Review of Article the Influence of Organizational Culture on Employee Work Behavior
The objectives of this research are to examine the influence of organizational culture on employee work behavior. Moreover, there are to explain the influence that organizational culture has on employee work behavior, to formulate recommendations regarding organizational culture and employee work behavior. There are a few questions that were asked, in order to measure the result.
In addition, the method was used in this research is a survey research method. Plus, respondents were selected by using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Primary data were collected through questionnaire.
Data were presented and analyzed by means of simple percentage and the hypotheses were tested by chi-square test statistics. However, the result of the findings shows that organizational culture i. e. norms, artifacts, values, traditions, assumptions and belief influences employee work behavior. Recommendations were also made to the organizations that will find this study relevant to their course to make their culture simple and easy to grasp and adhere to so that their employees can be free to put in their best. In addition, the organization should build trust among the employee and managers by using Islamic perspective.
Review Each of us has a unique personality – traits and characteristics that influence the way we act and interact with others. When we describe someone as warm, open, relaxed, shy, or aggressive, we’re describing personality traits. An organization, too, has a personality, which we call its cultures. And culture influences the way employees act and interact with others (Robbin & Coulter, 2012). However, not all organizations that have cultures influence employees’ behaviors and action. The organization with strong cultures has more influence rather than weak cultures organization.
In this study we can see the result from analyzed the data that the culture is one of the key elements that organization must be concerned, as the top manager can take the attention of this topic and make change to the organization by motivate the employees through improve the organization cultures which can be done through many ways such as through organization stories, rituals, language or material artifacts and symbols. In addition, the result of strong culture may lead employees to improvement of performance, responsibility and well-being. Moreover, in the organization hould build trust among the employees and managers by using Islamic perspective in order to perform more efficient and receive effective outcomes within the organization. Summary and review of problem statement and purpose of study The importance of employee’s performance or behavior will appear on their work which the organizational culture is one of many factors that drive the employee’s work. There are many researches in different area of studies related to this topic. Hence, there is no widely accepted causal the relationship between organizational culture and employee work behavior in the last few decades.
The empirical evidences emerging from various studies about the effect of organizational culture on employee work behavior have so far yielded mixed results that are inconclusive and contradictory. Because of these contradictory results, the question of whether organizational culture improves or employee’s work behavior is getting worse still worthy of further research. In addition, despite the existence of these studies, very little attention has been given to developing countries. This means that the impact of organizational culture on employees’ work behavior has not received adequate research attention in Nigeria.
Thus, there is a major gap in the relevant literature on Nigeria, which has to be covered by research. This research attempts to fill this gap by studying the situation of the Nigerian service industry and providing more empirical evidence on the effects of organizational culture on employee work behavior in Nigeria. The purpose of this study is: (i) To ascertain if organizational culture influence employee work behavior. (ii) To find out if organizational culture affects organizational productivity. (iii) To disclose whether a change in organizational culture could lead to a change in employee work behavior Review
From the problem and the purpose of this journal tell us that they want to prove whether the little thing that organizations in nowadays less concerned which is organizational culture may influence the performance of employees by using empirical evidences with Nigeria Nestle industry. Addition, to indicate that cultures within organizations was an interesting topic to be study and can be a significant affect within the organizations. Summary of the Literature review Conceptual framework of organizational cultural Organizational culture has been appeared in various field of human science studies such as psychology, sociology and anthropology.
The study of organizational culture is widely defined by many scholars yet the definition is not mainly accepted (Ojo, 2012). Organization culture has affected on productivity of organizational activities which mean it has influence outcomes of the company in term of performance, commitment, self-confidence and ethical behavior. In other words organizational cultural is one of vital elements organization’s success that manipulate employee work behavior. Defined the organizational culture According to Morgan, 1997 defined organizational culture as one of the metaphors used for organizational analysis.
He suggested that the basic of organization involves in the development of shared meaning, beliefs, norms, values and assumptions which are shaped by organizational behavior. Another definition of organizational culture is a set of values that help organization members know which is acceptable and that which is unacceptable within the organization (Ojo, 2010). Thus , in our opinion , organizational culture is values which involve in beliefs, norms and perspectives within organization which it help shaping the member’s behavior and perceive what is right and wrong within the organization . Organizational values
According to Jehn, (1994) & Hall (1999) explained that organizational values are expected to produce higher levels of productivity , job satisfaction and commitment . In this statement, it can be said that organizational values are also key in organization behavior which it affect on each individual and organizational outcomes of the company. How organizational cultures develop The values and norms which are the basis of culture formed through 4 ways 1. By leaders in the organization 2. through critical incidents or important events 3. through effective working relationship among organizations members 4.
Through the organization’s environment There are seven dimensions organization culture that could be used to compare culture across organizations are innovation and risk taking, attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, individual vs. team orientation, aggressiveness and stability Types of organizational culture according to Handy (1993) 1. Power culture: Control or power emanate from the centre, personal power predominate. This culture serves the figure head and the leader 2. Role culture: bureaucratic nature; roles more important than the people who fill them; position power predominates, and expert power tolerated.
This culture serves the structure. 3. Task culture: The focus is on completing the job; individuals’ expertise and contribution are highly valued; expert power predominates, but both personal and position power are important; the unifying force of the group is manifested in high level of collaboration 4. Person culture: A loose collection of individuals – usually professionals – sharing common facilities but pursuing own goals separately; power is not really an issue, since members are experts in their own right. This type of culture serves the individual.
