1. Communication =the imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium television is an effective means of communication =means of sending or receiving information, such as telephone lines or computers:satellite communications =means of travelling or of transporting goods, such as roads or railways:a city providing excellent road and rail communications 2.
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Most individuals are not as skilled at listening as they think. Depending on the study, listeners likely remember 25 to 50 percent of what they hear, according to Mindtools. Giving the speaker your undivided attention and not focusing on what you are going to say in response while he is talking is a good way to ensure you hear more of what is being said. Speaking b. Speaking can be an intimidating experience, even in your native tongue, let alone when learning a new language. The best way to learn how to speak, though, is by practicing, so put your inhibitions aside and strike up a conversation whenever you are given an opportunity to do so.
When speaking, be aware of your pace, try not to mumble and use expression, both so that you don't sound monotonous and to keep your listener interested. Reading c. Children learn to read by first learning their ABCs and sounding out the letters to discover what sound they make. The phonetic approach to reading---using sound units to figure out the words---is arguably the best approach because theoretically, if you know the sounds, you can read any word, regardless of the difficulty level. This is also the case when learning a new language.
Reading has many benefits, including improving memory (it's exercise for the brain), increasing vocabulary and exposing you to new ideas. Writing d. Writing is perhaps the most complex of the communication skills and takes the most time to master. As with any other skill, it is improved through practice and a willingness to improve on past attempts. Moving beyond the basics, there are many types of writing and many levels. Writing can be a basic means of conveying information---such as in newspapers---or it can be a tool to create elaborate new worlds, much like those found in fiction novels such as The Lord of the Rings trilogy. . Poor Encoding – This occurs when the message source fails to create the right sensory stimuli to meet the objectives of the message. For instance, in person-to-person communication, verbally phrasing words poorly so the intended communication is not what is actually meant, is the result of poor encoding. Poor encoding is also seen in advertisements that are difficult for the intended audience to understand, such as words or symbols that lack meaning or, worse, have totally different meaning within a certain cultural groups.
This often occurs when marketers use the same advertising message across many different countries. •Poor Decoding – This refers to a message receiver’s error in processing the message so that the meaning given to the received message is not what the source intended. This differs from poor encoding when it is clear, through comparative analysis with other receivers, that a particular receiver perceived a message differently from others and from what the message source intended. Clearly, as we noted above, if the receiver’s frame of reference is different (e. . , meaning of words are different) then decoding problems can occur. •Medium Failure – Sometimes communication channels break down and end up sending out weak or faltering signals. Other times the wrong medium is used to communicate the message. For instance, trying to educate doctors about a new treatment for heart disease using television commercials that quickly flash highly detailed information is not going to be as effective as presenting this information in a print ad where doctors can take their time evaluating the information. Communication Noise – Noise in communication occurs when an outside force in someway affects delivery of the message. The most obvious example is when loud sounds block the receiver’s ability to hear a message. Nearly any distraction to the sender or the receiver can lead to communication noise. In advertising, many customers are overwhelmed (i. e. , distracted) by the large number of advertisements they encountered each day. Such advertising clutter (i. e
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