Learning and geting a 2nd or foreign linguistic communication can be hard for some people and at the same clip easy for others. Factors act uponing this observation may be explained in footings of single differences in Second Language Acquisition ( SLA ) . These person 's differences may include personality, intelligence, linguistic communication acquisition schemes, attitude, emotion and motive.
Some research workers believe that motive may impact scholars ' whole procedure of larning a 2nd linguistic communication ( L2 ) ( Gardner & A ; Lambert, 1972 ) . One theory which has long been recognised in the field is called self-government theory ( e.g. Brown 1981, 1990 ) , and it examines intrinsic/extrinsic motive in L2 acquisition. However, there has besides been a development of a more process-oriented theoretical attack viz. the procedure theoretical account of L2 motive by Dornyei & A ; Otto ( 1998 ) . They have highlighted the importance of developing self-regulatory schemes to pull off, reinforce or prolong one 's motive during the class of larning. Consequently, L2 self-regulation theory was subsequently proposed by Dornyei ( 2005 ) , and the theory represents a major reformation of old motivational thought.
This essay, hence, will discourse the extent in which motive plays a cardinal function in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. The focal point of this essay is specifically on the linkage between self-regulation theory and 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, utilizing the writer 's personal experience in Iranian linguistic communication acquisition as a instance survey.
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The purpose of this essay is to analyze the writer 's experience in Iranian linguistic communication acquisition and analyse, based on self-regulation theory, to what extent motive contributes to the acquisition of a 2nd linguistic communication.
The essay employs a qualitative analysis based on theories and the writer 's personal experience in Iranian linguistic communication acquisition. First, definitions of the term 'motivation ' will be briefly demonstrated, and the most appropriate definition for this essay will be chosen. Second, theories and concepts of motive in relation to self-regulation will be explored. Third, the function of motive in the writer 's Iranian Learning Experience will be evaluated based on self-regulation theory. Finally, a decision will be presented with a farther treatment on future recommendations.
DEFINITIONS OF MOTIVATION
Motivation is a wide construct, and definitions of motive vary harmonizing to research and findings. The purpose of this subdivision is to research several definitions of the term 'motivation ' and conclude on the most appropriate definition in 2nd linguistic communication ( L2 ) larning which will lend to this essay.
To get down with, motive comes from the Latin verb 'movere ' which means to travel. It can be described as the driver bring oning a individual to take a certain action, do a determination, or invest attempts toward transporting out certain behaviors ( Dornyei & A ; Ushioda, 2011: 3 ) .
In a psychological position, motive is frequently defined as the psychological quality that leads people to accomplish a end. For linguistic communication scholars, command of a linguistic communication may be a end. For others, communicative competency or even basic communicating accomplishments could be a end.
In a socio-educational model, motive to larn the 2nd linguistic communication is viewed as necessitating three elements: attempt, desire, and enjoyment. First, the motivated single must use an attempt to larn the linguistic communication. There must be a relentless and consistent strive to accomplish success in larning such as by making prep, practising the linguistic communication whenever there is an chance, etc. Second, the person must show the desire to accomplish the end. Such single will make all that is necessary to accomplish the end. Third, the motivated person will bask the undertaking of larning the linguistic communication. Such an person will state that it is fun, a challenge, and gratifying, even though at times enthusiasm may be less than at other times. All three elements-effort, desire, and enjoyment-are necessary in order to distinguish persons who are more motivated and those who are less motivated. However, each component, by itself, is seen as deficient to reflect motive. Some pupils may expose attempt, even though they have no strong desire to win, and may non happen the experience peculiarly gratifying. Others may desire to larn the linguistic communication, but may hold other things that detract from their attempt, etc.
