READING MATERIALS IN DEVELOPING VOCABULARY SKILLS OF FIRST YEAR EDUCATION STUDENTS AT PAMANTASAN NG CABUAYO CABUYAO, LAGUNA: AN ASSESSMENT S. Y. 2011-2012 A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of Pamantasan ng Cabuyao Cabuyao, Laguna In Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in English by: Magallanes, Neressa B. Manago, Annie Vie A. Minor, Ma. Airene M. Sarinas, Mary Grace C. Villanueva, Elsa L. Villanueva, Lyn G. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The researchers would like to take this opportunity to extend their heartfelt gratitude to those who contributed in the success of the study.
To our parents and family, for loving and supporting us morally and financially. To Dr. Gaudencio L. Lat for being considerate and understanding in the administration of the study. To Professor Honeylie Buitre and Professor Mary Grace Laugico, for giving insights and helping us in the statistical treatment. To Professor Edwin Paming for allowing us to conduct the test during his class. To Professor Michelle Morado, for her competent educational guidance and assistance from the very start until the completion of the study. To Mr.
Ronnie Batiao for his assistance, valuable advices, and generous support. To Ms. Annie Vie Manago, for letting us use her laptop for the typing and editing of the manuscript. To Ms. Elham Kashef Saberi and Ms. Azadeh Kashef Saberi for their help, cooperation and generous support for the completion of this study. To our teachers, for sharing their knowledge and intelligence with the researchers. To our classmates, for sharing ideas, concepts and even moments inside and outside the classroom. The Researchers Vocabulary skills, in particular, are important.
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Why is it important? What are the advantages one can get from gaining a wide range of vocabulary? How do we learn from reading materials? Is reading materials a significant factor in one’s learning ability? It is a fact that reading materials helps in developing the vocabulary skills of the students. They become well informed by reading different reading materials such as educational books, journals, newspapers, dictionaries, and magazines. Most knowledge is transmitted to the printed page or electronically through the World Wide Web.
However, based on the results of the study, exposure to reading materials does not necessarily mean that you are skilled in terms of vocabulary. There are many factors which needs to be considered such as the age, gender, preferred reading material, reading styles and socio-economic status. The main aim of this study is to determine how reading materials help develop vocabulary skills of First Year Education of Pamantasan ng Cabuyao. How does their learning styles, age, socio-economic status affects the development of their vocabulary skills? Summary of Findings:
The following are the findings of the study: 1. Majority of the respondents with the frequency of 38 at 38% belong to 17 years of age. Female respondents register at a frequency of 80 comprising 80% of the total number of the respondents. Most of the respondents belong to the middle class at a frequency of 55%. 2. The following are the results of a series of tests which reveals that majority read books with weighted mean of 3. 81, which implies that the students often read books rather than magazines, dictionaries, journals, and newspapers. . In a series of test conducted, it shows that book is the common reading material read by the students which helps in developing vocabulary skills. 4. The comparative analysis resulted in the significant relationship between the exposure to the different reading materials and vocabulary skills development of the respondents. 5. The results of the series of the tests revealed that silent reading is the preferred reading style of the students which helps them develop their vocabulary skills, with a weighted mean of 2. 3 and is verbally interpreted as the highest rank among other reading styles. Summary of Conclusions: Based on the above stated results of the investigation, the following conclusion are drawn: 1. A typical respondent of the study is a female First Year Education student of Pamantasan ng Cabuyao belonging to the age of 17. Furthermore, the results showed that more or less half of the respondents belong to the middle class as to their socio- economic status with a frequency of 55 (55%). . The First Year Education students of Pamantasan ng Cabuyao choose to read books frequently rather than magazines, dictionaries, journals, and newspaper which could help them in developing their vocabulary skills. 3. The common reading materials has no bearing on developing vocabulary skills of the First Year Education students at Pamantasan ng Cabuyao. 4. Different reading materials has no bearing on developing vocabulary skills of the First Year Education at Pamantasan ng Cabuyao. 5.
Silent, oral, and extensive reading are the top three that is most preferred reading styles of the First Year education Students at Pamantasan ng Cabuyao that helps develop their vocabulary skills. Recommendations: Based on the result and conclusion of the investigation, the researchers hereby recommend the following: 1. The school must provide interesting reading materials appropriate to the age of the students . Therefore, the reading materials must be of general interest to all readers both female and male.
