what are the 5 functions of the family?
1. regulation of sexual activity
2. procreation and socialization
3. economic security
4. emotional support
5. social class placement
procreation and socialization
in order to be a family, you don’t just have or adopt kids, you have to RAISE them (teach them values, potty train them, etc.)
looking out for one another economically (ex. grandad for our family)
you go to your family for emotional support (like whenever I get left out of friend activities, or when Robert and Brittany died) BUT, not all families have strong emotional bond
regulation of sexual activity
rules that state who you can and can’t have sex with
social class placement
whatever family you’re born into determines your class (in the United States, you don’t usually move out your particular class…unless you’re like grandad when you start with nothing and work your way up to the absolute top)
why are theories and research on marriage and the family important in our everyday lives?
what we don’t know CAN hurt us and theories and research help us understand our families and ourselves
what are 3 major theoretical perspectives on families?
1. families are declining
2. families are changing, not declining
3. families are more resilient than ever
families are declining
Minimal commitment to the family; most people put their own needs above family duties; adults are unwilling to invest their psychological and financial resources in their children
families are changing, not declining
analysts contend that family problems have always existed; there is little empirical evidence that family change is synonymous with family decline
families are more resilient than ever
changes in family life have strengthened family relationships, including marriages; happiest families are those in which adults share domestic and work responsibilities
MACRO LEVEL PERSPECTIVE; examines how a society’s independent parts work together to ensure its survival (ex. education–has multiple important functions within society, including socialization, learning, and social placement)
family roles within the structural-functionalist theory
instrumental roles- providing food and shelter for the family and being hardworking, tough, and competitive
expressive roles- providing the emotional support and nurturing that sustain the family unit
symbolic interaction theory
MICRO LEVEL PERSPECTIVE; examines individuals everyday behavior (ex. thinking your sister ALWAYS gets what she wants, then when she comes to you after losing a job, you grow closer to her. the loss of her job gives you the opportunity to see her in another light)
family systems theory
MICRO LEVEL PERSPECTIVE; these theorists view the family as a functioning unit that: solves problems, makes decisions, and achieves collective goals (ex. my family…a healthy family that works together to accomplish things)
MACRO AND MICRO LEVEL PERSPECTIVE; examines how a family influences and is influenced by its environment
what are the 4 interlocking systems that shape our development and behavior? (goes with ecological theory)
1. microsystem- made up of the interconnected behaviors, roles, and relationships that influence a child’s daily life (ex. parents toilet training their child)
2. mesosystem- composed of the relationships among different settings; parents interact with their child’s teachers and religious groups while the children interact with their peers (ex. the home, day care center, schools)
3. exosystem- consists of outside settings or events that a person doesn’t experience directly but can affect his or her development (ex. parents employment)
4. macrosystem- wider society and culture that encompasses all the other systems
MACRO AND MICRO LEVEL PERSPECTIVE; group whose members accomplish specific behaviors or tasks in a series of stages (ex. sunday school, college students, married couples, etc.)
MACRO AND MICRO LEVEL PERSPECTIVE; women who attempt to make sure that there is a level playing field between both men and women (basically not me and camilla)
social exchange theory
MICRO LEVEL PERSPCETIVE; based on rational decision making…you seek to maximize rewards and minimize the costs. most people will continue in a relationship as long as there are more benefits than costs or both are about equal (ex. you won’t stay in a relationship with someone if you are more unhappy than you are happy)
MACRO LEVEL PERSPECTIVE; examines how groups disagree, struggle for power, and compete for scarce resources such as wealth and power (ex. scene in cinderella man when he is at gates looking for work along with everyone else during Great Depression)
gender role theories
socially constructed categories that emerge in social situations
what are limitations of gender roles
crediting people with more free will than they have and downplaying or ignoring macro-level factors that affect our gender roles
study of how biology affects social behavior; sociobiological explanation are controversial because practically every behavior is influenced by: environment, socialization, culture, families, peers, schools, pop culture and media (ex. Women have larger hips- so better for childbirth and men have broad shoulders so they’re better at sports)
people learn attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors through social interaction; social learning is a result of: reinforcement, imitation, and modeling (ex. Smoking campaign where a dad is smoking and a little boy picks up a stick as to imitate his dad)
children acquire female or male values on their own by: thinking and reasoning, interpreting information in environment. Limitations: little insight on individual differences among children and exaggerating gender learning differences among children (ex. At age 3 or 4, a girl knows she is a girl and prefers “girl things” to “boy things” because she likes what is familiar or similar to her)
theories of dating and love biochemistry
biological perspectives maintain that love is grounded in evolution, biology, and chemistry
proposes that infants need to develop a relationship with at least one primary caregiver, usually the mother, for normal social and emotional development
what are the 3 styles of attachment? (from attachment theory)
Secure style: healthiest style of attachment; babies are left in room with a stranger, show signs of distress when left with stranger, but when mother returns, baby clings to her for a short time and then continued to play and explore
Ambivalent style: children experience this when their mothers are inconsistent–sometimes affectionate and sometimes aloof. Infants showed distress at separation but rejected their mothers when they returned.
