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Resort Operations and Management

RESORT OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENTSurname, Name, M. I. Student Number Lecture no.

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1 A resort is a planned vacation business that is designed to attract, hold and satisfy its guests so they can become repeat visitors and/or goodwill ambassadors.

To achieve these objectives require a management strategy that can operate a variety of scales and with a selection of target markets, but its constant must be the creation of a valued experience Gee (1996) considers resorts differ from other sorts of tourism destination in that they: • Cater primarily to vacation and pleasure markets The average length of stay is longer, so hotel rooms need to be larger and better equipped • Because most resorts are isolated they must be self contained • The recreational bias of resorts makes them highly seasonal • Resort management must be “visible management”, that is everyone must be infused with the idea of total hospitality, warm relationships, and unstinting round the clock service to guests Mill (2001) consider resorts have a combination of elements that make them distinctive.

These are: • The recreation attractions that draw guests to the resort • Activities to occupy the guests during their stay Within these description of resorts and their management needs certain commonalities can be identified. Resorts are distinctive in that they: • Are established as tourism businesses • Convert visitors into guest • Attempt to hold their guests on site • Attract guest and hold them with superior quality facilities • Cosset guests with superior service

Management consideration in a resort 1. Capture through differentiation 2. Attempt to be self contained 3. Deliver fabulous facilities and super service 4. Determine the appropriate target market scales 5. Range of resort operation scales a. Micro-scale of a single facility, a resort hotel needs to encompass internal activities that will hold the guest all day and in combination with quality rooms, gastronomic opportunities and entertainment provide no reason to leave the establishment . . Meso- scale of an integrated resort complex, where several hotels and ancillary functions support the prime function and differentiator of the resort component parts should work together to hold and satisfy the guests within the complex. c. Macro-scale of a resort destination, such as Las Vegas all the above considerations are in play, but within the broader context of a multi-purpose community with multiple planning and development goals. 6. Varying levels of control Analytical framework for resort management with a seniors market example | |Description and |Explanation (external and internal |Prediction ( risk management) | |definition |challenges | | |Attract |Competitive market |Health and wellness | | |Differentiate |Light exercise and recreation | | |Branding |Second or retirement homes | |Hold |Attractive Setting |Independent to dependency | | |Critical Mass of activities |Flexible delivery | | |Supportive staff |Security | |Satisfy |Skilled staff |Caring services | | |Service profit chain |Rest home component | | |Value creation |Hospital links | LAWS REGULATING RESORTS

A resort is any place with pleasant environment and atmosphere conducive to comfort, healthful relaxation and rest, offering food, sleeping accommodation and recreational facilities to the public for a fee or remuneration. Resorts maybe categorized into (Chapter III, Classification of and Standard Requirements for Resorts, Section 7) i) Beach resorts – located along the seashore ii) Inland resorts – located within the town proper or city iii) Island resorts – located in natural or man-made island with the internal waters of the Philippine archipelago iv) Lakeside or riverside resorts- located along or near the bank of a lake or river v) Mountain resorts- located at or a mountain or hill vi) Theme parks

Resorts are classified into (Chapter III, Classification of and Standard Requirements for Resorts, Section 8) a. Class AAA b. Class AA c. Class A Classification of resorts is based on a. Location and environment b. Parking facilities and room accommodation c. Sports and recreational facilities d. Conference and convention facilities e. Employee facilities f. Food and beverage outlets g. Lounge and reception centre and furnishing Forms of Business Organization Business entities engaged in the operation of tourist accommodation establishments may be organized as a single proprietorship, a partnership or a corporation, These are legal requirements for the organization and licensing of these businesses.

Governmental Regulations Several government agencies take part in the process of organizing and licensing business entities which intend to engage in the operation of tourist accommodation establishments. Securities and Exchange Commission Businesses intending to be organized as a partnership or a corporation must register their articles of partnership/incorporation and by-laws with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). For entities intending to engage in the business of operating tourist accommodation establishments, prior clearance from the mayor of the place where the principal office is located must be submitted together with the incorporation documents.