According to Handy (1993) describes that the culture within organization affects the way that it operates and it’s member behave. So in our opinion suggest that the culture in organization it affects both physically and mentally which means it causes both the way they think and act within organization among the members. Concept of behavior Human behavior is complex, it is not easy to study and define as others studies because human beings are different from one another in term of perspectives, cultures, and beliefs. However, the operant conditioning model is one model that used to explain human behavior.
Conditioning is a systematic procedure through which associates and responses to specific stimulate learning ( Hollinshead, Nicholls and Tailby, 2003). Operant conditioning is defined as “a type of learning in which the desirable or undesirable consequences of behavior determine whether the behavior is repeated” (Sorensen, 2002). It is also known as instrumental conditioning. The probability of an event occurring depends on its consequences. Summary of the research methodology In this journal, the research methodology that the authors used is survey research.
The theoretical population of the study consists of the entire workers of Nestle Nigeria PLC, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria. The technique to select the participating respondents is the stratified sampling because it is effective coverage and lower cost. Thereafter, a total of 55 employees were selected using simple random sampling method which the employees were stratified into junior, intermediate, and senior cadres. Yet the returned of complete questionnaire is only 50 to be used in analyzing. The Primary data collected through the administration of questionnaire were used for this journal.
The questionnaire was titled “Organizational Culture and Employee Work Behavior Questionnaire” To ensure the validity and reliability of the questionnaire used for the study, even number of experts was consulted to look at the questionnaire items in relation to its ability to achieve the stated objectives of the research, level of coverage, comprehensibility, logicality and suitability for prospective respondents. Data collected from the questionnaire were analyzed, summarized, and interpreted accordingly with the aid of descriptive statistical techniques.
Chi-square was used to measure the discrepancies existing between the observed and expected frequency and to proof the level of significance in testing stated hypotheses. Summary of the findings and discussions Based on analyzed data, the findings in this study include the followings: 1) A large number of respondents 84. 0% of the respondents agree that organizational culture influence employee work behavior. 2) 72. 0% of the respondents agree that organizational culture is a determinant of productivity level of the organization. 3) 84. % of the respondents agree that a change in culture will cause a change in employee work behavior. 4) 54. 0% of the respondents agree that organizational norm is a major determinant of organizational culture. 5) Majority of the respondents (56. 0%) agree that organizational artifact is a major factor of organizational culture. 6) Organizational values influence employee work performance as 50. 0% of the respondents agree to this. 7) Adequate motivational factors improve employee work behavior. 46. 0% of the respondents agree to this.
From the hypotheses tested, we are able to discover the following: 1) In testing the first hypothesis, indicates that organizational culture has a significant influence on employee work behavior. 2) When the second hypothesis was tested indicates that organizational culture is a major determinant of organizational productivity. 3) Finally, when the third hypothesis was tested it was also discovered that a change in organizational culture will cause a change in employee work behavior. From the result of analyzing can conclude that: (i) Organizational culture influence employee work behavior in the organization. ii) Organizational culture is a determinant of the productivity level of the organization. (iii) Changing in organizational culture will lead to a change in employee work behavior. (iv) Organizational culture has a significant influence on employee work behavior.
Discussion Why the culture important? For one thing, in organizations with strong cultures, employees are more loyal than employees in organizations with weak cultures (Robbin Coulter, 2014). For example, International Islamic University Malaysia that we are all have stayed, studied and worked. Many of staffs that we know have been work here more than 20 years and many students hat graduated from here continue study master in the same place. We think that one of the important reason of those people felt that IIUM had a very strong culture, not only employees that is loyal, but customers (students) is also feeling the same. Therefore, we are strongly agree that the organizational culture effected to employee work behavior. The suggestion for the journal 1. Even though individual has different in term of cultures, perspectives, beliefs and behaviors, one should be able to cope with others members in the organization to accomplish the same goals.
The individual must have ability to adopt oneself to the organizational environment and cultural that will determine how one behaves at work. Nestle Nigeria Plc. Should encourages new entrants to internalize first with organization culture to know whether they can cope with them or not. 2. Should provide adequate motivational factors such as housing allowance , car loan , holiday allowance that will make their employee feel comfortable and satisfied with the company 3. Should operate strong culture not weak culture, which it can help employees perform better and it leads to efficient and effective performance. . The organization should build trust among employees and managers by using lslamic perspective. Trust is an important element in Islam as Allah (SWT) mentioned a lot verses in the and also our Prophet Muhammad (SAW) encourage us to implement our daily activity, the company relationship whether the employee in private business or within the public sector. Thus, trust plays and key role in bringing individuals together to create value that no one person could create on her partner as well as trust in relationship among members of business partners.
It is emphasized in the Qur’an: “Allah commands you to deliver trusts to those worthy of them; and when you judge between people, to judge with justice”. (al-nisa’, 4:58. What is more obvious here is in that the verse is addressed to everyone when holds everything in trust. Here, we forewarned against the evil, position of trust to incompetent, mean, immoral, dishonest. According to Hadith : “Every one of you is a guardian and everyone will be asked about his subjects. Imam is a guardian. He will be asked about his subjects. A man is the guardian of the persons in his household. He is answerable about them.
A woman is the guardian of her husband’s house. She will be asked about her responsibility. The servant is the guardian of the articles of his master. He is answerable about this responsibility of his” (Bukhari) The Muslims are directed to take head of this and to entrust position of responsibility. Trust arises within community of regular, honest and corporative behavior based on commonly shared norms. The employees are trusted in organization they will feel more comfortable and good perform within the organization as the result, they will produce efficiency and effective outcomes.