Reading materials that contains interesting facts and trivia’s tend to attract readers from both gender. The results also shows that most of the students from the College of Education belongs to the middle class, but it does not mean that those students from low, higher and highest class should be satisfied with their vocabulary skills. They are recommended to read more, especially English in order for them to improve their vocabulary skills that will be necessary in their future professions.
It also recommended that the government should provide reading materials in every schools. 2. The school must provide more interesting reading materials in the library and the teachers should require to their students to go in the library to read newspapers, journals, magazines, books, and dictionaries. They will be motivated to read if the reading materials provided for them concerns the affective domain. 3. More reading and vocabulary exercises are recommended for further enhancement of the students vocabulary skills.
Even though the students preferred to read books as the most common reading materials which helps in developing vocabulary skills, the teachers should promote and motivate the students to read other reading materials. Teachers should also motivate the students to read magazines, newspapers, journals and dictionaries. 4. It is recommended that students and teachers must read more different reading materials and make as a daily habit in order to develop their vocabulary skills.
Also recommended that teachers should consider the different reading materials that will be used and its significance, they should consider the individual differences of the students in motivating them to read. 5. The reading styles of the students should continuously indulge themselves in reading for them to improve their vocabulary skills. Although some of the respondents got average scores in the test, it is not a reason for them to be satisfied.
They are still recommended to read newspaper, magazines, journals, dictionaries, and books so they can enhance their vocabulary skills and become effective teachers in the future. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………..................... i APPROVAL SHEET…………………………………………………………. ii ACKNOWLEDGMENT……………………………………………………... iii ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………... iv TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………….. v LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………….. vi LISTS OF TABLES………………………………………………………….. vii Chapter I: THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction……………………………………………………….................. 1 Background of the Study Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………3 Hypotheses of the Study…………………………………………………….. 4 Objectives Scope and Delimitations…………………………………………………. …. 5 Significance of the Study Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………….. 6 Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………. 9 Chapter II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Related Local Literature…………………………………………………. 12 Related Foreign Literature Related Local Studies…………………………………………................... 17 Synthesis of Related Literature and Studies…………………………….. 19 Chapter III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design………………………………………………………….. 21 Respondents of the Study Data Gathering Tools/Instrument………………………….................... 22 Data Gathering Procedure Statistical Treatments of Data
Chapter IV: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION Profile of the Respondent……………………………………............... 26 Statistical Treatment……………………………………………………27 Reading Styles of the Respondents………………………….............. 28 Chapter V: SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATION SUMMARY………………………………………………………………32 CONCLUSIONS………………………………………………................ 33 RECOMMENDATION………………………………………................ 34 APPENDICES Bibliography Survey Questionnaire Curriculum Vitae LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1: CONCEPTUAL PARADIGM LIST OF TABLES 1. Table 1. . The percentage distribution of the respondents according to age. Table 1. 2 The percentage distribution of the respondents according to gender. Table 1. 3The percentage distribution of the respondents according to socio- economic status 2 &3. Table 2&3. Kinds of reading materials, common reading materials and frequency of reading that helps in developing vocabulary skills. 4. Table 4. Test of Hypothesis for Pearson Correlation Coefficient Value 5. Table 5. Reading styles of the students which helps them develop their vocabulary skills.
Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Reading is the basic tool in learning other subjects taught in school. It is also an instrument in understanding the different subject areas like arithmetic, science, social studies, English and other subjects depending on the ability to read. Some students are able to sound words although they do not know what the word means. In the real sense this is not reading, what the students do is nothing but word calling (Galves,2005).
When we read, there must be comprehension, otherwise no learning takes place. Some of the students nowadays are fond of reading books. Some understand what the author wants to convey while others cannot, others just simply read it without analyzing the words used, or simply for fun and entertainment only. On the other hand, some would consider it as a habit. Reading books affect the student’s or learner’s way of thinking, the way they act, the way they communicate and interact with other people.
It proves that learning is limitless because some are not contented in one reference only. Reading is a good hobby, yet it needs proper parental guidance to prevent the child or youth in reading books or any reading material which is inappropriate for their age level . Students often get addicted in reading, especially pocketbooks, and tend to disregard their assignments and even their duties at home. Reading is a good, meaningful and relaxing way of spending your past time, instead of playing cards , window shopping, and hanging out with friends.
