Analyze the extent to which the approach relates to an organizational context known to you. The abstract I have selected for review and analysis, with most relevance to my own professional development and therefore is of most interest to me is that of Lyndon &king : can a single, short continuing professional development workshop cause change in the classroom ?
This article refocuses attention on the classroom, specifically on the importance of teacher Professional development in enhancing and changing teachers' knowledge and skills in ways that lead to improvement in student performance. It is based on research carried out for SEES study into how far is short continuing professional development is effective?
The demonstrated success of the SEES model of short, single workshops in bringing about lasting change in practice is noteworthy, given the emphasis in the literature that CAP can only be effective if it is sustained ; is delivered by a well-trained provider, within a well-structured workshop that provides opportunities for exploration, practice and peer feedback. Providing a factual framework discussed by many educational researchers, Lyndon and king summarize the context, content, and process of effective and high-quality teacher professional development.
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Years ago, I have participated with many short and long PDP workshop at 2 schools in which I was a teacher . And to be objective few workshop gave me opportunities to acquire and practice new skills over relatively extended eroded of time, and it provided an ideal environment for interaction with other colleagues . While many other workshop stopped short of producing their intended results; they pointed out problems with traditional teaching but offered little help in changing what happens in the classroom and provided no opportunities for us to practice what we learnt.
So the problem was not the lack of professional development activities or whether they are short or long ,to the contrary professional development for teachers has been included in every major initiative designed to improve student performance. The problem is that the quality of those programs has been inconsistent. Nevertheless, many like Joanne- in the group tutor - would agree with Errata's typology session 10 that the scope of professional development is wider that simply the measurements of results, outcomes and standards, and therefore suggests CAP which is encompassing of other dimensions should be considered Anyone,2013).
On the other hands Stephanie had to admit that there was in most of the attended CAP a great deal of scope for personal development, team working, developing greater awareness/understanding and developing problem solving skills. However in order for the school to Justify the resources it is expending, he sees that there must be at least some organizational benefits too (Stephanie, 2013) I agree with Lyndon &king that Professional development can succeed only in settings, or contexts, that support it .
And this support must come from administrators. Drawing on the case studied in this article (short workshop for science department in many schools designed by the earth science education unit) it shows that one of the finding outcomes of professional development initiative is depended ultimately on the factor whether its administrators consider it important. For this reason, buy-in on the part of administrators (whether state directors, superintendents, or principals) is critical to success (McLaughlin & Marsh, 1978).
Leaders can approach decisions about professional development with intellectual rigor and discipline or give them a cursory treatment as an afterthought to more pressing matters. Likewise, their decisions may be implemented with attention to quality and serious reflection on their impact or haphazardly executed with a sense of discharging an unpleasant responsibility. Those are the choices leaders face each time they meet to plan professional development. Harebell,2003) I believe that Short or long workshop is "not an event, it is a process "(Harebell, 2003). By "process" I mean "the innovation" in the sense of having an adequate theory base; introducing methods for which there is evidence of effectiveness; being supported with appropriate high quality materials. And that the PDP program sometimes needs to be of sufficient length and intensity ;uses methods which reflect the teaching methods being introduced; includes provision for in school coaching (Dade ,2004).
By the "process " I mean that the teachers should work in group to share experiences; communicate effectively amongst themselves about the innovation; should be given an opportunity to develop a sense of ownership in the innovation and be supported in questioning their beliefs about teaching and learning and giving them opportunity for practice and reflection( Dade,2004).
By "process" I mean the knowledge or awareness, changes in attitude, development of skill, and transfer of training and 'executive control which are needed to maximize the chances of CAP leading to change in the classroom Joyce and Showers, 1988) In y point of view , CAP is an opportunity to learn new strategies for teaching to rigorous standards ,and it is not a matter whether the CAP is long or short ,as long as it has this four criteria : a clear focus on learning and learners, an emphasis on individual and organizational change, small changes guided by a 'grand vision', and ongoing professional development that is procedurally embedded ( Gushes ,2000) in addition to Andy different factors and principles listed before agree with Lyndon that all these elements need to be present if it is to have impact in the lassoer for the benefit of every student. Art 2 Critically analyses an approach to leading professional development you have identified in your work on Theme 3, using at least two ideas selected from the list below. Professional identity and values Professional learning communities/networks Informal learning Mentoring/coaching Developing capacity Whole team/organizational development Forms of professional development Professional development for individuals Power and culture in organizations Professional development contexts Leading PDP is of great importance in the life of schools, it contributes directly and indirectly to professional and personal development for staff and to the improvement in teaching and learning.