The SEC has a periodic reportorial requirements, such as the: 1. Submission of general information sheets 2. Financial statements Which must be complied with by corporations and partnerships engaged in the business of operating tourist accommodation establishments. Department of Trade and Industry Business establishments using business names other than their SEC-registered name must be register said business names with the Bureau of Domestic Trade under the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) before using said business names in contacts, advertisements and other purposes and before engaging in any business transaction. Bureau of Internal Revenue

Business entities engaged in the operation of tourist accommodation establishments must register with the Bureau of Internal Revenue and keep books of account wherein all transactions and results of operations are shown and from which all taxes due the government may readily and accurately be ascertained and determined any time of the year. Social Security System Business entities engaged in the operation of tourist accommodation establishments must report all their employees who are not over 60 years of age to the SSS for compulsory coverage and pay the employers contribution for each employee. They must also collect their employees contribution and remit the same to the SSS. Department of Tourism DOT merely undertakes accreditation of tourism business and only on a voluntary basis. There is a pending bill in Congress to make accreditation with the DOT a mandatory requirement prior to the issuance of a mayor’s permit or business license by LGU’s.

Accreditation is a certification by the department as having complied with its minimum standards in the operation of the establishment concerned which will ensure the safety, comfort and convenience of the tourist. Bureau of Immigration and Deportation If business entities employ alien personnel, valid working visa must be secured from the Bureau of Immigration and Deportation Department of Labor and Employment In addition to a valid working visa, any alien seeking admission to the Philippines for employment purposes and business entities desiring to engage an alien for employment must obtain employment permit from the Department of Labor and Employment. Department of Environment and Natural Resources

Business entities desiring to operate tourist accommodation establishments will have to undergo environmental impact assessment and obtain as environmental compliance certificate from DENR before they can commence operations and any kind of construction. Operation and Management of Resorts Due to complexity of facilities available in resorts, unlike in hotels and other types of accommodation establishments, the standard of operation and management of resort is relatively more stringent. Resorts are required to adopt sanitation measures in accordance with the standards prescribed under PD no. 856, also known as the Code on Sanitation of the Philippines.

All resorts have to provide the services of a sufficient number of well-trained lifeguards duly accredited by either the Philippine National Red Cross, the Water Life Saving Association of the Philippines or any recognized organization training or promoting safety objectives. They must also provide adequate security whenever there are guest . Medical services, fire fighting facilities and signboards will have to be provided by all resorts. There must be placed on a beach or lakeside resort an adequate number of buoys, which must be spread within the area by the resort owner or keeper incompliance with existing government regulations and/or local ordinance on the placing of such buoys.

Prohibited Acts Keepers, manager or operators of hotels, resorts, tourist, inns, motels, apartels and pension houses are required to exert effort not to allow any form of gambling, drunkenness or disorderly conduct of any kind by anyone in said establishments and their immediate premises. They must also exert all possible efforts not to permit any person whom they know or have reason to believe to be either a prostitute a paedophiles or of questionable character to occupy a room or to enter the premises Environmental Laws affecting Tourism Tourism projects are required to comply with the Philippine Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) System.

The EIS System was established by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 1586 issued by former President Ferdinand E. Marcos in 1978. The EIS System requires all government agencies, government owned or controlled corporations and private companies to prepare an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for any project or activity that affects the quality of the environment. An EIA is a process that involves evaluating and predicting the likely impacts of the project (including cumulative impacts) on the environment and includes designing appropriate preventive, mitigating and enhancement measures to protect the environment and the community welfare.

An entity that complies with the EIS System is issued as Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC), which is a document certifying that, based on the representations of the project proponent, the proposed project or undertaking will not cause significant negative environmental impacts and that the project proponent has complied with all the requirements of the EIS System. To strengthen the implementation of the EIS System, Administrative Order (AO) No. 42 was issued by the Office of the President of the Philippines in 2002. It provided for the streamlining of the ECC application processing and approval procedures. Pursuant to AO No. 42, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) promulgated DENR AO No. 2003-30, also known as the Implementing Rules and Regulations for the Philippine EIS System (IRR), in 2003. Under the IRR, in general, only projects that pose potential significant impact to the environment shall be required to secure ECCs.