By reading, you will learn more, it will broaden your mind and help you understand what is the reality of life. Sometimes, it changes people’s perception or views in life and somehow develops and enhances good personality, because of the ideas and knowledge earned from what has been read. According to Cziko et al (2000) reading is sharing and getting information and idea from the text. Many people think of reading skills which is taught once and for all on few years of school.
More often credits (or blame) for students reading ability goes to primary teachers. Upper elementary and secondary school teachers at grade level only need to teach new concepts relevant to their students ability to comprehend. See this way, reading process; readers decode each word in a text and then automatically comprehend the meaning of the words as they do their everyday spoken language. Reading makes our mind active because it is significant to apply the acquired knowledge in our daily lives.
Our imagination expands and enhances our cognitive ability through what the readers have read. Also, through reading , ability to analyze and evaluate the text to criticize or make some conclusion is also developed. In reading, you recognize the structure of grammar. A child exposed in reading earlier in his/her childhood stage provides exercise in his/ her mind. It also develops their cognitive ability and improves their intelligence.
It is for this reason that the researchers will undertake this study and use the first year Education students as the respondents; the purpose is to find out how students would cope with their education by means of determining the reading materials that could enhance the vocabulary of the students. Objectives 1. To determine the vocabulary development of the respondents when grouped according to: 1. 1 Age 1. 2 Gender 1. 3 Socio-economic status 2. To determine the kind of reading materials being read and the frequency of reading. 3.
To determine what reading materials commonly read by the students helps in developing their vocabulary skills. 4. To determine the significant relationship between exposure of different reading materials and developing the vocabulary skills of the students. 5. To ascertain the reading styles of the students in developing vocabulary skills. Statement of the Problem This study will attempt to find out on how reading materials help in developing the vocabulary skills of the students/learners particularly in selected First Year Education students (BSED and BEEd) at PnC.
Specifically, the study will be answering the following questions: 1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of: 1. 1 Age; 1. 2 Gender; and 1. 2 Socio-economic Status? 2. What kind of reading materials are being read and the frequency of reading? 3. What are the common reading materials read by the students that helps in developing their vocabulary skills: 3. 1 Books; 3. 2. Magazines; 3. 3. Journals; 3. 4. Newspapers; and 3. 5. Dictionary? 4.
Is there any significant relationship of exposure in different reading materials and developing vocabulary skills of the students? 5. What are the reading styles of the students which helps them to develop their vocabulary skills? Hypothesis of the Study To be able to answer the above questions, the study divided the following hypothesis. Null hypothesis- There is no significant relationship between exposure to different reading materials and the vocabulary skills of the students.
Alternative hypothesis- There is a significant relationship between exposure to different reading materials and the vocabulary skills of the students. Objectives 1. To determine the vocabulary development of the respondents when grouped according to: 1. 1 Age; 1. 2 Gender 1. 3 Socioeconomic status 2. To determine the kind of reading materials being read and the frequency of reading. 3. To determine what reading materials commonly read by the students helps in developing their vocabulary skills. . To determine the significant relationship between exposure of different reading materials and developing the vocabulary skills of the students. 5. To ascertain the reading styles of the students in developing vocabulary skills. SCOPE AND LIMITATION This study limits its coverage on first year Education students at Pamantasan ng Cabuyao, Laguna. It’s main purpose is to determine the effectiveness of reading materials in developing vocabulary skills of the respondents.
In this study, the researchers limit the use of English reading materials on the following: educational books, journals, magazines, newspapers, and dictionary. The researchers limits their reading styles in oral, silent, scanning, skimming, extensive, and intensive types of reading. DELIMITATION This study did not cover other courses, year levels, other reading materials other than educational books, journals, magazines, newspapers, and dictionary and reading styles other than oral, silent,, scanning, skimming, extensive, intensive reading styles of the respondents.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This research study wants to gain information on the reading materials in developing vocabulary skills of selected First Year Education students at Pamantasan ng Cabuyao, Laguna, school year 2011-2012. This will serve as the springboard or basis to improve the vocabulary skills of the students. School Administrators. The result can be used as the basis for providing reading materials taking into consideration the needs of college students in developing their vocabulary skills.
School Instructors and Professors. The findings of the study could help instructors and professors to identify the reading materials being used where they have to apply certain techniques and strategies in relation of developing vocabulary skills. Students. The result of the study may provide the concerned pupils how to broaden the vocabulary skills. Theoretical framework: Robert Gagne’s Information Processing Theory or Information-processing Approach (1950).