Motivation in Second Language Acquisition
In the field of Second Language Acquisition research, motive has been identified as one of the key factors which determines L2 accomplishment and attainment. Motivation ab initio serves as an drift to bring forth acquisition and subsequently as a prolonging force to guarantee that the scholar remains on-track with geting the mark linguistic communication ( Cheng & A ; Dornyei, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to Gardner ( 1985: 50 ) , he posits that motive in acquisition is based on four features: `` a end, effortful behavior, a desire to achieve the end and favorable attitudes toward the activity in inquiry. '' Dornyei and Otto 's definition of L2 motive ( 1998: 65 ) has a broader sense ; they defined motive as `` the dynamically altering cumulative rousing in a individual that initiates, directs, co-ordinates, amplifies, terminates, and evaluates the cognitive and motor procedures whereby initial wants and desires are selected, prioritised, operationalised and ( successfully or unsuccessfully ) acted out. ''
Harmonizing to Dornyei and Ushioda ( 2011: 4 ) , the by far definition that most SLA research, including this essay, would hold on concerns the 'direction ' and 'magnitude ' of human behavior, that is, motive histories for:
why people decide to make something ( pick ) ,
how long they are willing to prolong the activity ( continuity ) , and
how difficult they are traveling to prosecute it ( attempt ) .
It is of import to observe that although pick, continuity, attempt are the three key issues leting scholars to modulate their ain motive, Ushioda ( 2003: 99-100 ) further demonstrates that in order for motive to turn in a positive manner, it can non be seen as a progressive efforts to modulate behavior from outside. There needs to be supportive interpersonal procedures which foster the development of liberty and the growing and ordinance of motive from interior. Thus, with this in head, this essay will see the issue of motive in relation to self-regulation in the undermentioned chapter.
REVIEW OF SELF-REGULATION THEORY IN RELATION TO MOTIVATION IN SLA
It has been widely accepted that motive plays an of import function non merely in general academic acquisition, but besides in the procedure of accomplishing the end in a 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. Harmonizing to Dornyei ( 2002 ) , L2 motive has been seen as a dynamic concept that directs and enhances larning behaviors.
There are many theories that devoted to motive in relation to autonomy and scheme usage, and two most-cited theories are self-determination theory and self-regulation theory. The self-government theory, which was developed from the instruction psychological science attack, examines about intrinsic and extrinsic motive in relation to the scholar 's behaviors and ordinance. It denotes a sense of pick, personal duty, and self-initiation of behaviors. While the self-regulation theory, a more recent development within the field of SLA research, refers to spontaneous ideas, feelings, and actions that are planned and cyclically adapted to the attainment of personal ends.
Other well-known related theories are Language Learning Strategies ( LLS ) and L2 Motivational Self System. LLS is another attack which relates to strategic behaviors and keys property of good linguistic communication scholars. This theory has been seeking to set up a nexus between strategic behavior and existent acquisition additions, to show that schemes are non culturally biased, and to explicate why hapless schemes user differs from good scheme users merely in how they use schemes in context but non in the sorts or frequence of scheme they use ( Ortega, 2009:214 ) . Though self-regulation is a more recent alternate survey that replacing the traditional accent on sheer frequence of scheme usage. Its accent on the creativeness of attempts employed to command one 's acquisition processes is the chief issue I would wish to indicate out in this essay.
L2 Motivational Self Systemis another of import recent theory of L2 motive proposed by Dornyei ( 2005 ) . It concerns motive particularly in footings of the theory of possible egos and the self-discrepancy theory ( Dornyei & A ; Ushioda, 2011 ) . Pulling on theoretical paradigms from both motivational psychological science and L2 motivational research, Dornyei ( 2005 ) 's L2 Motivational Self System theoretical account has three chief dimentions: the Ideal L2 ego, the Ought-to L2 ego, and the L2 Learning Experience.
Rationale of this Essay: Self-regulation Theory in Relation to Motivation
Despite the fact that there are many theories on motive in the context of SLA, self-regulation theory seems to outdo tantrum this essay. The self-regulatory attack allows for the combined survey of motive and strategic behavior, and of knowledge and affect, under a individual theoretical model. As supported by Ortege ( 2009: 211 ) who demonstrates a clear relevancy of self-regulation theory to SLA and single differences when `` larning another linguistic communication poses a high-anxiety and complex challenge that demands cognitive every bit good as affectional self-regulation, and persons differ in their capacity to self-regulate. ''
There have been concerns about the clear-cut of LLS, as harmonizing to Dornyei ( 2005: 162 ) , there is a alteration of position that the LLS are `` vastly equivocal phenomena and nil is distinct about them. '' Furthermore, Dornyei ( 2005: 190 ) stated that research workers started to accept that analyzing the LLS was non of import every bit much as the fact that the 'good ' scholars choose to set originative attempt in their ain acquisition and that they have the capacity to make so. Therefore, because of larning schemes examine the result of these forces, I decided to pull self-regulation theory which is looking at the initial drive forces.
