Master of Business Administration

Last Updated: 08 Jul 2021
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Relatively small quantities of milk can provide a significant proportion of daily nutrient requirements for all age groups making it nutrient rich relative to its energy content. In addition to its contribution to nutrient intake, increased milk consumption has also been linked to reducing the risk of numerous health problems such as osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Milk therefore makes a significant contribution to the human diet through provision of the macro-nutrients, vitamins and minerals.

An analysis shows that young adulthood, 68% of females and 53% of males had calcium intakes lower than the recommended level of 1,000 mg/day. Milk in urban areas is accessible to common consumers in two ways: loose, unprocessed milk and packed, processed milk. Each has its own price regimen. Unprocessed milk passes through the middle persons before it reaches the urban retailer. Dairy companies are also part of the marketing structure. Small local companies have milk supply contracts with 'dodhees'.

Agriculture is the largest sector of the Pakistani economy, contributing 23 percent to the GDP and involving 42 percent of the total labor force. Livestock is the largest of the various agriculture sub sectors. Milk is the largest commodity from the livestock sector accounting for 51 percent of the total value of the sector. The farm gate value of milk is estimated to be more than Rs. 390 billion. Pakistan is the third largest producer of milk in the world with a total production of 28 billion liter of milk a year, whose value is more than that of the combined value of wheat and cotton, from a total herd size of 27 million.

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Milk contains ingredients necessary for the growth and maintenance of human body- proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Milk and milk products form a significant part of the diet in many countries and a substantial part of food expenditure goes on milk and dairy products. In the quest for national food sufficiency, researchers in Pakistan have focused almost exclusively on production related disciplines and have overlooked the important allied areas of quality and yield. Quality it seems has consequently become the most forgotten aspect in almost all stages of food production, processing, distribution and consumption.

This research attempts to study consumers’ attitude of young adults toward drinking milk and further to devise strategies that how the attitude of consumer could be changed or formed to incite them to drink more milk, research will be followed with theory of reasoned action model (TRA), defined as to determine consumer beliefs associated with the consumption and drinking of milk and subjective norms (reference group importance ) and motivation to comply evaluation for milk consumption attitude.

Theories are used to try to understand and predict how and why people change their unhealthy behaviors to healthier ones. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA that focuses on a person's intention to behave a certain way. An intention is a plan or a likelihood that someone will behave in a particular way in specific situations — whether or not they actually do so. For example, a person who is thinking about quitting smoking intends or plans to quit, but may or may not actually follow through on that intent.

To understand behavioral intent, which is seen as the main determinant of behavior, the TRA looks at a person's (or population's) attitudes towards that behavior as well as the subjective norms of influential people and groups that could influence those attitudes. According to the TRA, attitudes and norms are the main influences on intention, which, in turn, is the main motivator of behavior.


Toward a particular behavior are influenced by a combination of two related factors:

  • Beliefs about the outcome of the behavior (i. e., is the outcome likely or unlikely?)
  • Evaluation of the potential outcome (is the outcome a good thing or a bad thing?).

TRA important aspect of your attitude is whether or not it is positive, negative, or neutral. For example, if you strongly believe that drinking of milk is good, then one could say that you have a positive attitude toward that behavior. If you strongly believe that the behavior will lead to an undesirable outcome, you are likely to have a negative attitude about it.

Subjective norms are influenced by our perceptions of the beliefs of those around us parents, friends, colleagues, partners, etc. According to the TRA, we have a sense or belief about whether or not these individuals and groups would approve or disapprove of the behavior. But we also have to factor in how motivated we are to comply with their views. This can vary from one situation to another. Subjective norm is defined as an individual's perception of whether people important to the individual think the behavior should be performed.

The contribution of the opinion of any given referent is weighted by the motivation that an individual has to comply with the wishes of that referent. By focusing on attitudes and norms, TRA provides a framework for identifying and measuring the underlying reasons for a person's intent to behave a certain way (or not). It is called the Theory of Reasoned Action because of the emphasis on understanding these reasons, not because the beliefs and attitudes themselves are necessarily reasonable or correct.

The more we understand about the attitudes and norms that influence intent, the more accurately our interventions can be designed to influence these in a desired direction toward a healthier behavior Attitude toward the behavior is defined as the individual's positive or negative feelings about performing a behavior. It is determined through an assessment of one's beliefs regarding the consequences arising from a behavior and an evaluation of the desirability of these consequences.

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Master of Business Administration. (2018, Jun 23). Retrieved from

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