The two theoretical ideas considered fundamental to cognitive psychology and information processing framework were “chunking” and the test-operate- test-exit (TOTE). Chunk is any meaningful unit of information and is good or appropriate for the capacity of the short-term memory, like for example familiarizing any digit, word, chess positions, or students’ faces. It implies that short-term memory could only hold 5-9 chunks of information either seven plus or minus two. TOTE can possibly replace the stimulus response as fundamental unit of behavior.
Here, there is aconduction of testing cycle which is repeated for several times to determine the success of its operation until the goal is achieved which can be a good foundation for problem- solving tasks. Origin of information processing theory began in cybernetics, game theory, communication theory and information theory which gained its popularity when these things reach their full development. This theory likened the mind to a processing system where knowledge is represented in the form of symbols.
It is important to study information-processing approach in order to understand how information is encoded, processed, stored, and retrieved. In sensory registers, information from external environment is represented in its original sensory form where there is a separate register for each sensory modality like visual, auditory, tactile, kinesthetic, or olfactory that can hold large amount of information, yet only for a matter of milliseconds. Information can be lost at the end of that time unless it can be described during the pattern recognition process.
Short-term Memory System (STM) functions in two important ways: 1) it organizes information by integrating new information with the existing information and 2) it temporarily stores information for the learners’ use (Kameenui, Carnine, Dixon, Simmons, & Coyne, 2002). Also known as the working memory, the short-term memory system has a smaller capacity, but its representations are more durable. In STM, we utilize different strategies and techniques to remember or solve problems.
Limited pieces of information only can be stored, and for a short period of time. On the other hand, if we do some cognitive operations on the data, we can store them in the long-term memory (LTM). Data that is stored at the LTM is expected to be stored indefinitely, and is labeled as verbal or visual information for future use; it includes the episodic and semantic knowledge. There are several ways to develop/strengthen the short-term memory system these are repetition, chunking, identification of logical patterns Brownell (2002).
The Long-term Memory System (LTM) is a warehouse of knowledge. It is also known as data bank that stores information likened to a floppy disk, hard desktop USB that stores huge amount of information. When we perceive something with our sensory modalities, we are able to form and arrange information into meaningful order as we progressively make connections in our brain. The group of neurons help us integrate knowledge, arrange it, and utilize it in a meaningful context so we can understand the everyday occurrences.
For sensory input to be effective, all our senses should be fully operational. A student who cannot see or hear better is not in better condition to attend to and process the environmental stimuli. Brownell (2002) also identified certain LTM techniques they are association, categorization, mediation, imagery, and mnemonics. Aquino (2009). According to Lockhart (2000) that in recall, you produce a fact, a word, or other item from memory. Fill- in -the- blank tests require that you recall items from memory.
In recognition, you select or otherwise identify an item as being one that you learned previously. Working memory holds only the most recently activated portion of long-term memory, and it moves these activated elements into and out of brief, temporary memory storage ( Dosher). Conceptual Framework: Input Process Output Definition of Terms The following words are used operationally in this study: Communication.
This refers in giving or receiving of information, this can be done by gestures, writings and by talking. Comprehension. This refers to the readers understanding to what the author has written. according to the expert, it requires the fusion in meanings of separate words into chain of related ideas. Decode - Figure out how to pronounce. Education - This refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, abilities and attitude, through instruction and training. Effectiveness. This word refers to an expected response. It is synonymous to the word success.
Extensive reading. Comprehensive reading of long texts or books for the expres purpose of discerning global meaning images is the art of extensive reading. It is reading imaginatively, creatively, and critically. Intensive reading. This reading strategy which is characterized by deliberate attention and deep concentration. It is reading for details. Learning. This refers to the psychological activity in development such as acquisition of symbol knowledge or motor skills, and as intellectual and creative process.
Long term memory. Warehouse of knowledge and also known as data bank that stores information likened to floppy disk, hard disk, or USB that stores huge amount of information. Reading. Refers to the recognition of printed or written symbol, which serve as stimuli for the recall. Reading Interest. This refers to the pleasure or enjoyment of someone when interprets or understand a reading materials. Sensory Register. Information from external environment is represented in its original sensory form.