The L2 Motivational Self System besides does non suit in my context of depicting a short linguistic communication experience. It concerns more in footings of primary beginnings of the motive to larn another linguistic communication which are the Ideal L2 Self, Ought-to L2 Self, and L2 larning Experience.
Review of Self-regulation Theory in Second Language Acquisition
The get downing point of self-regulation theory is that human enterprises are ever purposive, knowing, effortful and voluntary ( Boekaerts et al. , 2006 ) . In the face of multiple ends and resulting environmental challenges, worlds are capable of accomplishing the terminals they choose to prosecute because they are able to self-regulate their behavior ( Ortega, 2009: 211 ) .
In the context of SLA, L2 self-regulation is a procedure by which persons direct their attempts, ideas, and feelings toward the attainment of their personal ends, and self-regulation is neither a distinct mental ability nor an academic accomplishment ( Zimmerman, 2000 ) . In other words, self-regulation involves procedures, responses, and schemes that pupils initiate and regulate ( Zimmerman, 1986 ) to trip and prolong both their behavioural behavior and their cognitive and affectional operation ( Boekaerts, Pintrich, & A ; Zeidner, 2000 ; Zimmerman, 2001 ) .
Self-regulation theory became the recent developments in the field of L2 single differences as there has been a demand to reconceptualize the 'strategic behavior ' into a theory over the past decennaries. The two chief advocates for this impulse are Dornyei and Skehan ( 2003 ) who have pointed out that the L2 larning strategic behaviour should non be limited to O'Malley and Chamot ( 1990 ) 's taxonomy of ascertained heuristic and reported mental procedure or Oxford ( 1990 ) 's stock list of self-reported frequences of scheme usage. Then, in 2005, Dornyei pushed frontward the solution to speculating larning schemes and claimed self-regulation theory as a model for SLA research about strategic behavior during L2 acquisition.
Dornyei has created a theoretical account of motivational schemes based on the psycholinguistic construct of selfaˆ?regulation which is intended to reaˆ?theorize linguistic communication larning schemes by analyzing strategic acquisition in the paradigm of selfaˆ?regulation ( see Dornyei, 2005 ; Tseng et al. , 2006 ) . This taxonomy of strategic acquisition is based in the model of motive control schemes ( Dornyei, 2001 ) and consists of five classs. Dornyei ( 2006 ) notes that his system was based on Kuhl 's ( 1987 ) and Corno and Kanfer 's ( 1993 ) taxonomy of action control schemes. The classs are defined below:
1. Commitment control schemes
Commitment control schemes examine the pupils ' ability to put and make ends in their acquisition. It helps to continue or increase the learners'original end committedness. For illustration, pupils may maintain in head favorable outlooks or positive inducements and wagess, or pupils may concentrate on what would go on if the original purpose failed.
2. Metacognitive control schemes
Metacognitive control schemes involve the monitoring and controlling of concentration, and the curtailing of any unneeded cunctation e.g. placing repeating distractions and developing defensive modus operandis, and concentrating on the first stairss to take when acquiring down to an activity.
3. Satiation control schemes
Satiation control refers to pupils ' capacity to command ennui and dissatisfaction in a acquisition undertaking, and the ability to get by with these negative feelings ( Dornyei, 2005 ) . For illustration, pupils may add a turn to the undertaking or utilizing one 's phantasy to invigorate up the undertaking. These schemes can assist to extinguish ennui and add excess attractive force or involvement to the undertaking.
4. Emotion control schemes
Emotional control schemes examine how scholars cope with emotionally charged feeling such as emphasis, depression and letdown that may impede their linguistic communication development. For illustration, pupils may utilize self-encouragement or utilizing relaxation and speculation techniques.
