To describe what managers do,there are three approaches used which are Henry payola's functions approached systems respective and the contingency or situational approach. A French industrialist by the name of Henry Payola proposed that all managers perform five management functions: planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. These have now been reduced to four basic and very important functions:planning. Organizing, leading. And controlling. The planning function involves the process of defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. F you have no particular destination in mind, then you can take any road. However, If you have someplace In particular you want to go, then you've got to plan the best way to get there. Because organizations exist to achieve some particular purpose, someone must clearly define that purpose and the means for Its achievement. Management is that someone. Managers are also responsible for arranging work to accomplish the organization's goals. Alt is called the organizing function. T involves the process of determining what tasks are to be done, who Is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made. Every organization includes people, and management's job is to work with and through people to accomplish organizational goals. This is the leading function. When managers motivate subordinates, influence individuals or teams as they work, select the most effective communication channel, or deal in any way with employee behavior Issues, they are leading. The final management function managers perform Is controlling.
After the goals are set and the plans are formulated (planning), the motivated (leading), there has to be some evaluation of whether things are going as landed. To ensure that work is going as it should, managers must monitor and evaluate performance. Actual performance must be compared with the previously set goals. If there are any significant deviations, it's management's Job to get work performance back on track. This process of monitoring, comparing, and correcting is what we mean by the controlling function. (Management 7th edition. Stephen P.
Robbins and Mary Cutler) Another way to look at the manager's Job is from the perspective of managing systems. A system is a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole. Let's a concept taken from the physical sciences and applied to organizations. The two basic types of systems are closed and open. Closed systems are not influenced by and do not interact with their environment. In contrast open systems dynamically interact with their environment. Today, when we call organizations systems, we mean open systems, that is, an organization that constantly interacts with its environment. N an open system an organization takes in inputs (resources) from the environment and ransoms or processes these resources into outputs that are distributed into the environment. The organization is "open" to its environment and continually interacts with that environment. How does the systems perspective add to our understanding of what managers do? Systems researchers envisioned an organization as being made up of "interdependent factors, including individuals, groups, attitudes, motives, formal structure, interactions, goals, status, and authority. Using this approach, then, the Job of a manager is to coordinate the work activities of the various parts of the organization and ensure that all the interdependent parts of the organization are working together so that the organization's goals can be achieved. In addition, the systems view of a manager's Job implies that decisions and actions taken in one organizational area will affect others and vice versa (this is the interdependency characteristic of systems).
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For instance, no matter how efficient an organization's production department might be, if the marketing department does not anticipate changes in consumer tastes and work with the product development apartment in creating products consumers want, the organization's overall performance will suffer. At some point , prestige and pride helps people realize that they are worth the Job that they are intending to deal with in their workplace everyday The systems approach is often identified with efficiency . Because the systems approach is as much apprehensive with effectiveness as it is with efficiency , this is a mistake .
Either efficiency or effectiveness can be pursued to the harm of the other in an intensely competitive market . However , efficiency gets special attention because f a prevailing doubt most things are not being done as well as they could be , and are , in fact , being mismanaged Finally, an important part of a manager's Job is recognizing and understanding the organizations are not solidification. They rely on their environment for essential inputs and as sources to absorb their outputs. No organization can survive for long if it ignores government regulations, supplier relations,or the varied external constituencies upon which it depends. Management 7th edition. Stephen P. Robbins and Mary Cutler) The diagram above shows the diagrammatic representation of an open system. The contingency approach to management is based on the idea that there is no one best way to manage and that to be effective, planning, organizing, leading, and controlling must be tailored to the particular circumstances faced by an organization. Managers have always asked questions such as "What is the right thing to do? Should we have a mechanistic or an organic structure? A functional or divisional structure? Wide or narrow ps of management?
Tall or flat organizational structures? Simple r complex control and coordination mechanisms? Should we be centralized or decentralized? Should we use task or people oriented leadership styles? What motivational approaches and incentive programs should we use? " The contingency approach to management (also called the situational approach) assumes that there is no universal answer to such questions because organizations, people, and situations vary and change over time. Thus, the right thing to do depends on a complex variety of critical environmental and internal contingencies. ( University of SST Mark and SST
John notes) The contingency perspective (sometimes called the situational approach) of management underscores and emphasizes the fact that because organizations are different, they face different circumstances (contingencies) and, thus, may require different ways of managing. The primary value of the contingency approach to describing what managers do is that it stresses that there are no simplistic or universal rules for managers to follow in doing their Jobs. Instead, a manager's Job involves managing different and changing situations, and managers' actions should e appropriate for the situations in which they find themselves. . (Management 7/e Stephen P. Robbins and Mary Cutler). A contingency leadership style can lead to more effective and precise leadership. It can also help close relationships between workers and leaders develop more easily. The theory also allows the leaders to know the specific tasks they are responsible for without any confusion. Leaders are not discriminated against based on gender, ethnic background, social background, or even work experience.
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