Scanning. The research for a specific information or for an appropriate answer to a particular question is referred to as scanning. Skimming. As a strategy, skimming refers to the method of glancing rapidly through the reading selection or text for the purpose of extracting the thought , the gist or main points. Short term memory. Temporarily stores information for the learner’s use, also known as the working memory. It has a smaller capacity but its representations are more durable. Chapter 2
RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES The literature that follow are taken from different authors that enlighten the researchers on angle and aspects of the current study. RELATED LITERATURE Local Literature Reading is a dynamic process in which the reader interacts with the text to construct meaning. Inherent in constructing meaning is the reader's ability to activate prior knowledge use reading strategies and adapt to the reading situation. (Ma. Cecilia Crudo 2005) Foreign Literature
The importance of vocabulary to life success makes it of practical importance for Investigation (Hoff 2007). Executive functioning refers to a variety of related cognitive skills that involve the ability to maintain task-relevant information in short-term memory, as well as the ability to manipulate this information through the engagement of focused attention (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network [NICHD ECCRN], 2005; Wolfe Bell, 2007).
Among these skills are working memory and cognitive inhibitory control, both of which are associated with frontal lobe function. Children who are able to engage in goal-directed behavior by reducing their attention to distracting stimuli, either internal or external, demonstrate such skills. When in a learning situation with other children or adults, increasing levels of shyness may be associated with a decreased ability to focus attention on the task at hand.
Exploration of, and engagement with, the environment fosters the development of vocabulary (Hart, 2004; Horn & Blankson, 2005;). Family environments provide opportunities for the development of vocabulary. Individuals who are reared in home environments that encourage exploration have many opportunities for the development of vocabulary.
Indeed, research has repeatedly supported the proposition that opportunities for productive activity—the extent to which toys and learning materials are available in the home environment, along with the extent to which parents directly teach their child concepts and take their child to places and events that provide enrichment--are positively related to vocabulary (Bradley & Corwyn, 2005; Bradley,Corwyn, Burchinal, McAdoo, & Garcia Coll, 2001;).
Research also indicates that engagement in productive activities is related to attention focusing and memory, both of which are elements of executive functioning (NICHD ECCRN, 2005). Swerling (2005) opines that reading of text-such as books, magazines and newspapers, plays a key role in developments of reading fluency (speed and ease of reading), vocabulary, background and even spelling.
Memory is the means by which we retain and draw on our past experiences to use that information about past experience( Tulving 2000; and Craik,2000). As process, memory refers to the dynamic mechanisms associated with storing, retaining, and retrieving information about past experience (Hernandez Blase, 2003). Specifically, cognitive psychologist have identified three common operations of memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval(Baddeley,2000).
According to Lockhart,(2000) that in recall, you produce a fact, a word, or other item from memory. Fill- in -the- blank tests require that you recall items from memory. in recognition. RELATED STUDIES Foreign Studies According to Ehri and Rosenthal (2011), an experiment with different assignments was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a technique to acquire unfamiliar English vocabulary words during text reading.
Lower socio-economic status, language minority fifth graders (M = 10 years, 7 months n = 62) silently read eight passages each focused on an uncommon multi-syllabic word that was underlined, embedded in a meaningful context, defined, depicted, and repeated three times. Students were grouped by word reading ability, matched into pairs, and randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the strategy condition, students orally pronounced the underlined words during silent reading.
In the control condition, students penciled a check if they had seen the underlined words before but did not say the words aloud. Results of ANNOVAs showed that the oral strategy enhanced vocabulary learning (ps ; . 01), with poorer readers showing bigger effect sizes than better readers in remembering pronunciation-meaning associations and spellings of the words. In a second experiment, 32 fifth graders from the same school described the strategies they use when encountering uncommon words in context.
Better readers reported more word-level strategies whereas poorer readers reported more text-based strategies. Our explanation is that application of the word-level strategy of decoding new words aloud strengthened connections between spellings, pronunciations, and meanings in memory compared to silent reading of new words, particularly among poor readers who were less skilled and less likely to use this strategy unless instructed to do so.
According to Derakhshan and Shahrzad (2011), a solid body of research findings substantiates that most vocabulary, in first, second or foreign language, is learned incidentally which is defined as learning vocabulary as a by-product of any activity not precisely geared to vocabulary learning.
