises of the following: 1. Natural environment •Beaches •Water bodies- lakes, rivers and oceans •Hill Stations •Caves •Forests •Wildlife 2. Built Environment: •Accommodation and built facilities •Transport infrastructure •Theme parks •Dams and Reservoirs 3. Natural Resources: •Air •Water •Climate- Temperature, rainfall, snow, glaciers etc. Tourism has its impact on environment in many different ways some of them are listed below: •Pollution: It is a major impact that tourism has on environment.
Transportation facilities used for the movement of tourists over land, sea and air emit harmful gases which damage the natural ecosystem and beauty. One common example is of construction of resorts and lodging facilities inside or very close to wildlife sentries or an historical site which pollute the nearby environment with their waste and construction and other such activities. •Depletion of natural resources: With the development of tourism facilities the forest cover of a region gets depleted. The forest wood are also used many times for fuel purposes and careless behavior of tourists also becomes a reason for many forest fires. Other impacts include the bad effect or garbage by tourists, traffic congestion and other such problems. Socio/Cultural Impact Even though a tourist is a temporary resident of a region, but they often leave long lasting impact on the community. Often the tourists visiting the underdeveloped countries have an impact on the clothing, lifestyle and other behavioral patterns of the local community. Although the culture is usually used for marketing a region or a community but the tourism has a huge impact on the social and cultural lives of the people of the community.
Cultural Impacts: Culture is one of the main stimuli for tourists to travel. Handicrafts, cultural events, traditional dressing, religion, dance, music, folktales etc. generally attract them. Apart from creating awareness about one another’s culture, tourism has marked influence on many aspects of a society’s culture. when tourists visit an unknown destination and are unaware about local customs and practices, a conflict situation may arise. Culture shock and cultural arrogance are often the reasons that create conflicts between the tourists and the host communities.
Culture shock results from witnessing a totally different lifestyle or behavior by the tourist or the host. Lack of communication or understanding can cause such situations. Culture and Authenticity: Mass tourism has resulted in a shift from natural authentic culture to contrived culture and tourism planners are fulfilling the quest for knowing and enjoying the culture. While tourism helps in preservation of culture and rejuvenation of traditional art forms, sometimes locals cannot meet the demands or sell the handicrafts at low prices.
The demand for large quantity of artifacts at cheaper prices has led to commercialization of material culture, which is either mass produced in a factory or imported, from abroad. In both cases there is loss of authenticity. This may lead to misunderstandings and disappointments for both tourists and residents. Handicrafts are time consuming and authentic crafts involve a lot of effort while the number of articles produced per day is low. Mass produced or factory produced crafts are cheaper and often the tourists are disappointed to note that the artifact purchased in one country has the manufacturing label of another country.
Impacts On Society: The socio cultural impact of tourism varies from destination to destination depending on the nature of tourism, attitude of hosts, background of the tourists and the strengths and weaknesses of the destination. Below are listed some of the negative socio cultural impacts of tourism. •Rural-urban migration •Disruption of lifestyle •Staged authenticity •Narcotics and drug abuse •Deceased use of local languages •Health issues, HIV/AIDS, Avian flu etc. •Prostitution, pedophilia, Homosexuality etc. •Alcoholism •Crime- pick pocketing, mugging, rape, murder •Money laundering Disrespect of local customs Although tourism cannot be blamed for all social evils, it is a known fact that the presence of strangers, temporary visitors, floating populations, or even the armed forces may influence such social problems. Tourism Impacts: Australia Tourism is an extremely important industry in Australia. The industry has been credited for creating jobs and generating a great deal of income for the nation. In the year 2003-04 it roughly contributed 4% towards Australia’s GDP, it also employed around 5. 6% of Australian workforce and made up 12% of all exports.
People from around the world are attracted towards Australia for its unique attractions like the Great Barrier Reef, Tropical Rainforests and a rich indigenous heritage. It has a very well established infrastructure set up for tourism. Environmental Impact: There are many examples of tourism having impacted negatively on the physical environment. Over-development along coastal strips (such as the Gold Coast in Queensland) has created ecological problems for many of Australia's beautiful beaches. Plants and shrubs have been removed from rainforests to make room for walking trails.