Avoidant style: children whose caregivers ignore their physical and emotional needs; ignored their mothers once they returned to the room
what are the 4 stages of Reiss’s Wheel Theory?
1. Rapport- partners establish rapport (close relationship), which is based on culturally similar upbringing, social class, religion, and educational level. Without rapport, would-be lovers don’t have enough in common to establish an initial interest.
2. Self-revelation- brings the couple even closer together. Because each person feels more at ease in the relationship, she or he is more likely to disclose intimate and personal feelings, and to engage in sexual activities
3. Mutual dependency- couple becomes more intimate and their mutual dependency increases: they share ideas, jokes, hopes, and fears
4. Personality and need fulfillment- partners confide in each other, make mutual decisions, support each other’s ambitions, and bolster each other’s self-confidence
what is Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love?
Intimacy- encompasses feelings of closeness, connectedness, and bonding
Passion- leads to romance, physical attraction, and sexual consummation
Decision/commitment- has a short and a long-term dimension. In the short term, partners make a decision to love each other; in the long term, they make a commitment to maintain that love over time
Lee’s Styles of Loving
powerful physical attraction/ “love at first sight.” lovers experience palpitations, light-headedness, and intense emotional desires. This kind of love is described in romance novels and movies
obsessiveness, jealousy, possessiveness, and intense dependency, mania could even be expressed as anxiety, sleeplessness, loss of appetite, headaches, and even suicide because of real or imagined rejection by the desired person
carefree and casual love that is considered “fun and games;” ludic lovers often have several partners at one time and aren’t possessive or jealous, primarily because they don’t want their “lovers” to become dependent on them. They have sex for fun…no emotional attachment!
slow-burning, peaceful, and affectionate love that comes with the passage of time and the enjoyment of shared activities. Storgic relationships lack the ecstatic highs and lows that characterize some other styles of loving.
altruistic, self-sacrificing love that is directed toward all humankind. Agape is always kind and patient and never jealous or demanding, and it doesn’t seek reciprocity. But, intense agape can border on masochism (agapic person might be willing to tolerate an alcoholic or drug addicted spouse OR might be willing to live with a partner who engages in illegal activities or infidelity)
rational love based on practical considerations. Also known as “love with a shopping list,” because the pragmatic person seeks compatibility on characteristics such as background, education, religious views, occupational interests, and recreational pursuits. If one person doesn’t work out, the pragmatist moves on to search for someone else.
extension of social exchange theory, an intimate relationship is satisfying and stable if both partners see it as equitable and mutually beneficial
what are the 3 basic propositions in the equity theory?
1. The greater the perceived equity, the happier the relationship
2. When people find themselves in an inequitable relationship, they become distressed. The greater the inequity, the greater the distress.
3. People in an inequitable relationship will attempt to eliminate their distress by restoring equality
states that people sift eligible mates according to specific criteria and thus reduce the pool of potential partners to a small number of candidates (criteria includes: physical appearance, race and ethnicity, religion, age, social class, values, and personality)
psychosocial theory of human development (erik erikson)
constitutes 8 stages outlining a specific challenge or crisis. presents both tasks and risks; outcome of each crisis determines whether the individual will move on successfully to the next stage
piaget’s cognitive development theory
looked at the way children (birth-teenager) think in terms of learning to think and reason in abstract terms about past, present, and future; understanding the perspective of another person; learning to use language and symbols; and differentiating oneself from the external world
mead’s theory of social self
states that children learn best through imitation
culture of poverty theory
poor are deficient: have certain values, beliefs, and attitudes about what life that differs from those who aren’t poor; more permissive parenting; these values transmitted to next generation; the poor create their own problems and live in a vicious cycle
macro factors in poverty
create and sustain poverty; most aren’t poor, only lazy because of economic conditions (low wages, lack of affordable housing, physical/mental disabilities, can’t afford health insurance)
because men usually command greater financial, educational, and social resources than women do, men have more power (ex. a man who has little education, holds a job in low prestige and income, and has poor communication skills may use violence to maintain his dominant position in a relationship or family)
combination of theories
the combining of theories to explain them all
surveys (method of research)
strengths- fairly inexpensive and simple to administer; interviews can have high response rates; findings often can be generalized to the whole population.