Therefore, the present study mainly focused on the effect of teaching and intervention in deriving word meaning on incidental vocabulary learning in EFL context; secondly, it aimed to find out whether the contextualized words that appear with more clues learned better and consequently kept longer; finally, it sought to explore whether instruction could lead to increase in incidental vocabulary learning in the text. To these ends, 50 freshmen Iranian college students from Teacher Training University of Azerbaijan participated in this study.
These students enrolled for the reading class in two separate semesters. The results of the TOEFL and Vocabulary Level Test (VLT) revealed that the participants enjoyed approximately the same level of proficiency. There were two post-tests which were taken at certain time intervals. The results of this study showed that the instruction in deriving word meaning had positive effect on students' incidental vocabulary learning. Also it was concluded that students should meet the words in contextualized forms more frequently in order to keep and retain them in the long run.
Beck, McKeown and Kucan, (2002), there is tremendous need for more vocabulary instruction at all grade levels by all teachers. The number of words that students need to learn is exceedingly large; on average students should add 2,000 to 3,000 new words a year to their reading vocabularies. Students who enter school with limited vocabulary knowledge. At first-grade, high - performing students, but that differential gets magnified each year, resulting in igh-performing 12th grade students knowing about four times as many words as the low-performing 12th graders(Hart and Risley, 2001). According to Hirch(2003), word knowledge is crucial to reading comprehension and determines how well students will be able to comprehend the texts they read in middle and high school. Comprehension is far more than recognizing words and remembering their meanings. However, if a student’s does not know the meanings of a sufficient proportion of the words in the text, comprehension is impossible.
Vocabulary experts agree that adequate reading comprehension depends on a person already knowing between 90 and 95 percent of the words in a text. Knowing at least 90 percent of the words enable the reader to get the main idea from the reading and guess what many of the unfamiliar words mean, which will help them learn new words. Readers do not recognize at least 90 percent of the words will not only have difficulty comprehending the text, but they will miss out on the opportunity to learn new words.
Piksuki and Chard (2003), young children naturally learn to communicate through listening and speaking. In order to make the transition to communicating through reading and writing, they need a large meaning vocabulary and effective decoding skills. There is an abundance of research evidence to show that an effective decoding strategy allow student not only to identify printed words accurately but to do so rapidly and automatically. Juel at al. 2003) showed that while teachers in kindergarten spent considerable time reading and discussing books to children with below average vocabularies, these activities had minimal impact on the progress of the children. Only when teachers spent focused on time on the vocabulary did significant growth occur . We apply the term “instructional read aloud” to read aloud events where, to stimulate an interest in books in reading, there also a deliberate teaching of skills that will promote independence in reading, such as an increased vocabulary.
Local studies According to Garcia (2006) if children will not read, they are less likely to develop automatically, vocabulary and concepts about the world as well as intrinsic motivation to read. In a book by Villamin et al, (2001) different levels of thinking was classified with interaction between the reader and the text may occur, which are literal, inferential, critical, and creative. However, it is in the creative level of comprehension that the reading, in its fullest sense, is said to truly occur.
Dr. Thomas C. Barrett developed a taxonomy now popular known as “The Barrett Taxonomy of Reading Comprehension” to meet the needs of teachers and instructional materials developers who wanted a systematic, structural approach to teaching reading skills. (Alcantara et al, 2003) Literal comprehension is the understanding of surface meanings or idea that are explicitly printed in reading materials. It is merely determining what the writer or idea that are explicitly printed in reading material.
It is merely determining what the is conveying. Comprehending at the inferential level involves determining relationships and drawing from these the writer’s intended meanings which are implied in the reading material. Reading at the critical level requires the reader to judge the worth of ideas presented and the effectiveness of presentation. Reading at the creative level involves the integration of bright ideas read with prior knowledge and experience so that the new ideas and deeper insights are formed.
This levels of comprehension follow an ascending sequence of difficulty and complexity of thinking - with literal comprehension as the lowest level while creative comprehension at the highest. Thus, comprehension is not just “understanding,” but feeling the emotional experience embedded, reasoning, judging, and creating. This thinking processes may not necessarily follow a hierarchal sequence for the reason that comprehension may occur any level of thinking. All reading require a considerable amount of understanding the literal sense “of what is read. And fully gain from the reading experience and enjoy it as well, the reader must go beyond the literal level of comprehension and reach the heights of the creative level. In some classroom, teachers are trying out several techniques to see which would facilitate comprehension - language experience, dimensional approach, program instruction, diagnostic - prescriptive method, semantic webbing/mapping, story grammar etc. The last approach seems to offer possibilities of integrating some basic communication skills that enhance comprehension.