Recreational activities such as four-wheel driving have destroyed sand dunes and vegetation, and bottom-trawling in the Great Barrier Reef has had adverse effects on biodiversity. Visitors have dumped non-biodegradable rubbish into previously unspool ecosystems, the construction of sea walls and marinas for the benefit of humans has disrupted natural erosion processes of marine and estuarine environments, and the growing presence of humans in remote areas lacking infrastructure has caused significant waste management problems.
These are just a few of the negative effects that increased human traffic caused by tourism has had on Australia's natural environment. Heron Island is an example of an ecotourism destination located on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. The University of Queensland runs the Heron Island Research Program on the island and visitors are encouraged to participate in activities organized by the research center, such as coral-coding, which contribute to the area's ecological well-being. Over 1. 5 million people visit the Australian Alps national parks annually (Good and Grenier 1994; Good 1995).
Winter and summer tourism and recreation active- ties can have negative environmental impacts, such as trampling of vegetation, introduction and spread of weeds, littering, and nutrient enrichment of soils and water (Good 1992; Good and Grenier 1994; Buckley et al 2000; Pickering et al 2001; Eagles et al 2002; New- some et al 2002). Social/Cultural Impacts: Often, in a rush to develop the tourism industry, the social impacts are often overshadowed by the short-term gains, despite the fact that the essential composition of the host society will have a significant influence on the potential success of the development.
Perhaps the greatest tragedy of the effects of tourism in Australia is its displacement of local residents, who are unable to afford the dramatic increases in the costs of living arising from the tourist prices for commodities. Tourism has also been associated with an increasing crime rate, from prostitution, gambling and drug abuse, and the tensions and dangers these factors create in local communities is equally responsible for resident displacement and subsequently, a general disintegration of community morale.
Tourists to Australia in recent years have become increasingly interested in exploring the cultural diversity of Australia from the traditional Anglo-Saxon lifestyle, to those of the various ethnic groups and particularly of the indigenous peoples. To a considerable extent, this has enhanced the mutual intercultural understanding and awareness between all parties, and significant management actions have been undertaken to incorporate culture into tourism. Economic Impact: Tourism is often seen as “the solution” to economic hardship but in Australia it is rather diversifying the local economy.
Small communities started to become reliant on tourism which drew labor away from staple industries such as agriculture and manufacture. Tourism Planning Tourism planning basically involves predicting the future, setting goals and objectives to attain the desired outcomes in the future. Planning is an important phase in any industry or organization. However, because of involvement of so many diversified organizations in the tourism industry it is not easy to plan. The planning process is a combination of processes to develop as well as sustain the tourism revenues.
A wide variety of decisions are made which include the timing of development, size of infrastructure, promotional campaigns, and efforts to serve tourist places. Planning must include studies of the increased burdens on natural resources as well as basic infrastructure like roads, protection, water supply etc. so that the burden on these resources can be minimized. Planning is a continuous process and plans should be revised continuously according to the present conditions and tourist arrivals and on the basis of study of various surveys.
It is also a very important phase, which will determine the future of the tourism in a region so the authority to plan usually rests with the government. Research on new industry trends should be conducted continuously to keep up with the planning process by using the information derived from those researches. Key Steps to take care for tourism planning The planning process should lay out how the government or the leading authority can maximize benefits from tourism while minimizing environmental damage and conflict with local stakeholders; it should reflect national tourism policy and development plans.
A tourism plan may be part of the management plan, a stand-alone document, or combined with a site tourism development plan if tourism is important. It should give: 1. An explanation of the objectives of tourism and recreation, the activities to be encouraged or excluded in different zones, and the amenities to be provided; 2. The national context (e. g. tourism growth rates, impact of global or national socio-economic events) and policies concerning tourism development; 3. Carrying capacity and limits of acceptable change; . User fees and other income from tourism and local visitors, recognizing that the latter are likely to provide less revenue but that their support for the government is essential; and the extent to which tourism/ recreation is expected to provide income in a certain area; 5. Interpretation and education activities 6. Recognition that tourism activities and infrastructure must respect International regulations and national legislation; these should meet required standards and demonstrate best practices; 7.