In determining the scope of the EIS System, two factors are considered: |Category |Description |Example | |Category A Environmentally |Projects that have significant |Golf courses | |Critical Projects (ECPs) |potential to cause negative | | | |environmental impacts | | |Category B |Projects that are not categorized as |Hotels and resorts that | |Environmentally Critical |ECPs , but which may cause negative |are located in ECAs | |Areas (ECAs) |environmental impacts because they are| | | |located in Environmentally Critical | | | |Areas (ECAs) | | |Category C |Projects intended to directly enhance |Other tourism projects | | |environmental quality or address |not located in ECAs, but| | |existing environmental problems not |would likely have | | |falling under Category A or B |impacts on the | | | |environment | |Category D |Projects unlikely to cause adverse |Small tourist shops or | | |environmental impacts |handicraft stores | i. The nature of the project and its potential to cause significant negative environmental impacts ii. The sensitivity or vulnerability of environmental resources in the project area Specifically, the criteria used for determining projects to be covered by the EIS System are as follows: a. Characteristics of the project or undertaking- i. Size of the project ii. Cumulative nature of impacts vis-a-vis other project iii. Use of natural resources iv. Generation of wastes and environmental-related nuisance v. Environmental-related hazards and risk accidents b. Location of the Project i.

Vulnerability of the project area to disturbances due to its ecological importance, endangered or protected status ii. Conformity of the proposed project to existing land use, based on approved zoning or on national laws and regulations iii. Relative abundance, quality and regenerative capacity of natural resources in the area, including the impact absorptive capacity of the environment. c. Nature of potential impact i. Geographic extent of the impact and the size of affected population ii. Magnitude and complexity of the impact iii. Likelihood, duration, frequency and reversibility of the impact The categories of projects under the EIS System are as follows : Small Scale Tourism Projects

Under the 1996 Philippine EIS System Guide, tourism projects are classified into small-scale and large scale projects. Small-scale tourism are considered projects in ECA’s. An ECA is an area considered projects as environmentally sensitive such that significant environmental impacts are expected if certain types of proposed projects or program s are located, developed or implemented it. Under the EIS system, proponents of small-scale projects must prepare a project description (pd) The pd reviewed and evaluated by different entities . The following entities take part in the process. 1. Project proponent- prepares the pd or EIS documents, complies additional information, prepares and submits period compliance reports; 2.

DENR Regional Executive Director- issues certificate of exemption, issues or denies ECC, issues closure, suspension, cessation order or impose fines and other penalties. 3. DENR Regional Technical Director- Environmental Management Protected Areas Services (EMPAS) determines need foe and facilitates public consultation. 4. DENR Regional Office EIA Division ( Ad hoc) evaluates pd or EIS document, chairs regional EIA Review Committee, inspects proposed sites, investigates ECC-related complaints, initiates public hearing, conducts and reports on compliance monitoring; 5. Regional EIS Review Committee- provides technical review of pd document, advises DENR regional offices on ECC issuance; 6. EMB EIA Group- supports DENR regional offices; 7.

Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office (PENRO)- coordinates local government units (LGUs) and other local parties, conducts public awareness, assists in on-site inspection and monitoring; 8. LGUs- participate in multi-sectoral monitoring team; 9. NGOs and public- participate in multi-sectoral monitoring team. After review and evaluation of the pd and other pertinent documents, the RTD- EMPAS in coordination with the DENR Regional Office EIA Division, makes any of the following decisions. 1. Recommends the issuance of an ECC with conditions 2. Recommends that the proponent prepare a full EIS for the proposed project 3. Recommends the denial of the ECC Large Scale Tourism Projects

