With the increased level of competitiveness in the business world and high tempo of change at present, leading a change is currently a key leadership aptitude, and the capability for companies to discover, grow up, adjust, and change is becoming a key organisational ability. Transformational leaders are capable of identifying the need for key organisational transformation or change, and subsequently get employees concerned in carrying out the change. Through the use of a range of skills from other leadership concepts, transformational leaders are capable of leading & managing change projects of all extents.
Transformational leaders are generally extremely good at selling their initiatives, building commanding support systems, organizing different professionals around decisive projects and be able keep them determined and also energized until when the transformation is over. These leaders recognize when to act; get things made; commence and complete the projects successfully; and bring positive results; Transformational leaders usual make things to happen. (Bassand and Avolio, 1999) The Role of Leadership
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For a company where the employees have faith in the capabilities of leaders, the employees look forwards to the leaders for several of aspects. Through radical changes times, the employees will anticipate efficient and reasonable planning, self-assured and effectual decision-making, and frequent, inclusive communication which are timely. In addition throughout these periods of change, the employees will observe leadership as encouraging, committed and concerned to their interests, whilst at the same moment identifying that hard decisions must be made.
The best manner to sum up is that there should be an environment of trust among a leader and all employees of the organization or a team. The continuation of this trust and faith brings optimism for improved moments in the future, and this makes handle the radical change quite easier. (Bassand and Avolio, 1999) In organizations which are characterized by bad leadership, employees anticipate nothing positive from any change. In an environment of mistrust, employees find out that leaders will operate in indecipherable manners and in manners which do not appear to be for anyone's best concerns.
Bad leadership implies a lack of hope that, if permitted to continue for a long time, results in such organizations becoming entirely non-functioning. Such an organization ought to tackle the practical effect of distasteful change, however more significantly, have to work under the burden of the employees who have lost hope, have no trust in the organization or in the capability of leaders in turning the organization about. Importance of leadership in the management of transformational change
prudent leadership previous to, through and following change implementation is the solution to attainment during the swamp. Regrettably, if a leader hasn’t created a track record of efficient leadership, at the time the leader will have difficulties during changes, it might be too late. If a leader is to manage transformational change successfully, a leader needs to be conscious that there are three distinctive period zones where transformational leadership is significant. We shall call these “Preparing for the Journey”, “Slogging through The Swamp”, and “after Arrival”.
We shall examine more circumspectly at all of these. The Journey preparation We would be a mistaken to presume that the Journey preparation takes part only subsequent to the purpose has been defined or selected. When talking about the Journey preparation for change, it means that leading in a manner that lay the groundwork or foundation for any changes which may happen in future. Preparing is regards creating resources, through building strong organizations in the initial position.
Much akin to healthy persons, who are well capable to deal with infection or illness than unhealthy persons, organizations which are strong in the initial position are better capable to cope with any change. (Kochan and Useem, 1992) A transformational leader will require to institute credibility and a impressive track record of efficient decision making, in order to create trust in his/her capability to find out what is needed in bringing the organization through. (Kochan and Useem, 1992) Slogging through the Swamp
A transformational leader plays a crucial role throughout the change implementation, the time from the when the change was announcement throughout the setting up of the change project. In this middle time the organization is in highly unbalanced, characterized with fear, confusion, reduced productivity, failure of direction, and absence of clarity regarding mandate and direction. This can be a time of emotions, with the employees mournful for what they lost, and at first incapable of looking to the prospect or future. (Kochan and Useem, 1992)
During this time, effective transformational leaders require to put focus on two aspects. One; the confusion and feelings of the employees have to be recognized and confirmed. Two; the transformational leader ought to work with the employees to start crafting a new vision for the transformed organisation, and assisting employees to comprehend the future direction. Focusing barely on the feelings, might end in wallowing of employees. That is reason it is essential to start the transformation into the fresh approaches or situations.
While, focusing just on the fresh vision might result in a perception that the transformational leader is not in touch, uncaring and cold. A core part of transformational leadership in this stage is to understand when to put focus on the pain of the organisation, and when to put focus on construction and getting into the future. (Kochan and Useem, 1992) After Arrival In a feeling change is never complete, thus in a way a leader will never arrive, however here, we are looking at the time when the early instability of enormous change has been able to be reduced.
Employees at this time have now become less emotional, and thus more steady, and with efficient transformational leadership during the prior stages, are currently more open to looking in to new innovative directions, authorization and manners of performing things. This is the ideal moment for transformational leaders to commence positive new change, for example the BP transformational management change that Horton, initiated in BP in the 1990s.
