Part One: The Encounters
Chapter One: Natives:
Old world explorers encountered in the new world complex and diverse peoples—who, where, etc? Old world explorers encountered Native Americans in North America.
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Pre-Columbian America is “fraught with controversy.” What conflicts were they? Native Americans had conflict with the Europeans over social and environmental problems; this led to violence and war. Also, Europeans and Native Americans were both violent and Europeans enslaved and killed Natives to conquer land and people.
Without making Europeans out to be vile, cruel and violent, we should recognize that they had superior power but they gave new additions to Native Americans. Europeans brought new weapons and tools that the Natives found helpful and useful. The Europeans also brought horticulture to the land.
Some natives had a culture that demanded less of the environment than that of other natives—such as: The natives north of central Mexico lived in smaller more dispersed bands that had less of a burden on the nature unlike the Anasazi, Hohokam, and northern Mississippians that all put excessive pressure on their local environments.
What are Taylor’s three ideas which he argues about migration? The people had to remain on foot to follow the herds of animals, The period between fifteen thousand and twelve thousand years ago was the ideal time of crossing into North America. Dental, genetic, and linguistic analysis reveals that most Native Americans descend from ancestors that came here fifteen thousand years ago.
Chapter Two: Colonizers:
Taylor makes a big issue over environmentalism—why?
During that time period the state of the environment affected how you lived in every way. The people depended on the environment greatly to give them daily needs and its effects were high. What caused the expansion of Europe—and why?
The improvement of ship making techniques and navigational techniques caused the expansion of Europe. When the Iberian Peninsula was discovered the Europeans looked west for expansion searching to find a route to the east to find completely different land.
What were the two major religions of the age of expansion? How do they come to impact the new world? Islam and Christianity were the two major religions of the age of expansion. The Christians began converting the natives as they sought out help from the Europeans. They were accepting of new beliefs and easy to accept the Christian ideals.
Why is the Atlantic Ocean such a central vital environmental concern for the colonizers? The Europeans believed it to be much larger than it actually is. Also, it was their pathway to the New World.
Once across the Ocean, what were contributions of the colonizers to the New York area? The colonizers contributions to the New York area were disease, animal depopulation, and they had a negative impact on the environment.
What does Taylor say about slavery in the new world?
Slavery was specific to natives but to the death of most natives, Europeans imported Africans as they were more immune to the diseases.
How significant was Renaissance science and technology for the colonizers? The colonizers benefited from Renaissance science and technologies as they brought new techniques for farming and improving daily life.
Chapter Three: New Spain. [Using bullets or short paragraphs, summarize Taylor’s assessment of]
Conquests: Spanish conquests were brutal and gruesome. All for acquiring riches conquistadors murdered hundreds of thousands of people. They murdered natives with the justification of natives having religious idols and human sacrifices.
Conquistadores: The Spanish explorers were independent men that longed for power over others. Greed was necessary to live the life of a conquistador. With no morals and complete disregard for their own beliefs they got what they came for.
Consolidation: Spain was never able to consolidate an empire in the New World as they longed to. The conquistadors practiced such brutal violence and ignored everything from the government that they did not agree with; soon the conquistadors died fighting with each other or were forced to retire their position.
Colonists: About 250,000 Spanish emigrants populated the newly established cities; they saw the New World as an opportunity for success. As the natives died off Africans and their children replaced them. As mixing production rose due to Spanish women scarcely traveling to the new world, the government created a hierarchy known as castas to keep social order.
Empire: Spain’s empire relocated to Mexico and Peru from the Caribbean and Hipiola regions due to more abundant minerals. The Spanish crowns also divided the American empire into regions known as viceroyalities which were governed by viceroy.
Gold & Silver: Gold and silver was the main reason of oversees exploitation and conquests for the money it provided for the Spanish empire. Brutal and violent acts were done to possess the metals. France, England, and Dutch also got the goods by stealing from Spain.
Chapter Four: “The Spanish Frontier”:
Make a list of the achievements of Cabeza de Vaca
Cabeza de Vaca went through many things that gave him a new outlook. He was a slave and then considered to be a scared healer. On his return to Spain Cabeza de Vaca reported of the inhumane treatment of the natives. New laws about the treatment of natives were taken.
Where did Hernando de Soto explore? What was his legacy?
