The process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks. One of the four functions that constitute the management process
- Planning: sets direction and objectives
- Organizing: brings resources together and turn plans into action
- Leading: builds the commitments and enthusiasm needed to accomplish plans
- Controlling: makes sure things turns out right
- Vision: A term used to describe a clear sense of the future
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Brings to the situation a clear sense of the future and an understanding of how to get there. Visionary leaders inspire others to take the actions necessary to turn vision into reality Power: The ability to convince someone else to do something you want, your way.
- Position Power: Temporary forms of power such as reward power, coercive power, and legitimate power.
- Personal Power: Permanent forms of power such as expert power and referent power
- Reward Power: Rewarding good behavior with compliments or assets
- Coercive Power: Deterring bad behavior with punishments or negative feedback
- Legitimate Power: Applying good behavior through the use of authority and rights of office
- Expert Power: Supporting good behavior through example, advice, and experience
- Referent Power: Inspiring good behavior through personal respect, integrity, and admiration Keys to Developing
- Position Power: Centrality: Establishing a broad network of contacts and getting involved with important information flows
Criticality: Taking good care of others. Visibility: Becoming known as an influential person Empowerment: The process through which managers enable and help others to gain power and achieve influence. Important Leadership Traits:
- Cognitive ability
- Business knowledge
- Honesty and integrity
Provide information, responsibility, authority, and trust. They encourage others to take initiative, make decisions, utilise knowledge. Task Concerns:
- Plans and defines work to be done
- Assigns task responsibilities
- Sets clear work standards
- Urges task completion
- Monitors performance results
- Acts warm and supportive toward followers
- Develops social rapport with followers
- Respects the feelings of followers
- Is sensitive to followers’ needs
- Shows trust in followers
Leadership Styles Blake/ Mouton Leadership Grid
- Team Management: High task concern; high people concern
- Authority-Obedience Management: High task concern; low people concern
- Country Club Management: High people concern; low task concern
- Impoverished Management: Low task concern; low people concern.
- Middle of the Road Management: Non-committal for both task concern and people concern Hersey-Blanchard: Leadership theory that calls for adjustments of styles for per situation.
Delegating: Low-task, low-relationship style that works best in high readiness-situations. Participating: Low-task, high-relationship style that works best in low- to moderate-readiness situations. Selling: High-task, high-relationship style that works best in moderate- to high-readiness situations. Telling: High-task, low-relationship style that works best in low-readiness situations. Fiedler Contingency Model: Good leadership is based on leadership style (task or relationship otivated) and situational demands (member relations, task structure, position power) Task – Oriented Leader: Leader that focuses on task completion.
Strong in high control situations but weak in low control situations. Relationship–Oriented Leader: Leader that focuses on employee relationships. They are strongest in middle control situations. House Path Goal Leadership: Directive Leadership: When job assignments are ambiguous. Supportive Leadership: When worker self-confidence is low. Participative Leadership: When performance incentives are poor. Achievement-Oriented Leadership: When task challenge is insufficient Readiness: How ready, willing, and able employees are in performing tasks. Substitutes for Leadership: Factors in the work setting that direct work efforts without the involvement of a leader Subordinate: Ability, experience, independence. Task Characteristics: Routine, availability of feedback. Organizational Characteristics: Clarity of plans and formalization of rules and procedures Charismatic Leaders: Develop special leader-follower relationships and inspire others in extraordinary ways.
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