5. Environment control schemes
Environmental control schemes refer to how a pupil controls their acquisition environment in order to ease survey. Learners with good environmental control are more cognizant of how their environment affects their acquisition and hold schemes to control these negative effects. For illustration, pupils may seek to extinguish distractions or inquiring friends to assist. Such activities will assist in extinguishing negative environmental influences and working positive environmental influences by doing the environment an ally in the chase of a hard end.
PERSIAN LANGUAGE LEARNING EXPERIENCE
Iranian Language Experience is portion of the Second Language Teaching and Learning faculty. The purpose of this linguistic communication experience is non chiefly for future usage but to represent, and do more existent, some of the issues connected with the linguistic communication instruction and acquisition with which the faculties trade. The teacher gives the grounds for taking this linguistic communication as follows:
It is improbable that any of the faculty pupils has learned it before.
It is an Indo-Europeaen linguistic communication, and so its grammatical classs, and some of its vocabulary, will be comparatively familiar to pupils.
The class runs eight hebdomads, covering the first six lessons of the text edition. The pupils will larn in romanised written text non the Arabic book version as the intent is to larn a limited sum of colloquial Persian ( Farsi ) , with associated grammar and vocabulary. There will be a reappraisal session at the terminal of each two-lesson subdivision. ( See Appendix 1 for more inside informations )
The category consists of about 30 pupils from assorted nationalities, assorted with females and males, aged about from 20 to 25, and all the lessons are taught in English. The teacher is the native talker of the mark linguistic communication.
I am a complete beginner-level scholar as I have no old cognition in Iranian linguistic communication or civilization. Though, I still show a great involvement in larning a new linguistic communication. I see this as a challenging undertaking, and I am extremely motivated by the idea of utilizing the linguistic communication as a mean of researching Iranian civilization and people.
Iranian Language Learning Experience in Relation to Self-regulation Theory
Personally, I aware that larning a 2nd linguistic communication is considered as a challenging undertaking which requires clip and attempt. As I am extremely motivated to utilize the linguistic communication non merely merely for the intent of the faculty, I developed my ain end to larn the linguistic communication every bit much as I could within the clip bound. In order to accomplish the end, maintaining my acquisition on path is really of import and the undermentioned schemes are how I regulate my Iranian linguistic communication acquisition in conformity to self-regulation theory:
Commitment control schemes
During the first two hebdomads, I was really interested to larn the linguistic communication when the teacher began to present the lesson with an easy to retrieve greeting phrase. I became more motivated to larn Iranian when the teacher presented about the tourer topographic points and the civilization. Hence, I made up my head that I have to take this as an chance to larn the linguistic communication every bit much as I could in order to go to the country in the hereafter. With this in my head, I committed myself to purchasing a Iranian text edition, so I would hold to to the full use the book and survey exhaustively throughout the class.
Metacognitive control schemes
After the consequence of the first quiz, I became cognizant that keeping my motive through civilization geographic expedition was deficient, and I needed to reexamine more grammar and vocabularies sporadically. In other words, I needed to construction my Iranian acquisition by puting frequent ends. To exemplify clearly, I set mini-goals for myself to finish one or two exercisings in the text edition per twenty-four hours. I besides had a specific end for each hebdomad that I must complete analyzing one chapter in the text edition before every Monday category. In the instance that there were other deadlines from other classs and I could non complete one chapter by weekend, I told myself to give a Sunday eventide to finish the chapter. These mini ends provided me an chance to reflect and supervise my ain advancement each hebdomad and helped supplying the motive to concentrate on my undertakings.
Satiation control schemes
During the class, I was ever looking for a new inspiration or a new motive in larning the linguistic communication. I enhanced my involvement by seeking about tourer topographic points or Iranian civilization online. I besides recorded my ain voice to get the better of ennui while larning new vocabularies or practising pronunciation.