Under the 1998 Philippine EIS System Guide, large-scale tourism projects, like resort and hotels are considered ECPs. As such, it is required that an EIS be prepared. The EMD takes the lead in reviewing and processing EIS. The following entities participate in the process of review and evaluation of EIS; 1. Project proponent- prepares the pd or EIS documents, complies additional information, publishes notice of and makes presentation in public hearing, prepares and submits period in compliance reports, establishes Environmental Guarantee Fund; 2. DENR Secretary- issues/ denies ECC, issues cessation order 3. EMB Director- calls for a public hearing, appoints hearing officer, endorses the ECC or letter of denial to the DENR Secretary 4.

EMB EIA Group- evaluates documents, serve as secretariat to EIA Review Committees, asks for additional information, initiates public hearing, solicits input from relevant government agencies, recommends issuance or denial of ECC and sometimes conducts compliance monitoring activities . 5. EMB EIA Review Committee- provides technical review EIS documents, advises EMB in need for public hearing and ECC issuance 6. DENR Regional Office- inspects proposed site, investigates EIS-related complaints, conducts and reports on compliance monitoring 7. PENRO- coordinates local government units (LGUs) and other local parties, conducts public awareness, assists in on-site inspection and monitoring; 8. LGUs- participate in multi-sectoral monitoring team 9.

NGOs, affected communities and public- participate in public hearing and in multi-sectoral monitoring team. Violation of ECC Conditions An ECC is a document issued by the DENR Secretary or the Regional Executive Director certifying that , based on the representation of the proponent and the preparers, the proposed project or undertaking will not cause a significant negative environmental impact; that the proponent has complied with all the requirements of the EIS system; and the proponent is committed to implement its approved environmental management plan in the Environmental Impact Assessment or mitigation measures in the Initial Environmental Examination. Once a project is issued an ECC, certain conditions go with it.

These conditions will have to be strictly followed; otherwise, non compliance with the conditions will result suspension or cancellation of the ECC and/or fine not exceeding (50,000) pesos for every violation thereof, at discretion of the EMB. Lecture No. 2 Objectives 1. Explain the guest activity and programming model and its significance to successful resort operation. 2. Explain how knowledge of cultural differences and individual needs can be used by resort managers to design guest activities 3. Identify how cluster or activity analysis can help meet the objectives of a guest activity program 4. Describe the steps required to effectively plan a guest activity program 5.

Identify the approaches and measuring instruments used in evaluating the effectiveness of guest activity programs 6. Resorts Management and Operations, Mill, Robert Christie 2008 References: Resorts Management and Operations, Mill, Robert Christie 2008 Tourism Law Philippine Setting 2nd edition , Javier, Nancy Joan 2008 Good programming does not just happen; it is carefully planned for, thought about, and learned Farrel and Lundegren When guest are at a resort or on board ship for several days or weeks, they expect the facility to cater to their need for something to do. At resorts, this need is met by guest activity programs. What guest actually do is called recreation.

Recreation is an activity that take place during ones free time, is enjoyable, freely chosen, and benefits the individual emotionally, socially, physically, cognitively and spiritually. The activity should be fun, it is something the guest chooses to do, and the guest will not fully enjoy the activity and their stay will be less enjoyable than it could be. Benefits of Guest Activity Programs The impact of a recreational or guest activity can extend far beyond the immediate benefits. Consider a couple hiking along a trail. They may experience one or more of the following benefits: • Feeling good about getting exercise • Enjoyment of the sights and sounds of nature • Mental relaxation Learning something about the natural environment • Feeling closer to their partner To be satisfying, an activity must include: 1. Freedom- guest must be free to select the activities in which they want to participate 2. Perceived competence- guests must be able to match their skill level to the activity such that they feel they can successfully participate. 3. Intrinsic motivation-truly satisfying activities are those that are chosen to satisfy an inner drive rather than to satisfy or impress others. 4. Locus of control- guest need to have some degree of control over the experience, be it in the selection of teammates or when or where the activity 5.