limitations: mailed questionnaires may have low response rates; respondents may be self-selected; interviews are usually expensive
strengths- helps people who are experiencing family problems; offers insights for theory development.
limitations: usually time consuming and expensive; findings can’t be generalized
strengths- flexible; offers deeper understanding of family behavior; can be expensive or inexpensive depending on the project’s scope and location limitations: difficult to quantify and to maintain observer-participant boundaries; the observer may be biased or judgemental; findings can’t be generalized
secondary analysis of existing data (method of research)
strengths- usually accessible, convenient, and inexpensive; often longitudinal and historical
limitations: information may be incomplete; some documents may be inaccessible; some data can’t be collected over time
content analysis (method of research)
strengths- usually inexpensive; can recode errors; unobtrusive; permits comparisons over time
limitations: can be labor intensive; coding is often subjective (and may be distorted); may reflect social class bias
experiment (method of research)
strengths- attempts to demonstrate cause and effect; usually inexpensive; many available participants; can be replicated
limitations: subjects aren’t representative of larger populations; artificial laboratory setting; findings can’t be generalized
strengths- usually inexpensive and versatile; valuable in real-life applications
limitations- the quality of research varies; the social context may affect researchers and the results
when/where relationships seem to be inherently rewarding
the partners participate in each other’s lives at all levels and have little tension or unresolved hostility
based on the convenience of the partners
partners have a close relationship, resolve conflicts quickly through compromise, and often make sacrifices for each other
a family made up of a wife, a husband, and their biological or adopted children
a family that consists of parents and children as well as other kin, such as uncles and aunts, nieces and nephews, cousins, and grandparents
family of origin
family of orientation
the family into which a person is born or adopted
family of procreation
the family a person forms by marrying and having or adopting children is referred to as
a network of people who are related by marriage, blood, or adoption
a family in which non-relatives are accepted as part of the family (ex. Uncle Boo)
an intimate group of 2 or more people who: live together in a committed relationship, care for one another and any children, and share activities and close emotional ties
one person is married exclusively to another person
a woman who has 2 or more spouses
a MAN who is married to 2 or more women
trends in family demographics
U.S. birthrates have declined since the end of the eighteenth century: women bear fewer children, have them closer together, and finish child rearing at an earlier age. Also, the average age of the population rose from 17 (in the mid-1800s) to nearly 37 in 2011
attitude that prejudges people, usually in a negative way–leads to discrimination
Individual- harmful action on a one-to-one basis by a member of a dominant group against a member of a minority group
Institutional- unequal treatment and opportunities for minority; result of everyday operations of a society’s laws, rules, policies, practices, and customs
specifies the formal or informal norms for acceptable or unacceptable sexual activity
awareness of ourselves as male or female and the ways that we express sexual values, attitudes, and beliefs
the characteristics, attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that society expects of males and females
what are the cycles of domestic violence?
1. tension-building phase
2. acute battering incident
3. honeymoon phase
woman tries to reduce her partner’s anger by catering to him or staying out of his way. At the same time, the battered woman thinks her partner’s abusive behavior is justified
acute battering incident
man explodes in rage and beats or abuses his partner, causing the woman’s feelings to fluctuate
man begs woman for forgiveness and promise her that he will never beat her again. If the victim has been hospitalized because of physical injuries, man will often indulge her with flowers, candy, cards, and gifts
what are some characteristics of common batterers?
woman’s education or income level is higher than that of the man; the couple is cohabiting or separated rather than married, divorced, or widowed; the partners’ race and/or ethnicity differ; the man is aggressive or obsessed; either or both parents were abused during their teenage years
why are birthrates changing?
