Essay on Nutrition

Food labels must clearly show information about
potential food allergens
The daily values are used
on food labels to inform consumers about how much of a nutrient the food provides
A food label states “Iron 15%.” The manufacturers could claim that this food
is a good source of iron
A food label states that a food has 15 grams of protein. How many protein calories does that equal?
60 protein calories
If a food label states that a serving of the food has 32 grams of carbohydrate in it, how many calories of carbohydrate are in the food?
128 calories
The RDA’s for nutrients such as vitamin C and zinc are set at the
98th percentile of the population’s needs to ensure that the recommendations cover the majority of the population
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The health claims on the front of the label such as, “heart healthy,” are
strictly regulated by the FDA so the food must meet certain standards and use specific wording
An example of an energy nutrient is
protein
A health professional who is an expert in nutrition is a
registered dietician
The leading cause of death in the US is
heart disease
You but a frozen pizza and eat the whole thing. The label says that a serving size is 1/4 of the pizza. You look at the sodium and it says “sodium 750 mg 31%.” The amount of sodium you got is
more than the daily limitation
The Adequate Daily Intake for a nutrient is
an alternative to an RDA and is set when there is not enough data to set a definitive recommendation
One of the limitations to a food frequency questionnaire is that
It is hard for people to remember what they did over a period of days, weeks, months
The characteristic of a clinical trial that allows the researchers to draw cause and effect conclusions is that
The participants in a clinical trial have been randomly assigned to the control or the experimental group.
An example of a demographic variable is
marital status
The first step in conducting research is
make a prediction and ask a question
Social bias refers to the
Inaccuracies in self-reported data due to the desire to impress the researcher.
Excessive fiber intake of
50 grams or higher a day can decrease the absorption of some minerals such as calcium and iron.
A person who is lactose intolerant
Has a reduced ability to digest the carbohydrate in milk but may be able to eat cheese and yogurt and small amounts of milk.
People with type 1 diabetes
Are sometime underweight at the time of diagnosis due to lack of glucose uptake in the body’s cells.
Avoiding wheat products and other products that contain the wheat protein gluten is necessary for
People with Celiac disease and possibly people with gluten sensitivity
Two hormones responsible for raising serum glucose when levels are low are
glucagon and epinephrine
Honey should not be given to babies because
It may contain botulism spores and could infect the baby with this deadly food-borne illness.
The risk of diabetes in the United States is highest for
African-American men
Glycogen stores about ____calories in the ____
2000; liver and muscles
People who want to lower their cholesterol may be advised to eat more foods high in
Soluble fiber like oatmeal and fruits
The glycemic index is based on the concept that
Different carbohydrate foods increase blood sugar and thus insulin secretion at different levels.
People with type 2 diabetes
May be able to control their blood glucose through diet and exercise alone.
Gestational diabetes
often disappears with delivery
Fat-based fat substitutes like Olestra are
Not digested and may cause abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins in some people.
To get possible benefits from omega-3 fatty acids, nutrition experts recommend that people eat more
Fatty fish because it is high in EPA and DHA
Research on coconut oil
Is far from conclusive at this time despite claims that it is healthy for us
HDL’s are
Lipoproteins formed in the liver that carry fats and cholesterol out of the bloodstream
Trans fats are
Unsaturated fats produced during hydrogenation that seems to increase LDL’s and decrease HDL’s.
The Protein-Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) is
Used by the FDA to set the % daily value on labels based on the protein’s quality.
According to the World Health Organization, the group that is most susceptible to the medical complications of protein/energy malnutrition is
Infants and young children because of their high energy and protein needs.
Research shows that a vegetarian diet may
Decrease the risk of heart disease
An inborn error of metabolism occurs when
An enzyme is not created properly because it does not have the proper sequence of amino acids.
Richard is a 20-year-old student who goes to the gym a couple of times a week. He weighs 175 lbs. How many grams of protein does he need of protein each day?
64 grams
When a protein is denatured it
loses its shape and function
Vegan vegetarians must
Eat complementary protein foods throughout the day.