Harris reminds us that 'managing human knowledge is a critical dimension of organizational survival' (Harris, 2001). So it is important that the leader of professional development enables knowledge development by whatever means is appropriate. Professional development is a complex endeavor. Understanding its elements, mastering its implementation and considering its impacts involve continual reflection and analysis. Although it is possible to identify elements and factors that affect professional development is important to hold on to the issue of their interrelationship in terms of development. Many researchers suggest links to individual and organizational issues and influences for the leader of professional development.
These include: individual professional identities and values organizational vision, culture and targets the means, availability and accessibility of professional development the role of communities of practice and networking both formal and informal means of development the influence of the nature and context of organizations the influence of peers, mentors and coaches professional teaching and training expectations While these themes can all contribute to professional development leadership, they do so in different ways. In this part I will analyze how organization's context, power and culture contribute to PDP A considerable literature has emerged in recent years concerning the relationship between organizations and learning. Many questions have arisen about how organizational arrangements enhance or inhibit the ability of their members (whether viewed individually or as groups) to learn? And to what degree are individuals' learning experiences determined by the ways in which opportunities are structured?
Examining the role of organization context may enhance our understanding about these questions. The complexity of the educational professional development context lies in the scope of cultural understandings, factors and influences, which all play a part (Theme 3 section 10). The key is the extent that organization can conduce to the changes that the professional development is designed to bring about. Before change can take place there must be a shared sense of need for change-?the more strongly and widely felt the better. Lack of organization support and change can sabotage any professional placement effort, even when all the individual aspects of professional development are done right.
And where staff development opportunities are poorly conceptualized, insensitive to the concerns of individual participants and make little effort to relate learning experiences to workplace conditions, they make little impact upon teachers or their pupils (Day, 1999) In addition the decisions taken about the structure and functioning of the organization, and the design of work within it, are of fundamental importance in influencing the extent to which individuals can participate in the process of learning (Gaston, 2004). We have to focus on the conditions that organization creates for its members to engage effectively with learning. As Billet states:" Workplace readiness was central to the quality of learning experiences. Readiness is more than the preparedness for guided learning to proceed. It also includes the norms and work practices that constitute the invitational qualities for individuals to participate in and learn through work. Such factors may influence individual learning in a number of ways.
They may provide access to knowledge or information; they may facilitate participation in activities with learning attention; they may provide support and guidance to help make learning effective; and they may reward learning activities and outcomes "(Billet, 2001) On the other hand, a full analysis of leading professional development requires an investigation of power . The inclusion of an analysis of power within educational change is vital because power legitimates and drives change. A post structural views of power rests of three core principles (l)power is not restricted to a dominate few but circulates within school affecting all its members;(2)power relies on language and discourse to instruct its truths;(3)individuals perceive who they are via discourses of truth (Halyards and Leonard,2001). So what is important is the strong relationship between structure and agency in the workplace .
And this can provide learning opportunity through : Involving participation in communities of practice, especially opening up opportunities for learning through moving beyond a tightly situated and context bound approach to participation Involving work organization and Job design, especially the creation of environments which allow for substantial horizontal cross- boundary activity, dialogue and problem-solving. Emphasizing the importance of access to knowledge-based qualifications and off-the-Job learning. ( Fuller and Union , 2004) there is an increasing recognition of the importance of culture in designing leadership developments programs (study guide ,IPPP) Good seeds grow in strong cultures . Understanding the school's culture ,therefore, is an essential prerequisite for any internal and external change agent.
Organizations should open up space for generating shared meaning, reconstituting power relations to broaden access to knowledge and provide cultural tools to mediate learning. The basic essence of organization 's culture is the deeper level of basic assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of an organization , that operate unconsciously ,and that define in a basic taken for granted fashion an organization's view of itself and its environment (Sheen . 1985) Stool and finks see Cultural norms _ such as :shared goals ;responsibility for success; collegiality; continuous improvement; lifelong learning ;support ;mutual respect ;risk taking; openness celebration and humor -are the unspoken rules for what is regarded as customary or acceptable behavior and action with shape reaction in the school( Stool,1999) .