Positive effect- the result of a satisfying activity is that guests enjoy the experience after participating in it. Recreation programs are purposeful interventions which are deliberately designed and constructed in order to produce certain behavioural outcomes. Guest activity programming involves five steps: 1. Assess needs of guest 2. Define objective for the activities that will meet guest needs. 3. Perform cluster or activity analysis designed to meet the objectives 4. Administer the activity 5. Evaluate the experience with respect to its success in meeting guest needs Evaluation of the activity might lead to reassessment of any of the earlier steps.

Development and operation of any program occurs within the context of, and is influenced by external factors: • Historical influences- the tradition and philosophy of the resort • Environmental influences- time of the year, weather, etc • Cultural influences- ethnicity, age and religion of the guests • Social influences- fads, trends, news • Organizational influences- values and mission of the company Finally, guests, staff, equipment, and facilities are brought together to deliver the guest experience. The key to understanding guest motivation is to see the activities they engage in as satisfiers of needs and wants. Guests do not participate in guest activity programs just to relax and have fun.

They do so in the hope and belief that these activities will satisfy, either wholly or partially, needs and wants important to them. Needs Assessment Needs assessment is “ a systematic inquiry about needs, attitudes, behaviours, and patterns of both participants and non-participants” . Its purpose is to identify what is important to guests in order to better design and deliver guest activity programs that leave guests satisfied with the program and consequently, in the resort. Constraints should be noted. 1. Needs are infinite- the resort cannot totally satisfy the needs of every guest 2. Conflicts between different segments of the market are inevitable- teens want different activities than seniors. Several techniques an be used to conduct a needs assessment 1. Existing guest are asked what interests them or what interests them or what activities they currently undertake. 2. People who do not use the programs and who do not take part in the activities might also be surveyed as to their reasons. 3. National figures are available on trends in recreation. Resort amenities can have primary and secondary uses. As an assist in thinking about secondary uses for facilities and areas, in addition to implementing the multi-use concept, list all of the facilities and areas on the property and note the possible activities for which they could be used. Goals and Objectives

The goals and objectives of the guest activity programs nest within those set for the resort itself. Goals are broad, general, final outcomes. The overall goals of the resort might be to produce profits by satisfying guests. The guest activity goal might be: a. Provide satisfying experiences for guests b. Aid in skill development c. Increase guests health and well-being d. Encourage social interaction among guest Objectives are much more specific and short-term. The resort might set objectives relative to occupancy, rate and percentage of guests who return. Objectives should be set for the overall guest activity program as well as for every individual program and activity offered. Cluster and Activity Analysis

The next step in the process is to identify activities that can help guests meet the stated objectives. Two ways of doing this are activity analysis and cluster analysis. Activity Analysis Activity analysis involves determining how each part of an activity can contribute to meeting goals and objectives. Each activity can be broken down according to the following criteria: • Behavioural domain • Skill level, from low to high • Interaction patterns, from individual to group • Leadership required, from minimum to maximum • Equipment required, from none to required • Duration, from a set of time through a natural end to continues • Facilities required, from none to required Participants, from one to any number • Age appropriateness Cluster Analysis Cluster analysis clusters activities that yield similar benefits. Each activity becomes a variable, the correlation between participation in two variables is computed, and the cluster is based on the correlation that results. The following criteria are used to determine clusters: • Degree of skill required • Level of activity • Nature of the group needed • Amount of risk or danger • Special facilities needed The implication is that people can be typed based on their choice of activity. From existing levels of participation, staff can identify which complimentary activities might be popular. Group A |Group B |Group C |Group D | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Beach resorts: The Impact of Development on Operation A variety of recreational activities utilize water as the major attractions: ? Natural beaches, which can be used for sunbathing, swimming and beach combing.

