Main Ideas of Classical Music and Form: Fortepiano, Classical Style, Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, Symphony, Sonata-Allegro

Category: Classicism, Music, Sound
Last Updated: 31 Mar 2023
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MUS 100 FINAL STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 17: - Fortepiano: early piano, named for its range of dynamic levels; it was smaller and less sonorous than the modern instrument. - Classical style: restrained, objective style of art. Classical refers to Western music characteristic of the period from 1750-1825. Composers: - Mozart: Invested much of his music with a degree of emotion expression unusual for his time. Never allowed emotion to dominate his art. - Haydn: Wrote pleasant, good-natured music throughout his long life. Wrote masses, oratorios, and other religious compositions for church and for concert performance. Beethoven: Wrote masses, oratorios, and other religious compositions for church and for concert performance. CHAPTER 18: - Form: organization and design of a composition, or of one movement within a composition. - Symphony: multimovement orchestral form. - Sonata-Allegro: “first movement form”. The 3 sections: exposition, development, and recapitulation-form a binary design. - Exposition: first section of a fugue or of a sonata-allegro. - Development: 2nd section of the sonata-allegro; it moves through many keys. - Recapitulation: 3rd section of the sonata-allegro.

Reviews the material of the exposition, presenting it in a new light. - Coda: Meaning, “tail”; a closing section. - Minuet and Trio: ABA. Often the 3rd movement of a symphony, sonata, or string quartet. Consists of two minuets, the second (trio) lighter and more lyrical than the first. - Cadenza: extended passage for solo instrument; typical feature of a solo concerto. - Rondo: ABACA. Form in which various episodes alternate with the opening material. The tempo is usually fast, and the mood merry. - String Quartet: chamber ensemble consisting of two violins, a viola, and a cello. Sonata (classical period): a multimovement composition for one or two solo instruments. CHAPTER 19: - Overture: introductory orchestral piece. - Comic Opera (ope’ra comique, singspiel, opera buffa): Operas light in mood, modest in performing requirements, written in the vernacular language of the intended audience. - Requiem: mass for the dead. - Ensemble Finale: final scene of a musical show in which several soloists simultaneously express, in different words and music, their individual points of view. CHAPTER 20: - Motive: short melodic phrase that may be effectively developed. Art song: concert setting of a poem, usually by a well-known poet, to music. - Lieder: German art songs. - Song cycle: sets of songs by one composer, often using texts all by the same poet. Composers: - Schubert: earliest master of romantic art son. Composed 143 songs at 18. “Godfather” of the romantic period genre. CHAPTER 21-22: - Cyclic form: multimovement form unified by recurrence of the same or similar melodic material in two or more movements. - Absolute music: instrumental music having no tended association with a story, poem, idea or scene; non-program music. Concert overture: one movement orchestral composition, often inspired by literature and dramatic in expression, yet generally subject to analysis according to classical principles of form. - Program symphony: symphony (composition for orchestra in several movements) related to a story, idea, or scene, in which each movement usually has a descriptive title. - Idee fixe: single melody used in several movements of a long work to represent a recurring idea. - Thematic transformation: variation of thematic or melodic material for programmatic purposes.

Sometimes called metamorphosis. - Dies irae: Gregorian chant for the dead. - Symphonic poem (tone poem): programmatic composition for orchestra in one movement, which may have a traditional form (such as sonata/rondo) or an original irregular form. Composers: - Brahms: misplaced classicist. Poured the warmest Romantic emotional content into his classical forms. He based his music on models from the past. - Berlioz: his works were based on unrequited love. Used the idee fixe, which was a melodic reference to his beloved. CHAPTER 23: Character piece: relatively short piano piece in a characteristic style or mood. - Nocturnes: Piece expressing the “character” of night. - Prelude: short independent or introductory piece for keyboard. - Etude: a virtuosic instrumental study or “exercise” intended for concert performance. - Rubato: romantic technique of “robbing” from the tempo at some points and “paying back” at others. Composers: - Chopin: only great composer who wrote almost exclusively for piano. Most pieces are miniatures. Virtuoso pianist, most famous for lyrical and melancholic melodies.

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CHAPTER 25: -Post-romanticism: general term for several romantic styles that succeeded the dominance of German Romanticism and preceded the return of classicism to the arts. - Atonality: avoidance of a tonic note and of tonal relationships in music. - Impressionism: style of painting and music that avoids explicit statement, instead emphasizing suggestion and atmosphere. - Primitivism: style inspired by primitive works of art and by the relaxed life of unsophisticated cultures. - Pizzicato: technique of plucking string instruments.

Composers: - Mahler: post-romantics. Wrestled with conflicting romantic and classical ideals. - Strauss: leader of post-romantic composers. Strictly classical style but developed romantic techniques. - Debussy: first musician labeled an impressionist. Developed unusual harmonies and exotic timbres. - Schoenberg: inventor of the 12-tone method (serialism) > Using the 12 pitches equally. > 12 tone row: playing the 12 pitches in whatever order; no repeated tones until the row has been fully played. > Wrote in a free atonal style gt; Drifted away from traditional harmony and experimented other styles - Stravinsky: went through an early ballet period before the war. He went through a neo-classical period. > Primitivism: movement in the second decade of the 20th century. Reveals romanticism characteristics. Characterized by strong savage rhythms, dissonant combinations of sound and narrow melodies. > “Rite of Spring”: controversial piece, ballet, and scandal piece CHAPTER 27: - Experimentalism: exploration of previously unknown aspects of musical sound. Polytonality: two or more keys at the same time. - Tone cluster: chord built on seconds. - Prepared piano: piano whose timbre and pitches have been altered by the application of foreign materials on or between the strings. - Twelve-tone technique: arrangement of the twelve chromatic pitches into a tow that provides the melodic and harmonic basis for a music composition. Row: series of tones on which a serial composition is based. Composers: - Schoenberg: inventor of the 12-tone method (serialism) - Weberm: developed his own styles: lean, clean, delicate, and strong. Ives: invented polytonality (incorporating of two different keys). - Cowell: invented the plucking of a piano sound. - Cage: 1912-1992 not trained as a musician. Brought up in Los Angeles. Became a composer. > Alatoric: predetermined sounds and just guessed when it should be played. > Conceptual art: piece called 4 minutes a 33 seconds – just the sounds in CHAPTER 28: - Neoclassicism: 12th century version of classicism in music. - Neoromanticism: 12th century version of a romantic approach to music. -

Minimalism: style of music based on many repetitions of simple melodic lines that gradually change and slowly evolve patterns and rhythmic patterns. Composers: - Copland: American nationalist composer > “Dean of American Music” - Gershwin: Best known of all American opera, filled with the characteristic sounds of jazz, including syncopated rhythms, expressive vocal catches and slides. - Prokofiev: focused on neoclassical music. - Barber: focused on neoromanticism. > Adagio for string orchestra (tonal piece) - Reich: focused on minimalism. - Glass: focused on minimalism.

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Main Ideas of Classical Music and Form: Fortepiano, Classical Style, Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, Symphony, Sonata-Allegro. (2017, Feb 14). Retrieved from

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