These norms shape reactions to imposed improvement. It is therefore, important for those working in schools to understand their norms because the acceptance of improvement projects by a school depends on the fit between the norms embedded in the changes and those within the school's own culture (Carson,1996). To be effective these cultures norms need to be reflected in strategies that enabled their underlying values to be translated into genuine engagement of all staff. The norm collegiality most likely seen to lead to improvement. Example of collegiality includes team teaching, mentoring, action research, peer coaching, planning and mutual observation and feedback.
These derive their strength from the creation of greater interdependence, collective commitment, shared responsibility, and perhaps most important, greater readiness to participate in the difficult business of review and critique (Fallen and Harvests 1991). This culture will allow teachers to focus upon their own learning, career and promotion ambitions and to consider new responsibilities within their own school context. The assumption is that this will lead to an improved and enhanced sense of professionalism for teachers, plus an increased motivation to stay within the profession. With the additional benefits that come with familiarity of context. A supportive, blame-free environment that encourages and facilitates professional dialogue, and provides opportunities to extend and experiment with new practice can further the benefits of peer collaboration and support (Errata, 2001).
To sum up, contexts and cultures may not Just provide or close down opportunity; it may also influence the ability and willingness of individuals" to exercise personal agency in pursuit of developmental goals" (Billet, 2001). As Stool said real improvement cannot come from anywhere other than within schools themselves and within is a complex web of values and beliefs, norms, social and power relationships and emotions . Changing schools is not Just about changing curricula ,teaching and learning strategies ,assessment structures and roles and responsibilities . It requires an understanding of and respect for the different meaning and interpretations people bring to educational initiatives ,and the nurturing of the garden within which new ideas can bloom( Stool. 1999) part 3 :
Evaluate the effectiveness or potential for effectiveness of leading professional development in an organization or team known to you. In your evaluation you will need to define the sense(s) in which you are defining effectiveness. You may consider changes in: the development of individuals organizational capacity and capability Capability and changes in student and/or staff learning and links to goals or targets. Finally make recommendations for developments drawing on your practice, the ideas and the materials from Theme 3 In this part I will examine the effectiveness of leading and implementing curriculum innovation using CIT ,which took place in a Lebanese primary school.
My definition of the term" effectiveness "is when an appropriate professional development provision is successfully matched to particular professional needs. The curriculum implementation required the use of high levels of skill in all of the key areas of leadership including strategy development and implementation, human resource management, teaching and learning, financial management, accountability, and liaison with key stakeholders and the community. Effectively led curriculum innovation, in our school, did improve standards of achievement and increase dents' enjoyment and engagement in learning which the focus of all the staffs efforts was.
After the long term assessment of CIT use in the classroom, as a teacher I can confirmed that this professional development had deepened our teachers' knowledge of the subjects being taught; sharpened teaching skills in the classroom; kept up with developments in the individual fields, and in education generally; generated and contributed new knowledge to the profession; Increased the ability to monitor students' work, in order to provide constructive feedback to students and appropriately redirect teaching. From (The National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century, 2000) In addition the sense of community, and the "supportive coaching", and the follow up that was provided by the school leaders,-especially during the early phases of implementation when most problems is usually encountered- helped me and my colleagues" to develop and maintain a sense of efficacy regarding new teaching strategies" (Showers, Joyce, & Bennett, 1987).
It was the collaborative and sustained and a blame free environment that encouraged us with opportunities for discussion and exploration with colleagues, ND provided opportunities to extend and experiment with new practice. Monitoring and assessments were important steps were taken to track progress across thematic as well as subject- based curricula. In Such a way we were able to identify failing and vulnerable children, as well as giving leaders and teachers a detailed understanding of what they need to do at the end of each Key Stage in order ensure progress. In addition, the well-developed assessment systems provided accessible and user- friendly data to help teachers advance within-year progress . III these elements laded a key roles in the effectiveness of leading curriculum innovation.
Recommendations: I agree with Levine that CAP should no longer be comprised solely of short courses; teachers need opportunities to reflect, engage in professional dialogue, work with pupils, and engage in peer observation, coaching and feedback (Levine, 1999) And I agree with Sparks and Hirsch, who recommend the following national professional development model for teachers: ; Create learning schools in which all staff is involved in "sustained, rigorous study of what they teach and how they teach it. Provide time for teacher professional development equaling 25 percent of time during each day for teachers to work together and to collaboratively plan lessons and share information. Base professional development on the collaboration model-?teachers learning from each other.
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