Hernando de Soto found and crossed the Mississippi and led the first expedition to Florida. He left a legacy of death, disease and torment among the natives.
What did Coronado do and how does the seven cities myth develop? What happened to his money? Francisco Vasquez de Coronado commanded an expedition to explore the claims of Fray Marcos de Niza. He and his men were the first Europeans to see the Grand Canyons. They myth developed by the misinformation provided by Fray Marcos. Coronado’s money went to his expedition to find gold and silver, he never recovered his fortune after the fruitless expeditions.
Florida became the focus of Spain—why? How?
The Spanish were dealt serious blows by the French and English raiders in the Gulf between Florida and Cuba. The Spanish crown began to build fortresses along the Atlantic coast of Florida, for protection of the shipping and redeem the castaways.
Spain reaches west to New Mexico—use of the Adelanto system. Who was Onate? Don Juan Onate was the Adelanto that pushed north along the Rio Grande Valley and found New Mexico. Onate continued a fruitless conquest and when the Franciscans caught on they ended Onate’s service to Spain. What significance can be attached to New Mexico Missions? Franciscans, Benedictines, Dominicans. The New Mexico missions were somewhat effective in converting natives to Christianity. The Franciscans asked a lot of the natives by destroying the culture and introducing their own. Many natives were baptized and converted but they retained much of their beliefs and
simply added the new ideas. What was the Pueblo Revolt, how did it begin and what happen to cause the fanaticism? The Pueblo Revolt began because large sums of tribute and harsh labor were demanded from the Pueblos during a drought that killed thousands of Pueblo workers. The pueblos pushed back and rejected Christian teaching reinstituting their own culture.
Chapter Five: Canada & Iroquoia [a shift in geography, a new culture, and very different group of Native Americans] Northern parts of North America became the base of the French—discuss the map area. The map shows the domination of the French colonies during the exploration of St. Lawrence Valley. The first French settlement was Quebec along the St. Lawrence River. It shows the first Dutch settlement in the new world. It shows the five nations; Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Seneca. Quebec, Montreal, and Trois-Rivieres were three districts to protect the fur trade. What were the two major Native American cultural groups? How were they distinct? The two major Native American cultural groups were the Algonquian people and Iroquoian people. They were different in many ways, including location and language. Also, the Iroquoian used both hunting and horticulture while the Algonquians did not use horticulture at all.
The key for economic development was the fur trade of New France. Why was that so? They fur trade was a great source of profit for the French colonist. It was easily transportable and it was agreeable business. They avoided violent conflicts with the natives because there wasn’t any forced labor.
How and why did trade develop? Discuss.
Trade developed because they have different products, the fur and the weapons and tools, and both sides were interested. Both the French and the Natives gained something out of these trades and developed a huge trading market between them.
How did the fur trade operate in its widest applications
The fur trade interacted as businesses and consumers currently do minus the violence and confrontations between traders in that time
What was the role of Canada in development of New France?
Canada, known as St. Lawrence Valley then, was safely distant from the Spanish power. It meant valuable fur and there was a river that provided both good harbor ships and high ground ideal for a fortified post. Analyze and characterize The Five Nations. Who were they?
The Five Nations were a band of violent Iroquois tribes that banded together in the 16th century. They could sustain long distance and large scale raids against multiple enemies. They conducted mourning wars to restore power and build their status.
What impact did old world disease have upon new world natives? The old world disease impact on new world natives was massive. Many natives spread the disease as they sought out the European traders for weapons and tools after they had become dependent on them.
How important was the formation and development of Dutch trade system & involvement? Dutch arrival to the new world spurred more violence as they became the French colonist’s enemy. The Dutch had superior tools and equipment and the Iroquois feared they would lose Dutch suppliers to the northern tribes who had nice fur pelts. This created much conflict as both the French colonists and the Iroquois refused to make peace hoping to keep them separated.
In the new world the French brought the militant Jesuits to catholicize the new world. Did it work? No, it did not work. The Jesuits became enemies to the Huron due to their complex and irrational demands. The French Jesuits did not convert many natives.
Finally, how did destruction befall the organized settling of the new world Trade and war pushed the natives and colonists together in a way they could have never predicted. Colonial empires never lived up to the Europeans dreams and commands but unleashed violence, disease, and war that basically wiped out the native people. This all led to the destruction of the new
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