Proteins that are produced to defend the body against foreign substances are
antibodies
Visceral fat is found
under the abdominal muscle and and is associated with greater risk than subcutaneous fat
The “Freshman Fifteen” is
more accurately a 2 to 9 lb weight gain based on recent evidence
Data from the National Weight Control Registry showed that people in the data set who were able to maintain significant weight loss
ate a lower fat diet (less than 30% of calories from fat)
One of the limitations of body mass as a method of assessing overweight and obesity is it
does not distinguish between muscle and fat mass
If you have a friend that you believe may have an eating disorder, you should
discuss the importance of maintaining a healthy weight and list the consequences of losing too much weight
Someone who recurrently binge eats but does not purge or use compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain would likely to be diagnosed with
binge-eating disorder
An example of a purging behavior is
misuse of laxatives
A binge is most accurately defined as
eating a large amount of food in a short period of time and feeling a lack of control over being able to stop
The risk of death due to complications is 5 to 20 percent in people with
anorexia
A common risk factor for developing an eating disorder is
excessive dieting
Muscle dysmorphia is
type of body dysmorphic disorder in which the person believes they are not muscular enough
A person with disordered eating patterns who does not strictly fit the criteria of anorexia or bulimia would likely be diagnosed with
an Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorder
Vitamin E deficiency is most likely to occur in people
on a very low-fat diet because high-fat foods are high in vitamin E
Vitamin E supplements are
not recommended for reducing the risk of heart disease or cancer because the scientific evidence does not support their effectiveness
High doses of vitamin C may
cause diarrhea
Good sources of vitamin A include
liver
Vitamin A deficiency may result in
keratinization of the cornea
Vitamin B6 plays an important role in
reactions that convert amino acids into other amino acids
The B-vitamins share many common roles in the body including
acting as co-factors and coenzymes in energy metabolism
Good sources of pro-vitamin A include
sweet potatoes
Both vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency can result in
megalosblastic anemia
Excessive doses of supplemental beta-carotene may result in
an orange discoloration of the skin
A major source of vitamin K for most people is
bacterial production in the large intestine
Compared to children, the vitamin D recommendations for adults are
higher because adults do not make as much vitamin D from the sun since aging decreases skin production
Vitamin C assists with the
enzymes that assist in the synthesis of collagen
_____is considered to be a pro-vitamin because it can be converted to _____
Tryptophan; niacin
Vitamin K helps promote
blood clotting by promoting the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
The body’s daily water losses
can be replaced by drinking water, other beverages, and by eating foods which also contain water
The kidneys play an important function in maintaining electrolyte balance because the electrolyte minerals are
absorbed at a much higher percentage than other minerals
Aldosterone increases _____ in response to _____
sodium retention; dehydration
A diet high in _____ and low in _____ may help lower blood pressure
potassium; sodium
Excessive sodium intake can lead to edema because of _____ in which _____ moves into the extracellular fluid
osmosis; water
When the body is dehydrated, antidiuretic hormone is secreted by the
pituitary gland and signals the kidneys to retain more water
Water balance in the body is regulated by the
brain and the kidneys
A blood pressure reading of 140/80 mmHg should be diagnosed as
stage 1 hypertension
Hyponatremia can result from
excessive water intake
Bottled water is
regulated by the FDA so the bottled water must maintain its standard of identity
The number one cause of preventable death in the US is
A patient presents with two consecutive fasting serum glucose readings of 127 mg/dl & 130 mg/dl respectively. The appropriate diagnosis is
diabetes
For whom would aspartame be potentially unsafe to use?
children with PKU because phenylalanine builds up in the bloodstream and can impede brain development
While still controversial, most of the research so far shows that high fructose corn syrup is
not handled differently by the body than other sugars
Taken together, the research results of the DCCT and ACCORD studies lead to the conclusion that
a diabete’s patient’s blood sugar goals must be individualized based on their personal demographics and medical history
The DCCT researchers could draw cause and effect conclusions from the study because
there were two groups – a study group and a control group – and the study subjects all had an equal chance of being assigned to either group
In both types 1 and 2 diabetes _____; lifestyle changes alone may be effective in treating _____ diabetes
blood sugar levels are elevated; type 2
The muscles _____ glycogen in response to falling serum glucose levels to replenish blood sugar because _____
do not break down; energy must be reserved for muscular work
The Choose My Plate food guide
recommends that roughly half of your food choices come from fruits and vegetables
The diagnostic test presently used for diabetes for men and women is a
fasting blood sugar test
A diet high in _____ helps reduce the risk of _____
soluble fiber; heart disease by binding with cholesterol in the intestine
Glycogen is ideal for replenishing low blood sugar and for providing energy during high muscular demand because it is a
branched form of complex carbohydrate which means it can be broken down at several points on the molecule to increase blood sugar quickly
A “statistically significant” finding in a research study means that the results were
not due to chance
The glycemic index of a food measures the effects of a food on ____ and is based on ____
blood sugar levels; an amount of the food containing 50 mg of carbohydrate
The only artificial sweetener that can legally claim that it is natural is
stevia, because it comes from a plant source
One cup of black beans has 227 calories and 611 mg of potassium. One cup of 1% milk has 102 calories and 381 mg of potassium. Which one has the greater nutrient density for potassium content?