The crucial aspect here is that, transformational leaders should now provide hope and trust that an organization is running towards being better, through solving its problems and also improving the standards of the organisation and of employees’ work life. Whereas the fresh vision of an organization might have started whereas employees were trudging through the swamp, this is the moment to complete the progression, and also ensure that employees and all other stakeholders buy it, and comprehend their functions in this fresh organization. (Kochan and Useem, 1992)
The Extent the process of change adopted by BP was consistent with theories of change management. Change in a work place is normally initiated by an organization in order to improve its service delivery. Change in management requires a thorough planning and responsive implementation, most of all, consultation need to done involving the people who are going to be affected by the planned changes. If change is forced to the people usually it brings problems. Galpin (1996) observes that, change has to be realistic, attainable and measurable, these factors are important especially when considering personal change in management.
It has been observed that people change their ways because of being given statistics that change their way of thinking rather than the truth in the content. (Walton, 1995) In the case of BP, the management adopted change with resistance, and as stated in some theories for change, human being are habitual creatures that will resist change even if it is good, a person don’t like changing the way he has been operating, this resistance is shown both in personal life and at place of work. Thus, as stated above it is a true person will require analysis of the issue to make him change.
For example if when BP was undergoing the transformational change from traditional ways of management, a lot of questions were asked. The analysis will include, how successful is the change compared to the current ways of doing the activity, and what are the trend taking place. Also comparison has to be made in relation to other plays. If the analysis shows that the project if implemented will be successful then it is bound to get acknowledgement from the workers than if when the analysis shows that it may fail.
Despite the fact that the, truth of the matter was different. The board of BP did not wait to realize the end results; this is may be due to the fact that the time frame of the transformation was to long while the board required faster outcomes. (Stoner and Freeman, 1992) Walton (1995) also says that change management implies that, employees need to feel that they are part of a process, thus, in bringing a change the people, the must be consulted and their suggestions sought.
Stoner and Freeman (1992) observes that, In initiating the change ensure that it agrees with them, and that they understand the need of having the change, the people also need to chose how they will manage the change and in also should be involved in planning and also implementing the change. It is also important to use face to face way of communication in handling a sensitive issue. Thus, in the case of BP the management adopted changes on basis intellectual stimulation, through adopted the transformational process brought about by the Horton.
According to this concept leaders stimulate the efforts of their employees through they innovativeness and also creativity, which was adopted by BP Company. (Stoner and Freeman, 1992) Question two: the extent to which organizational culture may impede the process of change Organization culture is the manners in which activities are performed in an organization, the culture of an organization are guided by its values, beliefs, attitudes and experiences of an organization.
Organization culture is a defined collection of norms and values that people and groups share in an organization, which directs the manner they interact with one another and with organization’s stakeholders. According to Schein (1992) concept, organizational culture is a model of shared fundamental assumption which an organization has leant in the process of solving its internal integration which has worked adequately well to be taken valid in order to be used to be taught to other new members of the organization.
(Schein, 1992) Schein identifies three main aspects which are; • Artefacts; evident organizational structures and procedures • Espoused values; these are goals objective and strategies of the organization • Underlying assumptions; unconscious, assumed, thoughts beliefs perceptions and feelings (the eventual source of values and acts) Schein (1992) also points out that we have a deeper essential assumption that has a relationship with views of employees about the organization; that influence how employees feel and perceive the organization.
(Bowditch and Buono (1990) states that; culture of an organization is dynamic and it is a continuous process. Leadership structure o an organization has a major position in defining organizational culture of an organization. Managers and founders of the organization play a significant role in as creators of culture of an organization. There are various aspects which decide the perception of the employees, these aspects includes how the organization treats its workforce, or how the management treats professional ethics or even the social relationship in organization, whether it is warm or cold.
The organization climate created can help the organization achieve its goals and objectives or hinder it. Recent research reveals that management structure of an organization plays a significant function in defining the organizational climate in an organization. (Bowditch and Buono, 1990) Culture has an enormous effect on success rate of change Bowditch and Buono (1990) states that the organization's culture has much to do with success rate of an organisation’s projects. This entails any change that the organisation will adopt whether managerial or technological.
The expression culture in general means “how things are done. ” visualizes where a person asks you how effectively your organization succeeds on projects. If you answer, “We’re very poor at projects delivery,” you’re just voicing a view of one feature of your organisation culture. Culture comes into participation on changes or projects in several areas. Process orientation A lot of organizations have got good processes in position and employees normally follow them well. This is possibly the principal single issue in generally project success.