Emotion control schemes
It was obvious that I experienced negative feelings such as anxiousness, defeat, and disheartenment after the consequence of the quiz. I avoided interacting with the teacher in the undermentioned lesson. However, I understood that I could non maintain avoiding the interactions, and it would be better if I had prepared for the lesson in front. I tried to acquire rid of negative feelings and cheered myself up by reminding myself about the existent purpose of the class, which is to indicate out some issues in the instruction and acquisition of a 2nd linguistic communication, and that the quiz grade was merely a manner to reflect on my L2 acquisition advancement.
Environment control schemes
As the Persian lesson runs merely one hr per hebdomad, larning in category would be deficient to accomplish my personnal end. to finish the book. Therefore, I tried to hold excess lessons and/or sought out extra beginnings of input and interactions. I look for a good environment that have easy entree to clip and topographic point to avoid cunctation such as the cyberspace ; I pattern Iranian pronunciation through YouTube pictures and analyze more about Iranian grammar and vocabulary through free lessons online.
Due to the fact that I needed to reflect on my day-to-day advancement in order to integrate received feedback on the prospective assignment, it helped me to supervise my advancement and detect my schemes whether the manner I self-regulate has been bettering my acquisition or non. In footings of committedness control schemes, I had a high sum of motive in the beginning that I wanted to larn every bit much as I could. I had a really high outlook of myself and even bought the text edition in hope to analyze farther the demand. Although, this might non be strong plenty to maintain myself commit to my end, in fact it kept me engaged in the undertakings for a short period. Part of this failure was due to the fact that I did non hold a definite agenda of my Iranian acquisition and that I was distracted by other topics. Another portion might due to high intrinsic motive, I was excessively ambitious to larn and did non analyze my ability exhaustively.
However, even though my motive was dropped after the quiz, when I subsequently set up the mini ends for each hebdomad, my procedure of learn became more construction and prolong my motive throughout the hebdomad. In other words, these schemes help me minimising cunctation or distraction and maximising concentration and maintaining ends in focal point. This can be said that metacognitive control schemes are indispensable to develop a scholar liberty. As Wenden ( 2001: 62 ) demonstrates that `` a acknowledgment of the map of metacognitive cognition in the self-regulation of larning should lend to a clearer apprehension of scholar liberty, particularly how it can be developed and enhanced. '' Wenden 's findings on the function of metacognitive cognition in self-regulatory procedure besides corroborate Chamot and O'Malley 's ( 1994: 382 ) observation that `` expressed metacognitive cognition about undertaking features and appropriate schemes for undertaking solution is a major clincher of linguistic communication larning effectivity '' .
In add-on to my repletion control schemes, the manner that I ever look for inspiration from different beginnings for my ain acquisition can maintain my larning on procedure. In my sentiment, this scheme should be a manner to increase my motive when I feel procrastinated or bored. However, I found myself passing excessively much clip shoping on the cyberspace about Iranian civilization and had less clip to reexamine the undertaking. I should be careful that it would non take up excessively much clip of my day-to-day Persian acquisition otherwise it would non be effectual. So, it seems that this scheme might non be helpful to me sometimes because I can utilize it as an alibi to stall.
My emotion control schemes, peculiarly to my positive self-talk is besides mentioned in a survey by Bown ( 2009 ) that this technique helped scholars maintain position on their linguistic communication acquisition. It alleviated feelings of defeat or anxiousness. Bown divided that scholars used self-talk for two primary intents: ( a ) to remind themselves of their ain motive for larning the linguistic communication and ( B ) to promote themselves when they felt that they were non doing adequate advancement. The usage of this self-talk besides served to assist scholars maintain their outlooks of themselves realistic, as informed by their beliefs about linguistic communication acquisition. Learners would state themselves that errors are portion of acquisition or that it takes longer to larn Russian than other linguistic communications they may hold studied antecedently ( Bown, 2009 ) . Though it is true that the usage of this scheme became effectual when I had a low quiz grade, in my instance it must be combined with other schemes ( such as metacognitive control schemes ) at the same clip in order to wholly encouraging myself. I must hold a definite program ( the mini ends ) to back up my positive self-talk.
