The temple architecture of ancient Greece and Rome

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Brought down from Mount Pinstripes, it was then transported ten miles on oxen-drawn carts to Athens. 5 The Parthenon was regarded in its prime as the finest example of a Doric temple, due mainly to the refinement of already well establish deed aspects of appeal. 6 Typically, only one order was used in the construction of temples in certain areas; Doric in western and mainland Greece, and Ionic on the coast of Asia Minor and in the Aegean islands. The Parthenon is an exception to this, however, as it contains certain Ionic elements throughout its structure also, making it unique. The home to an Ionic frieze, the Parthenon had two rooms, most likely in accordance with the sun - one west- facing that acted as a treasury, and a second separate room with its door facing east, used to contain the "cult image, the gold and ivory Athena Parthenon", the Greek goddess of reason, intelligent activity, arts and literature. 8 Horizontal aspects such as the architrave and the astrolabe are corrected by meaner of entities, so that they do not "sag" in the middle.

Also, the corner columns stand closer and thicker than their neighbors, so that they do not appear frail against the sky. It is clear that the Greeks at the time were highly skilled in both construction and aesthetic design. 3. Henry Sterile, Greece; From Mycenae to the Parthenon, Teaches Press, First Edition, 2001. P. 189 4. Robin Francis Rhodes, Architecture and Meaning on the Athenian Acropolis, Cambridge University Press, First Edition, 1998. P. 1 5. Bernard Assemble, Architect and Sculptor in Classical Greece; The Wrights Lectures: Volume 6, Phaeton Press, First Edition, 1972. . 94 6. Http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/ Temple_of_Hyphenates 7. A. W. Lawrence, Greek Architecture, Yale University Press, Fifth Edition, 1996. . 77 8. Http://www. Geochronology. Com/Olympian/Athena/Athena. HTML 9. Patrick Mutagens, The Story of Architecture, Phaeton Press, Second Edition, 2004. P. 97 Doric architecture, further contributing to its aesthetic AAA?¬@lllustration 5: The Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens. Built from 427 - 424 BCC, the Temple of Athena Nikkei is the first fully Ionic structure to be built atop the Athenian Acropolis.

As a result, certain differences exist between itself and the previous Parthenon. Measuring a mere 11 feet in heighten, it has been described as "barely more than a treasury. 11 Of considerable elegance, the temple's four- columned inappropriately facades acted to frame a small square "NAS" measuring mm by 5, the entrance to which was preceded by two slender marble pillars. 12 The bastion face looking outwards and the end of the temple tilt towards the north wing, resulting in an altered view of the distance between the wings when viewed from the west.

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This also forces the corner of the facade in the north-west into line with the south wing facade. This in turn makes the temple sides point towards the Parthenon. 13 Although different techniques were used, it is clear that visual manipulation was Just as prominent in the Temple of Athena Nikkei as it was in the Parthenon. As on red and black pottery, the ancient Greeks favored contrasts, especially those found in nature, and this was readily apparent through their use of marble on the frieze below the temple. 14 The temple itself, similar to the Parthenon and other Doric temples, was built using white phonetic marble.

It was, however, built in stages, as war was present during the construction, and from time to time funds were cut short. The sculptural works found on the parapet consist of multiple Nines leading bulls to be sacrificed to Athena ND organizing trophies of victory. It is clear that such ideals were valued by the people of the time, and is the reason why such a great deal of effort was made when constructing temples, and their decorative features. This differs from the Parthenon in that no specific story is told. 15 Little interaction between figures exists and few narrative techniques are used.

This is specific to the temple, and not ionic buildings as a whole. 10. Http://www. Ancient-Greece. Org/architecture/Athena-Nikkei. HTML 1 1 . Robin Francis Rhodes, Architecture and Meaning on the Athenian Acropolis, Cambridge University Press, First Edition, 1998. P. 113 12. Henry Sterile, Greece; From Mycenae to the Parthenon, Teaches Press, First Edition, 2001. P. 204 13. A. W. Lawrence, Greek Architecture, Yale University Press, Fifth Edition, 1996. P. 118 14. Joseph Rockery, The Dancing Column; On Order in Architecture, The MIT Press, First Edition, 1999. P. 230 15.