couples are waiting longer to get married, more effective use of contraception, jobs, and schooling
micro level factors to why people are postponing parenthood
daunting jobs and careers make it more difficult to meet prospective mates; many single women don’t want to conceive or adopt a child on their own; the ideal family size has changed; women who enjoy their jobs and need money to boost their household income are often reluctant to take on balancing a child and paid work
macro level factors to why people are postponing parenthood
many young adults are delaying marriage and having children because they have high college and credit card debts; disturbed by our high family divorce rate; advances in reproductive technology have reduced many women’s concerns about their biological clock and finding a mate
parental support is low, parental control is high (ex. You can’t have the car on Saturday because I said so)
parental support is high, parental control is low (ex. Sure; borrow the car whenever you want)
parental support is high, parental control is high (ex. You can borrow the car after you’ve picked up your sister from soccer practice)
parental support is low, parental control is low (ex. I don’t care what you do; don’t bother me)
u-shaped curve of marriage
satisfaction decreases once you have kids
manifest reasons as to why people get married
love and companionship, children, adult identity, and commitment and personal fulfillment
latent reasons as to why people get married
social legitimacy, social pressure, economic security, rebellion, and practical solutions to problems
what happens to sexual activity as we age?
the older we get, the more likely we are to engage in sexual activity with one specific person, not multiple (as you would if you were single)
what are the 3 ingredients for a successful marriage?
caring, intimacy, and commitment
macro reasons for divorce
divorce laws, economy, military service, cultural values and social integration, technology
micro reasons for divorce
people often have unrealistic expectations about marriage that are fueled by television shows and movies that always have happy endings, financial problems and disagreements are a stronger predictor of divorce than arguments about issues such as household tasks, spending time together, sex, or in-law relationships, communication problems and the inability to resolve conflict, substance abuse
interpersonal reasons for divorce
parental divorce, age at marriage, premarital childbearing, cohabitation, gender, race and ethnicity, social class, and religion
begins before people take any legal steps. In the beginning phase, spouses feel disillusioned but hope that the marriage will improve. During the middle phase, their hurt or angry feelings increase. The unhappier partner begins evaluating the rewards and costs leaving the marriage. In the end phase, one of the partners stops caring and detaches emotionally from the other.
formal dissolution of a marriage. Some issues may include alimony, monetary payments by one ex-spouse to the other after a divorce. Other conflicts include child support
the couple may argue about who should pay past debts, property taxes, and new expenses, such as braces for their kids.
involves agreements about legal responsibility for financial support of the children, their day-to-day care, and the rights of the custodial and noncustodial parents.
time during which couple informs friends, family, teachers, and other that they’re no longer married.
partners separate from each other emotionally and establish separate lives
couple experiences gradual emotional alienation
besides feeling ambivalent about leaving the marriage, the couple is plagued by many questions: both important and trivial
the pressures of maintaining two households and meeting the children’s emotional and physical needs mount, and stress intensifies
partners must learn how to be singles again, such as now doing all the housework and home maintenance
slow process. Besides physical attraction, a divorced person has to establish a commitment to and trust in a new partner.
people’s identity changes from that of a single individual to that of a couple.
people often sever close relationships between a partner and the children of the new spouse
couple reestablishes a marital household as an economic unit. There may be friction about the distribution of resources.
physical or mental activity that accomplishes or produces goods or services
money and economic assets that a person or family owns
amount of money a person receives, either through own work or elsewhere
people who spend at least 27 weeks in the labor force and their wages fall below the official poverty level
greatest among blacks and latinos; government employees; people in construction and manufacturing industries; those with less than a high school education
not having enough money to afford the basic necessitates of life
not having enough money to maintain an average standard of living (depends on where you live)
why do women work?
to support themselves and their dependents; personal satisfaction; marital status affects women more than men; single women are more likely to stick to their jobs than married women are
two person single career
spouse participates in the other’s career behind the scenes without pay or direct recognition; wives help their partners by helping them get ahead in their careers
both partners work outside the home
both partners work in professional or managerial positions that require: extensive training, long-term commitment, ongoing professional growth
person who follows their spouse because the spouse has a job opportunity
what are 4 macroeconomic changes that are affecting the family?