For my environment control schemes, Wolters ( 1998 ) , mentioning research from Corno ( 1989, 1993 ) , Corno and Kanfer ( 1993 ) , and Kuhl ( 1984, 1992 ) , pinpoints a self-regulation technique I employed: ( 1 ) environmental control, for illustration `` a pupil who... decides to travel to a quiet topographic point conducive to analyzing ( 225 ) . '' In my sentiment, the manner that I ever try to turn my environing environment into a learning environment for me makes me sometimes bask larning by myself instead than analyzing in the schoolroom. It helps me finish the mini end I set for myself in each twenty-four hours. In add-on, this can be supported by the survey from Bown ( 2009 ) . The findings suggested that effectual self-regulation depended on the scholars ' sense of themselves as agents in the acquisition procedure. Learners who recognized their function as writers of their ain acquisition transformed the acquisition environment to run into their single demands ( Bown, 2009 ) .
CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
It is believed that motive is indispensable in larning a 2nd linguistic communication as it can be a goaded force for the scholars to get down their 2nd linguistic communication acquistion and it can be a force that sustain the acquisition throughout the acquisition. However, motive, harmonizing to Dornyei and Ushioda ( 2011 ) , is a dynamic and complicate factor which concerns about the pick, continuity, and attempt of the scholars in modulating thier ain motive. From this, motive can be seen as a factor that correlative to the scholar behavior which can lend to the scholar liberty.
There are many theories which were developed to analyze about motive in relation to L2 learner behavior and scheme usage. Self-government theory ( SDT ) is one of the theories that has a wide model for the survey of human motive and personality. It is concerned chiefly with intrinsic motive and the manner to which the person is self-motivated and self-determined.Language Learning Strategies ( LLS ) is another attack which examines the schemes that the good linguistic communication scholar employ. The L2 Motivational Self System is another recent attack in relation to L2 motive and the ego model. It concerns three 'self ' dimensions: Ideal L2 Self, Ought-to L2 Self, L2 Learning Experience.
Self-regulation refers to the grade to which persons are active participants in their ain acquisition. It is a more dynamic construct than larning scheme, foregrounding the scholars ' ain strategic attempts to pull off their ain accomplishment through specific beliefs and procedures ( Dornyei, 2005 ) . In the context in this essay, it is found that motive became a critical factors on how the scholar will take the schemes to modulate his/herself and maintain the acquisition procedure traveling in order to accomplish end of larning a 2nd linguistic communication. In other words, it can be argued that self-regulation of L2 acquisition is multidimensional, including cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, and behavioural procedures that scholars can use to heighten accomplishment. The deliberative, adaptative procedure of self-regulation enables scholars to manage undertakings efficaciously and prepares them to take duty for their acquisition ( Wenden, 2001 ) .
In chapter 4, based on the Self-regulation theory, my Iranian Learning Experience has been evaluated in relation to motive. Harmonizing to the four self-regulation schemes I employed, it is found that I depend much or less on motive to modulate or command the four schemes. For case, motive became a important factor on how I use the metacognitive control schemes to alter the manner I learn the linguistic communication. While motive has been seldom concerned on how I chose the topographic point to analyze as in the environment control schemes. Nevertheless, I could non hold more that both motive and the four self-regulation schemes are the two indispensable factors that can non be overlooked in scholar liberty and the development in the procedure to heighten single acquisition in order to accomplish the end.
Though the purpose of the Iranian Language Learning category was simply to see the issues that can be raised in L2 acquisition and instruction, the fact that the category is conducted merely one hr per hebdomad might non be plenty to actuate some scholars to prosecute during the lesson. In order to hold a more effectual category, the teacher could raise an consciousness of utilizing self-regulation schemes which I believe will be fruitful for the pupils themselves to hold an chance to supervise their acquisition advancement and develop their larning liberty in L2 acquisition. As Hurd ( 2008 ) emphasises, awareness-raising of self-regulation in L2 acquisition is every bit if non more of import in independent larning scene ( e.g. on-line environments and distance acquisition ) , where pupils lack the sort of social-affective support provided by regular interactions with other scholars and the instructor, and typically may be prosecuting in linguistic communication acquisition on top of full-time survey and personal committednesss.
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