When an organization adheres to a well, scalable project management practice, a leader is more possibly to be constantly successful on the projects he initiates. The whole project team usually knows how to formulate and pursue a work plan, and can also apply standard procedures to successfully manage risk, extent of change, and issues of change. (Bowditch and Buono, 1990) However if the culture of the organization do not have a good processes then change procedures will not be followed and success may not be realized.
Governance Numerous organizations have placed processes in position, although no one adheres to them. This underscores a difficulty with management control. In basic terms, governance of organisation entails the management role that has deals with ensuring people do what they’re ought to do. Usually, if the management arrangement is engaged and concerned in any projects, and if managers or leaders ensure that the project management procedure is well followed, a leader bring about change will be highly successful.
But when each project manager is by his/her own and the management support is disorganized, though, a leader may try, he/she will fail. (Bowditch and Buono, 1990) Training Several organizations poorly train their project managers. Normally, such organizations have a poor training programme in genera even for other employees. When project managers in general do not have the correct skills, the transformational leader will not be successful. Organisation with poor culture on employee training will not be supportive to new changes. Roles and responsibilities
Bowditch and Buono, (1990) points out that, in a successful organization, employees usually know the function they ought to play on projects and also what is anticipated of them. This comprises of active sponsors, concerned clients, and connected management stakeholders of organisation. The sponsors, for example, require carrying out a quality assurance functions and, being the project defender in his/her organization. Supposing an organization begins projects and then leaves a project manager in a leadership void, then, such a leader is not going to be constantly successful.
Culture plays possibly the largest part in whether an organization will be successful in executing its projects. If an organization has difficulties completing their projects effectively and successfully, then, the organisation should not fault the project manager. A project manager only toils within an organisation culture which is not supporting their efforts. Managers, and even the head of the organizations, require stepping in and assess the project culture in organisation.
Until an organisation culture changes for good, project managers will constantly struggle in being successful. (Bowditch and Buono, 1990) Organizational structure can assist or harm project success To a lager extent, an organizational structure and culture can hinder, or assist support, the generally success of organisation projects. However, the organisational structure can be changed to some degree with time. Indeed, the management can change the organization chart regularly, and several companies do simply that. Culture, in contrast, is not easily to change.
It takes many years for a big organization to build up a culture and thus it will take so many other years for such culture to be changed. A strong culture of an organization emphasis status-quo and any new ideas are not easily assimilated by employees or the management of such organisations. Conclusion As Tichy and Devanna (1986) states, transformational leaders are persons who through their own innovativeness, ability knowledge and imaginations and to influence the conduct of employees create circumstances for transforming.
Thus, the management employees during the time when the organizational is going through transformation, is the critical substance of the progression of overseeing the transformation. The victorious management of this substance also comprises, (transactional) capabilities of the management, proper transformational abilities (inspirational motivation, idealized Influence, etc), and proper transformational attributes (creativity, team orientation, teaching).
Organisation culture can also hinder or assist the change to take place and it’s very vital in determining how successful the transformation change will be. Hence, we conclude that qualities of transformational leadership and the organisational culture make the core of transformational management in an organisation and the means to successful running of transformational organization changes. Reference Bass, B. , M. and Avolio, B. , J (1999): (ed. ) Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership, Sage Publications, Ltd.
, USA. Bowditch, J. , L and Buono, A. , F. (1990): A Primer on Organizational Behaviour, John Wiley and Sons, New York, Galpin, T. , J. (1996): The Human Side of Change: A Practical Guide to Organization Redesign, Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, Kochan, T. and Useem, M. (1992) :(ed. ), Transforming Organizations, Oxford University Press, Inc. , New York, Lorenz, C (1990): ‘A drama behind Closed Doors That Paved the Way for a Corporate Metamorphosis’, Financial Times, (March 21), Parry, K. , W.
, (1996): Transformational Leadership: Developing an Enterprising Management Culture, Pitman Publishing, Pearson Professional Pty Ltd. , Melbourne, Australia, Schein, E. H. (1992): Organizational Culture and Leadership (2nd edition. ). San Francisco; Wiley & Sons Stoner, J. , A. and Freeman, R. , E. (1992): Management, Prentice Hall, Inc. , New Jersey, Tichy, N and Devanna, M. , A. (1986): The Transformational Leader, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. , USA, Walton, A. , E. , (1995): (ed. ), Discontinuous Change: Leading Organizational Transformational, Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco,
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