A careful scrutiny however, reveals that the grammar is not an entirely new technique. (Alcantara et al, 2003) Assessment of Related Literature and Studies The related literature summed - up has significant relationship with the present study for the reason of presenting the definition of the word reading and its significance in vocabulary development, the importance of interests in reading and it also enumerated different reading materials which is subject of this present day.
The study conducted by foreign and local researchers has bearing because of the other similarities of other variables with the present study. The researchers of the present study cleared that there is no duplication, the similarities are necessary to find out if the findings are true and valid in other places. Synthesis In reading, one must possess a wide range of vocabulary. A reader’s vocabulary is valuable in reading comprehension. A reader with a good amount of words in his vocabulary is able to grasp the meaning of the words.
One disadvantage of a poor vocabulary is the reader will consume more time in searching for the meaning of a certain word. Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The objective of the research would not be realized without a plan or strategy. This chapter presents the method, instrument use, source of data, validation, administration, and collection of questionnaires, presentations of the respondents of the study, and the statistical treatment of the data. Research Design
The researchers used the descriptive method of research to elicit answer to the statement of the problem in the study. Descriptive research is defined by Arevalo (2005), as a fact finding research with sufficient interpretation. The researchers used this research design because the main purpose of descriptive method is to measure the variable or factors in a certain study. Thus, this survey can measure the vocabulary skills of Education students at Pamantasan ng Cabuyao. Respondents of the Study
The subject of this study consisted of selected First Year Education students at Pamantasan ng Cabuyao. Their total population is equal to 130. The proponents is able to select 98 of its members 75% of their total number. In simple random sampling technique was utilized in choosing the sample members. In determining sample size, the Slovin’s formula was used. The computation of the sample size was given below. N= = = = 98 Where n = sample size; N = population size; and e = margin of error (either 0. 01 or 0. 05) Development of Research Instruments
In preparation of the questionnaire the major research instrument used by the researchers is the consultation of several knowledgeable persons and gathering of information through educational books. The researchers also make it a point that the items are sufficient enough to answer all the specific questions under the statement of the problem. After the final draft of the questionnaire, the researchers submitted it to the thesis adviser for necessary corrections, after which it was finalized. Data Gathering Procedure
The researchers conducted this study and gathered data by distributing questionnaires to be answered by selected respondents. Before working on this research, the researchers asked the permission of the Dean of College of Education at Pamantasan ng Cabuyao to conduct the study through the distribution of questionnaire to the respondents. After the researchers has secured the letter of permission from the Dean, the researchers personally administered the distribution of questionnaire to the respondents in their respective classroom.
After the respondents had answered the questionnaire, the researchers checked the answer sheets. The raw scores were collected and tallied in tables. The results were analyzed and interpreted in the light of the goals of the study. Validation of Research Instrument For validation purposes, the researchers read several theses and consulted English teachers for the questionnaire. It was validated through the students of the same level from other school before it was administered to the respondents. Statistical Treatment of Data
After the data gathering, the data were tallied, analyzed, and interpreted using statistical tools. To determine if there is a relationship between exposure to reading materials and vocabulary skills of Selected First Year Education students at Pamantasan ng Cabuyao ,the correlation was established using Pearson Coefficient of Correlation. (http://davidmlane. com/hyperstat/A51911. html) The formula is Where: N – number of respondents X – first variable Y – second variable r -relationship The following are the statistical treatment applied in the study.
The frequency and percent distributions were used in presenting the reading materials in developing the vocabulary skills of first year education students of Pamantasan ng Cabuyao. The percentage formula is: %= x 100% Total frequency 1. Percentage 2. Weighted mean 3. Pearson Value Interpretation for Computed Mean |Weighted Mean |Interpretation |Symbol | |0. 505-1. 500 |Never |N | |1. 505-2. 00 |Seldom |Se | |2. 505-3. 500 |Sometimes |So | |3. 505-4. 500 |Often |O | |4. 505-5. 500 |Always |A | 4. Test of Hypothesis Tc l = r Decision rule: At 5% level of significance, If tc
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