the 1% milk
_____ increases the chances of developing _____ diabetes
Increasing age; type 2
Insoluble fiber can help treat ______; good sources include _____
constipation; whole wheat bread and vegetables
Good sources of soluble fiber include
oats and starchy beans
A ______ is a type of study from which cause and effect conclusions can often be drawn because ______
clinical trial; the subjects have been randomized to a control group and a study group
The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for vitamins and minerals
specify nutrient needs of normal, healthy people in the US and are set above average needs for all nutrients except energy
When blood glucose levels decrease during sleep or other long periods of time without food, the _____ secretes ______
pancreas; glucagon which promotes the breakdown of glycogen in the liver
Exercise can help patients with ______ diabetes avoid using medication to treat their diabetes because it _______
type 2; increases the insulin sensitivity of the body’s cells
A diabetes diet based on the glycemic index
is not recommended at this time because glycemic response is based on single foods rather than on meals and foods eaten in combinations
The human brain depends primarily upon _______ for energy but can switch over to limited use of _____ in the form of ketone bodies
glucose; fat
The grouping of foods on the diabetic exchange lists is based primarily on
carbohydrate content
The data on artificial sweeteners indicates that most people
can safely use artificial sweeteners within acceptable intake guidelines
Most digestion of the carbohydrates occurs in the
small intestine
When too little data is available to make a strong recommendation on the daily need for a nutrient, researchers estimate an average need. This value is
Adequate Intake (AI)
Relative risk is often reported on TV, in newspapers and magazines, and on the internet. This type of risk reporting
does not tell the reader what the original risk was and may not give consumers an accurate picture of their risk
Nutrient density refers to
a measure of a specific nutrient in a food, relative to its calories
Most dietary fiber ______ and is therefore mostly ________
remains undigested; unabsorbed
The % daily value for vitamins and minerals is derived from the _____ and is used in _____
RDA’s; food labeling
The hemoglobin A1C test
does not require patients to fast
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) researchers concluded that
the negative outcomes of type 1 diabetes, such as nephropathy, and retinopathy, can be reduced by keeping blood sugar as close to normal levels as possible through intensive treatment
Research on consumers and food labels shows that most people
look at food labels regularly but are confused about the daily value percentages
The most appropriate test for gestational diabetes is an
oral glucose tolerance test which the patient drinks a very sweet drink and has the blood sugar levels tested at various intervals
The “protein sparing action” of a carbohydrate refers to its role as
the body’s primary energy source allowing protein to function in its other unique roles
The example of the two groups of Pima Indians in the FAT video demonstrated that
genetics and lifestyle interact to affect weight
_____ are an inverse risk factor for heart disease because they _____
High HDL’s; carry cholesterol out of the bloodstream and back to the liver
Metabolic syndrome is a ______ in which the underlying disorder is _____
cluster of symptoms; insulin resistance
Sue and Bob both have cholesterol levels of 210 mg/dl. However, Sue’s HDL’s are 68 mg/dl and Bob’s HDL’s are 30 mg/dl. Who has the greater risk of heart disease?
Bob
Many of the studies that show vegetarians have a lower risk of several chronic diseases have been _____ which leads to the conclusion that some of the benefits of these diets are _____
epidemiological; may be associated with the lack of meat or some other factor
One hypothesis of how high protein diets may help people lose weight is that protein
may help to lower hunger and subsequent calorie intake
An appropriate lunch to serve a vegan vegetarian is a
peanut butter sandwich
A method of measuring both body fat location and body fat percentage is
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)
Participants in the DASH study were
not allowed to lose weight because the researchers were interested in how the diet alone affects blood pressure
Lipoprotein lipase is _____ found in _____ amounts in healthy weight people than in obese people.
an enzyme that breaks down triglycerides from lipoproteins; lower
A method of measuring body fat % is _____ and uses _____ as its underlying principle
bioelectrical impedence; the difference between water content of muscle and fat
According the the research on weight expectations among people beginning a weight loss program most people
have a dream weight that is in the range of suggested “textbook” healthy weight ranges
Emulsifiers such as _____ help to keep _____
lecithin; water and fat mixed together
Marasmus is caused by an
inadequate protein and calorie intake
Acute and chronic protein malnutrition would most likely result in an increase in _____ because _____
infections; proteins function as antibodies
The highest ghrelin levels are most likely found in a person
who is in a state of starvation
The DASH diet was most effective in people who had
high blood pressure
Ghrelin _____ hunger and is produced mainly in the _____
increases; gastric cells
The theory that the body tends to maintain a certain weight is referred to as the _____ theory, which proposes that _____ influences work to maintain a person’s weight
set point; physiological
A vegan diet is more likely than a non-vegan diet to be lower in
calcium
A patient’s urinary nitrogen (nitrogen out) is lower than nitrogen intake in a nitrogen balance study.The dietician estimated nitrogen intake by evaluating dietary _____ intake and would report that the patient is in _____ nitrogen balance.