Robin Francis Rhodes, Architecture and Meaning on the Athenian Acropolis, Cambridge University Press, First Edition, 1998. P. 120 ?¬@lllustration 6: Athens, Temple of Athena Nikkei. ?¬?¬@Although originally based on Greek architecture, Roman temples developed so hat the Romans maintained their own distinct style. Roman temples' orientations were, and still are, dominated by an axis, and the position of the temple in relation to the forum and the way that it is approached is an important stylistic feature. Roman temples were placed at the end of a clearly defined space.

Set high on a podium, it could only be approached from the front. Greek temples differed, however, in that they were set down in an open area and approached from all sides. 16 The Romans favored the Corinthian order when building columns, as the ornamentation was an important factor in Roman architecture. As their style developed, so did the Roman arch, a very prominent aspect of many Roman buildings, including temples. 16. Leland M. Roth, Understanding Architecture; Its Elements, History, and Meaning, Western Press, Second Edition, 2007. P. 50 ?¬The Manson Carr©e, found in Ames in southern France, is constructed according to the Corinthian Order 17, as is seen by the presence of the Corinthian pillars, and is among the most well-preserved Roman temples of the Roman Empire. 18 The English translation is "square-house", and is so-called because of its rectangular shape. 19 Built by Grippe in 16 BCC, the civic Roman temple was dedicated to his two sons who both died young, in an effort to show the loyalty and allegiance of the Roman colony to the imperial dynasty at the time. 0 The temple was the dominant structure in the forum of the Roman city at the time, serving as a reminder of the values that it represented to the city's inhabitants. Although including elements consistent with an Etruscan style, very prominent Greek elements were present, showing the strong influence of Greek architecture, as opposed to Roman architecture which tended towards rounded arches and domes. 1 Twenty engaged columns can be found embedded along the walls of the calla, and delicate ornamental relief carvings of acanthus leaves and rosettes, found Just beneath a row of considerably fine dentists, adorn the frieze. 2 The reason that the temple is so well-preserved today is owed to the fact that it was rededicated as a Christian church during the fourth century, saving it from the destruction inflicted on other temples after Christianity was adopted as the official state religion of Rome,23 leading us to believe that religion was a particularly prominent aspect of Roman ultra and, by extension, of the lives of the Romans themselves. ?¬17. Http://www. Britannica. Com/Upchucked/topic/358799/Manson-Career 18. Http:// www. Sacred-destinations. Com/France/mimes-Manson-career 19. Http:// www. Formers. Mom/destinations/mimes/A30228. HTML 20. Http://www. Groundbreaking. Com/buildings/Manson_Career. HTML 21 . Http:// www. Reconstruction's. Org/Manson-career-mimes 22. Http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/Manson_CarrÃCA#Awehitecture 23. httpHttpshelshelledm/ComaIsMansonrcarryeCAaAweeon in Rome, Italy, is a sthrong exstrongf an ancient Roman temple. It is worth noting that it was built as a temple to all gods, around 118 CE. 24 Semicircular arches, each of which compose two rings of brick pning about 5 m, are found on the building's exterior between the ends of both horizontal ranges of great conical vaults.

The architect most likely thought of niches before piers, based on the Roman habit of expanding centralisecentralizedth both diagonal and cardinal recesses. 25 The largest and, arguably, most impressive element of the Pantheon is its dome. Domes were often used by the ancient Romans as space was maximised maximizedme acted moma symbol for the overarching heavens. 26 The clear p of the dome is 43. 3 m. 27 The Romans were aware of the large weights of the materials they were using and because of this they gradually decreased the thickness of the dome as it increased in height.

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