Research on organizational power has been focusing on the dependency theories. This has been seeking to understand where authorities derive the influence over other people and the extent to which people have been compliant. Second this particular research has been seeking to understand what people have been doing to resist such powers in organizations. Therefore they research found out that for one person to have such influence over another, the issue must be important, conditions must be scarce and the must be no other way of getting the work done.
(Ratzburg, 2008, Online) Types of Power First is the referent power which is with the people and is used for identity, cohesion and respect. This makes the particular group satisfied. Second is the Expert power. This is derived from one knowledge and skills and is used to perform tasks. Third is the legitimate power. This is derived from one position and is bestowed by the senior leader or management. It can also be derived from culture, social structure and promotion. (Ratzburg, 2008, Online)
Fourth is the reward power. This is common in organization that recognize people's effort. It is best explained from the expectancy theory, that when one is expecting good feedback, they put more efforts in tasks. Fifth is the coercive power. In this case, the superior has the capacity to give out punishment when the defined task is not accomplished. This method, however has many problems associated with it such as poor group functions, resistance, anger, strikes, lowered motivation and regret. (Ratzburg, 2008, Online)
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