Psychology and Health Problems
Jennifer Graves The multifunctional model uses different factors from different types of influences, traits and behaviors to determine health conditions according to different influences, as well as susceptibility to illness. Each factor belongs to a group such as, biological and environmental factors, as well as personality, behavior, and stress. (Envied & Rather, 2010) Each group shows the factors and the behavior that can be harmful under that group.
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The multifunctional model shows the relation between psychology and medicine and how behavior and environment can influence health.
The multifunctional model can be used in aiding diagnosis as the factors correlate to illness and health. The multifunctional model cannot diagnose illness or specify the diversity in people’s overall health as it can only aid in helping diagnose illness. When a person contracts the cold or flu, which can be reflected in the model showing which influences were involved such as environment or biological. (Envied ; Rather, 2010) Each factor plays an important role in relating to illness such as the biological group which consists of many different factors such as a family history of illness and individual medical history.
Age and gender are important factors to consider when ruling out contracting illness biologically. Environmental factors include a wide range of factors from vehicular safety, to radiation exposure which can help to diagnose cancer and ailments from radiation poisoning. Coloratura factors are an important group of factors which include; socioeconomic status, family statistics as well as prejudice and discrimination. Socioeconomic statuses as well as family status are both psychological factors that can lead to illness.
Under the personality group, there are several factors that can lead to stress. Anger, depression and anxiety are all behaviors that can lead to stress which are another group of factors entirely. Stress are daily hassles and life changes that although alone, may not lead directly to illness but when combined with other factors can help in diagnosing illnesses that are caused by multiple factors. The multifunctional model is used to analyze the correlation of the interaction of different factors to aid in diagnosis.
In 2012, a study was done to test ethnic disparities in children’s acute asthma through parental visits. (309 White, Puerco Rican, and African American families conducted) The test was to show the ethnic disparities in asthma cases through the parent’s. (Isadora-Oracles, Fieldsman, Exercises , ; Spray, 2012)The methods of the study were a multi-factorial model which utilized structural equation modeling to investigate the association of children’s acute asthma illness through parental representations, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as health care providers.
The results provided evidence of a 45 % variance in illness representations and 30 % of the illness representations was explained for whites, 23% for African Americans, and 26% for Puerco Ricans. The model accounted for % of the variances in acute visits for African Americans and Puerco Ricans but only 19 % for whites. In conclusion, the model provided support that ethnic heterogeneity in asthma illness representations affects the outcomes of children’s health. Isadora-Oracles, Fieldsman, Exercises , ; Spray, 2012) The model helped prove the theory that many influences or factors including heredity and location, contributed in the outcomes of children’s health. The combination and interaction of the factors in any model can be the contributing aspect of a diagnosis before any initial medical testing has been done. Psychology has played a large role in defining stress as a major factor in migraine headaches that affects 1 in 10 Americans. Migraines are intense headaches that usually occur on one side of the head that can last several days.
Migraines are not well understood and it is believed that migraines are caused by a serotonin imbalance which causes neurotransmitters to misfire. (Envied & Rather, 2010) Other studies have shown that migraines are also linked to brain lesions and incomplete artery structure. Researchers at the Gila institute in SAA Paolo, Brazil found that children with grains are much more likely to have behavior problems such as attention issues, anxiety, and depression. Other researchers, including Emily Bates, PhD have identified a gene mutation that also increases a person’s susceptibility to migraines. What Causes Migraines? , 2013) Without understanding the psychological factors that cause migraines such as stress, and hereditary behavior, it would be much more difficult to diagnose the ailment as the psychological factors are Just as much of an influence, if not more. On of the main causes of migraines, which is also a warning sign is stress and anxiety. Psychology has also helped in the treatment of headaches as well. Recognizing that stress is one of the triggers of a migraine, behavioral methods such as relaxation training and biofeedback training are also helpful treatments. Envied ; Rather, 2010) Understanding the role psychological factors play in illness can help diagnose and treat the illness. Coronary heart disease is another illness mentioned in the text that can also be treated by understanding the underlying psychological factors that cause or trigger the illness. The list of factors for CHAD include, age and family, psychological conditions, lifestyle factors and type a behaviors as well as negative emotions. The majorities of the factors is psychological, or have psychological implications such as lifestyle factors.