4. labor units
infertility rate as women age
at age 35, you are HALF as likely to conceive and stay pregnant than someone who is 25
household in which TWO adults who are BIOLOGICAL or ADOPTIVE parents with a child from a PREVIOUS RELATIONSHIP marry or cohabit.
characteristics of successful stepfamilies
develop realistic expectations, let children mourn their losses, forge a strong couple relationship, stepparent takes on a disciplinary role gradually, stepfamilies develop their own rituals, work out arrangements between the children’s households
people who share physical characteristics that members of a society consider socially important (ex. Skin color)
conformity of ethnic group members to the dominant group’s culture
maintaining aspects of immigrants’ original cultures while living peacefully with the host culture
adapting to language, values, beliefs, roles, and other characteristics of the host culture
manifest functions of dating
Maturation- dating sends the message that an adolescent is reaching puberty. she/he has become capable of engaging in developmental tasks such as emotional intimacy outside the family and sexual expression
Fun and recreation- going out with people we like relieves boredom, stress, and loneliness
Companionship- regardless of one’s age, dating can be a valuable source of companionship. It can also ease the heartbreak of being widowed
Love and affection- dating is a socially accepted way to enjoy intimacy. Both women and men say that they initiated a date because they were in love or wanted a caring and serious relationship
Mate selection- dating is usually a search for a marital partner
latent functions of dating
Socialization- through dating, people learn about expected gender roles; family structures that differ from their own; and different attitudes, beliefs, and values
Social status- going out with an attractive or successful person enhances one’s social status and prestige
Fulfillment of ego needs- being asked out on a date or having one’s invitation accepted boosts a person’s self-esteem and self-image
Sexual experiment and intimacy- females report that their first sexual intercourse occurred in a steady or serious dating relationship. As dating becomes more frequent or committed, young people are more likely to want and have sex
cultural practice that requires marrying within one’s group
cultural practice that requires marrying outside one’s group, such as not marrying one’s relatives
displaying kindness and concern for others
being close with someone; either friendly or romantically
state or quality of being dedicated to another person
what are the 3 functions of love?
caring, intimacy, and commitment
lin, who works at a youth information center, is conducting a social intervention to prevent the negative outcomes of teenage pregnancy. once the social intervention is complete, she will assess whether the intervention generated the expected results by conducting surveys. in such a scenario, lin is using what research method?
evaluation research method
clarice thompson, an academician and scholar, believes that all individuals, irrespective of gender, have equal social, economic, and political rights in a society. clarice is most likely a what?
according to ecological theory, the interconnected behaviors, roles, and relationships that influence a person’s daily life are called the
for children, their parent’s employment is part of the
according to the social exchange perspective, when does a marriage end in a separation or divorce?
when the costs of the marriage outweigh the rewards
what are some examples of secondary analysis?
diaries and the US census
what is a difference between experiments and field research?
experiments involve artificial situations whereas field research does not
mate selection is a _______ function of dating
jeremy married sarah, who belongs to the same ethnic group as him. additionally, she is a Christian like him. in this scenario, jeremy is engaging in
calvin, who is ready to settle down and get married. when he meets single women, he makes a mental note of their education, cultural values, and interests. this helps him narrow down a group of women to a small number of prospective partners. which of the following theories explains calvin’s process of finding a spouse?
propinquity, one of the filters in the filter theory, refers to what?
what refers to marrying up to a higher social class?
eric, a six month old baby, is looked after by his nanny while his mom is at work. his nanny is also responsible for other household chores and is often unable to give him sufficient time and attention. when his mother returns, eric often tends to be unresponsive to his mother and ignores her. eric is displaying what sort of infant-mother attachment style?
frank, a 28 year old man, falls in and out of love easily. when in a relationship, he often expects commitment instantaneously from his partner. frank is displaying what style?
andrew and rachel believe that it was love at first sight when they met. their relationship is characterized by a high degree of physical attraction and intense emotional desire. according to Lee’s Styles of Loving, Andrew and Rachel are what kind of lovers?
according to sociologist John Lee, which style of love is characterized by obsessiveness, possessiveness, and intense dependency?
what is a distinguishing characteristic of the mania style of love?
diana often dates several men at a time and enjoys causal dating. she likes to keep her relationships simple and casual because she believes that serious relationships only complicate matters. according to Lee’s Style’s of Loving, diana exhibits what style of love?
what is an altruistic, self-sacrificing love that is directed toward all humankind?
what specifies the formal or informal norms for acceptable or unacceptable sexual activity, including which individuals are eligible for sexual partners, and the boundaries of sexual behavior
in the marriage context, the need for commitment and personal fulfillment are considered to be what sort of reasons?