Very popular, they may require little development, though maintenance can be high. Beaches allow for a variety of complementary activities, including snorkelling and scuba diving. ? Open space and trails, typically found around lakes and wetlands. They can be used as sites for fishing or camping or for observing wild life, and fit well into the ecotourism movement ? Golf courses, many U. S. resorts exploit ocean front settings to highlight their golf facilities ? Residential development, as home site on the waterfront generate premium prices. Care must be taken to balance preservation of the often sensitive ecology and obtaining an economic return on the investment. Commercial development, such as hotels, retail stores, and restaurants. This most intense type of waterfront development must be approached carefully because of environmental concerns. ? Cruise ship, which after all, are nothing more than floating resorts/hotels/restaurants ? Spas Beach Development Six important aspects warrant consideration with respect to beach development: the sea, seashore, beach, back beach, coastal stretch and surrounding community/country. SeaA variety of factors related to sea affect the attractiveness of the site: Air temperature, there is a high correlation between swimming and maximum air temperature and a fairly high correlation between beach use and maximum air temperature

Amount and intensity of the wind and sun, there is a weak inverse relationship between both swimming and beach use and wind. There is a straight line correlation between sunshine hours and both swimming and beach use. The correlation is higher than that of maximum air temperature for beach use and lower for swimming. Water temperature, including temperature range Currents, tides, and waves, including their direction, strength and seasonality. Wave action and the corresponding erosion, is greater when beaches are exposed to the main channel of a lake. On the other hand, beaches developed on lakes are subject to less erosion when placed on the side of a bay Ecology, including seaweed and fish

Pollution, state-of-the art sewage treatment plants use ultraviolet light radiation to destroy bacteria and microorganisms before they passed into the surrounding environment. Clarity of the water, passed germ test for bathing waters Possible attractions, such as islands, coral and conditions for water recreation. Seashore The seashore consists of the surface under the water, extending out to a depth of 6 feet. Mud bottoms have to be stabilized with crushed rocks as a base and a coarse sand layover. Bathers should be able to walk into the water a sufficient distance to allow them to engage in play activities without risk of danger from tidal movement. Beach People do not want to walk too far to get into water, neither do they want to feel too crowded.

Lifeguard platforms are the only service facility in this zone. Back BeachThe back beach offers views to both the sea and inland. Vegetation and the effect of the microclimate must be considered because of the fragile nature of the resource. Coastal Stretch The coastal stretch consists of the beach environment. This is where service facilities and access roads are placed. Surrounding Community/ CountryThe country surrounding the beach development provided the setting for the attraction. Natural attractions, the extent of development, surrounding infrastructure, and the opportunity for excursions all need to be considered. Beach Resorts: Profile of the Beach Resort Guest

Beaches and Islands, according to the Travel Industry Association of America, people who travel to beaches on vacation take longer holidays and spend more money compared to the average vacationer. They are most likely bring the children along, to fly to the destination, and to rent a car when they arrive. A person-trip is defined as one person travelling at least 50 miles one way from home. The top states that benefit from coastal tourism are the following: ? California ? Florida ? New Jersey ? Hawaii Scuba Travel, scuba diving is a $2. 6 billion annual business in the US alone. Approximately $640 million a year is spent on equipment with the remainder going to travel, dining, lodging and boat hire. In terms of snorkelling and diving the top spots are: ? Cayman Islands ? Mexico Australia ? Hawaii Romance Related, according to TIAA, more than 42 million Americans take at least one trip a year to attend wedding, go on honey moon, or celebrate an anniversary. The top honey moon beach locations are: ? Hawaii ? Mexico ? Jamaica ? Tahiti ? Cayman Islands Managing the Resource In 1987, the Blue Flag concept began as an eco-lab “ certifying beaches as meeting quality standards relating to water quality, safety, environmental management and environmental education. The following are specified for beaches: Water Quality, it is vital that beaches meet water quality standards for microbiological and physical-chemical parameters.