carbohydrate; positive
Food producers hydrogenate fats to
retard spoilage and increase shelf life
A major factor that directly influences basal metabolic rate is
body composition
A method of measuring intra-abdominal obesity is _____; its underlying principle is _____
waist circumference measurement; a strong correlation between waist size and intra-abdominal fat measured by direct methods
The hormone adiponectin may lower the risk of _____ by _____
type 2 diabetes; increasing insulin sensitivity
In an adult, fat cells can increase in
number after an increase in the size of fat cells has reached its limit
In an adult, fat cells can decrease in
size only but not in number
Brown adipose tissue may influence body weight because it is _____ metabolically active than white adipose tissue thus _____
more; burning more calories
The research data on weight cycling (yoyo dieting)
is inconclusive at this time but suggests that factors other than a repressed metabolism are likely responsible for weight regain
An increase in LDL’s would most likely occur from a dietary intake of
trans fat
Chylomicrons are the way that the
intestines package dietary fats and lipids for delivery to the body’s cells
Conditionally essential amino acids
must be obtained from dietary sources under certain conditions such as malnutrition
A patient’s blood pressure is 120/80. The proper diagnosis is _____; the patient should _____
pre-hypertension; consider exercise and diet changes to lower blood pressure
A risk factor for metabolic syndrome is
low HDL’s
The hormone produced by the fat cells under the direction of the ob gene is _____ which is effective for treating obesity when _____
leptin; the ob gene is defective
Lipoprotein lipase may play a role in
making it more difficult for obese people to lose weight because it makes fat storage more efficient
Unsaturated fats are _____ at room temperature because they have _____
liquid; more than one double bond
A vegan diet is most likely to be high in
potassium
According to research conducted at Baylor University, the best predictor of mortality is
fitness level
Saturated fats are _____ at room temperature because they have _____
solid; no double bonds
The portion of the total energy expenditure that is most easily altered is
physical activity
A good source of omega 6 fatty acids is
corn oil
Dietary fat is digested in the
small intestine by pancreatic lipases
Vitamin A function and food source
essential for proper development and maintenance of eyes and vision; needed to maintain the integrity of skin, digestive tract, and other tissues; needed for proper function of the immune system; cell differentiation
food sources: beef liver, navy beans, collards, brussel sprouts
Vitamin A deficiency
night blindness, reduced hair growth in children, loss of appetite, dry/rough skin, lowered resistance to infection, dry eyes, xerophthalmia
Vitamin A toxicity
headaches, blurred vision, fatigue, diarrhea, irregular periods, joint and bone pain, dry/cracked skin, rashes, loss of hair, vomiting, liver damage
Beta carotene function and food source
antioxident; like other provitamin A carotenoids, can be converted to vitamin A in the body
food sources: sweet potatoes, pumpkin, squash, kale
Beta carotene deficiency
no direct effects; may cause symptoms associated with Vitamin A deficiency
Beta carotene toxicity
no known toxic effects; may cause yellowish discoloration of skin; may increase lung cancer in smokers
Vitamin D function and food source
helps maintain adequate calcium in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from digestive tract; decreases calcium loss in urine
food sources: cod liver oil, pacific oysters, salmon, sardines
Vitamin D deficiency
Rickets in children; bone softening and osteomalacia in adults
Vitamin D toxicity
calcium deposits in organs, fragile bones, renal and cardiovascular damage
Vitamin E function and food source
antioxidant, helps protect red blood cells, muscles, and other tissues from free radical damage
food sources: corn oil, salad dressing, wheat germ, peanuts
Vitamin E deficiency
rare, seen primarily in premature or low-birth weight babies or children who do now absorb fat properly; causes nerve abnormalities
Vitamin E toxicity
unknown
Vitamin K function and food source
needed for normal blood clotting; bone strength
food sources: collards, spinach, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage
Vitamin K deficiency
defective blood coagulation
Vitamin K toxicity
jaundice in infants
Niacin (vitamin B3) toxicity
hot flashes, ulcers, liver disorders, high blood sugar and uric acid, cardiac arrhythmia
Vitamin B6 toxicity
nerve damage
folic acid toxicity
convulsions in people with epilepsy; may mask pernicious anemia
Vitamin B12 toxicity
skin problems

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