The roles of government agencies, the private sector and local communities in tourism development in and adjacent to the region, and any potential or existing conflict between this and other economic activities; 8. Monitoring key parameters to monitor include visitor trends, social and environmental impact of visitors, quality of the service provided, whether visitors’ needs are being met, etc. Critique Australia is among the top 10 tourist destinations of Asia pacific with 5. 89 million tourist arrivals in the year 2010.
It is famous for its beaches, wildlife and the coral reefs on of them being the Great Barrier Reef. Australia has a sophisticated and developed infrastructure to cater the tourism needs and the government has been able to properly harness the natural beauty of the country. There is an increasing demand for sports tourism in Australia and also educational tourism with the expansion of good Australian universities. Increasing number of foreign arrivals also lead to many difficult situations and problems, which the government has to cope up with.
One most recent issue, which happened, was the case of racial discrimination brought up on several Indian students for a long time, which involved mob fights, and even more serious problems, which the foreign students faced. This happened mostly because of the increase in Indian students going to Australia and settling down there only. After this incident Australia has seen a decline in foreign student exchange programs. One more major incident that came up in news was about the Great Barrier Reef, which are a world famous UNESCO world heritage site and a crown to Australia’s tourist destinations.
Due to many natural as well as man made reasons there has been a depletion of the reef since 1998. In current scenario the reef generates income over A$7 billion annually and is a optimal destination for scuba divers and other water sports enthusiasts. On a negative side tourism rarely had much impact on Australia’s economy. With the development of the tourism industry it provided jobs to unskilled as well as semi skilled workers, which in turn shifted the workforce from basic agriculture and farming jobs to the industry.
Suggestions and recomendations Australia has a very particular and a strict tourism plan for monitoring tourism in the country, instead of this there are some problems which it needs to take care of which were earlier stated above. Australia should form norms and regulations for the protection of local people as well as the tourists to prevent the mishaps that haven been accuring in the future, this can also include setting up a new infrastructure or a whole new security system for the tourists.
Australia also needs to maintain its tourist intake capacity because inviting more and more tourists and earning money is not the only thing, there are negative sides to it also. One can see the results of increasing tourists in Australian Alps and the Reefs in Australia. The pollution and the waste material left back by the tourists serves as a harmful element to the nature and its beauty. It can also lead to more tourists coming to visit than the carrying capacity of the region, so to revent all this the australian government should take steps at an early stage to monitor tourism for the betterment of nation as well as the tourists. The conflict between the local industries and the tourism industry should be solved in Australia. This conflict can lead to a worse later stage which will damage the job structure and economy of Australia. All other industries including the tourism industry should be interdependent on each other catering to each others needs. Conclusion Keeping Australia tourism in the center has made this project.
Australian tourism has seen a drastic increase in the previous years. Australia also features in the top 10 tourist arrivals in the Asia pacific. In spite of many negative impacts of tourism on the country as a whole the tourism continues to grow in the same pace. Recently the government has taken necessary measures to cope with the problems. Tourism planning is a plays an important role in the formation of strategies and rules for the tourist arrivals. It is a complex and continuous process which involves the involvement of more than one authoritative body.
Bibliography Social and Cultural impacts Of Tourism. (2004). Retrieved 2011, from http://www. gawler. sa. gov. au/webdata/resources/files/5_Gawler_Impacts_Tourism. PDF The Tourism Industry in Australia. (2003). Retrieved from http://www. skwirk. com. au/p-c_s-16_u-140_t-417_c-1468/tourism/nsw/tourism/issues-in-australian-environments/geographical-issues-human-elements Catherine Marina Pickering, e. a. (2003). Environmental Impacts of Tourism on the Australia. Mountain research and Development . Roy A. cook, e. a. Tourism Tge Business of Travel. Dorling Kindersley.
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