The quality of the water in terms of physical-parameters are the following: • The pH should be between 6. 5 and 8. 5 (in Caribbean and South Pacific) or 6 to 9 (Europe) • There should be no visible oil film on the water and no odour • The beach should be monitored for oil pollution deposits • Nothing floating on the surface (plastic articles, bottles, etc. ) • Water should be transparent • There should be no abnormal change in the color of the water • No specific odour from phenols should be present Environmental Management, a beach management committee must be established to be in charge of instituting environmental management systems and conducting regular environmental audits of the beach facility.

Safety and Services, providing information to and educating beach users about safety concerns should be additional elements of a safety strategy. Life saving equipment includes such things as life buoys, torpedo buoys, hook, life vest, life rafts, etc. First aid can be made available in several ways: ? A lifeguard on site ? An attended first-aid station with trained personnel ? Equipment located in a shop or other beach facilities at the beach ? Directly available to the public on the beach Development of Spas The original spa was a mineral hot springs place in Belgium in a village called Spau. Taking the waters, became popular with the upper classes for reasons of health.

The promotion of a healthy lifestyle based on a combination of exercise, weight loss and pampering. The following definitions are widely used: Resort spa- the resort spa is located on the property of a hotel , normally in a resort where other sports and activities are offered besides the spa program itself. Amenity spa- similar to the resort spa, the amenity spa is added as an amenity to a hotel or resort. Destination spa- the destination spa is a hotel property targeted to the spa guest and focusing on specific health and fitness programs. Outside guests are not part of the program. Benefits Having a spa at a resort seems to have economic advantages for the property.

Resort general managers indicate that the spa enhances the following aspects of their business: ? Room rate ? Perceived value for money ? Occupancy ? Length of stay ? Marketing advantage ? Revenue per occupied room ? Number of people per occupied room Benefits for the guest ? Stress reduction and relaxation ? To look good/appear young ? To feel more sexy and attractive ? Pursuing a spa lifestyle Spa regulars dislike: ? Having to appear naked for treatments ? Treatments derived from chocolates ? Any evidence of lack of cleanliness or poor hygiene ? Pretentious spas ? Finding a hotel spa fully booked The cost structure of a spa, as a percentage of revenue, can be: ? Payroll ? Payroll with benefits ? Operating expenses Net operating income, when spa is responsible for all expenses excluding rent ? NOI, when the spa is responsible for payroll and products only Revenue breakdown for the hotel spa department: ? Massage ? Spa treatment ? Club membership dues ? Salon treatments ? Clothing/merchandise Layout and Design The basic component of a spa include ? Reception area ? Separate men’s and women’s locker room and facilities ? Men’s and women’s steam rooms ? Lounge which include a juice bar and small cafe ? Dry treatments ? Wet treatments ? Staffed fitness studio with exercise machine ? Retail store ? Salon The equipment in a spa 1. Facial equipment 2. Basic body treatment 3. Hydrotherapy Swimming Pools

There are a number of different types of pools that can be part of the resort amenities: 1. Lap pools with lanes for swimmer 2. Sports pools for exercise and games 3. Reflecting pool to compliment picturesque landscaping 4. Traditional diving pool for safe diving 5. Splash pool for family fun Maintenance According to some expert, an attractive pool is one of the most visible and cost effective amenities. Keeping the pool attractive requires constant maintenance 1. Know your chemistry- to extent=d the life of the pool and reducing repairs is keeping the water chemistry in balance. 2. Renovation 3. Starting over- there comes a time when it’s cheaper to tear out the pool and start over rather than to repair it. Safety

The liability concerns the presence of pools represents a difficult challenge for management. Management has to be particularly concerned with: 1. Responsible adult supervision 2. Diving 3. Electrical hazards 4. Ladders, steps and hand trails 5. Drowning prevention 6. Water clarity 7. Water chemistry 8. Heaters Reference: Resorts Management and Operation, 2nd edition, Mill, Robert Christie ———————– Historical Influences Environmental Influences Organizational Influences Cultural Influences Social Influences Assess Guest Needs Develop Objectives Cluster/ Activity Analysis Activity Experience Evaluation GuestEquipment/ Resources Guest Activity Facilities Staff