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Human Development Critical Analysis

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The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand Trimester 1, 2012 73198 Human Development Final Examination Time allowed Three hours, plus 10 minutes to read this paper. Instructions Section A Answer all of the 30 multiple-choice questions on the answer sheet provided at the back of this paper. Attach this answer sheet to your examination booklet securely. Answer any 14 of the 18 short answer questions. Section B Mark Allocation Topic Section A Section B Multiple choice questions (all 30 questions) Short answer questions (any 14 of 18 questions) Marks 30 70 Total 100

Copyright © The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand 1 Section A: Multiple-choice questions Complete all 30 multiple-choice questions. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers each question. Use the attached multiple-choice answer sheet to record your answers (see Appendix 1). This section is worth 30 marks (1 mark for each question). Time guide: Spend approximately 1 hour on this section.

1. The traditional and life-p perspectives are contrasting views of developmental change. According to the life-p perspective, when do developmental changes occur? A B C D During infancy and early childhood During adolescence and early adulthood During middle and late adulthood Throughout the entire life cycle

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2. By age 50, many people need reading glasses or bifocals to improve their vision. This physiological change is a good example of a: A B C D Nonnormative life event Multidirectional influence on development Normative age-graded influence on development Nonnormative age-graded influence on development

3. If people today decide to marry and raise children, they do so later in life. In the 1950s, it was common for people to marry and have children before they were 20 years old. This difference is an example of a: A B C D Cohort-graded influence on development History-graded influence on development Multidimensional change in the context of development Nonnormative life event that has changed across development 2 Copyright © The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand

4. Hannah and George disagree. Hannah argues that people within an ethnic group all share the same culture.

George, by contrast, argues that people of the same ethnic group may or may not share the same culture. Who is right? A B C D Hannah, because sharing the same culture defines an ethnic group. George, because diversity exists among people within an ethnic group. Hannah is correct when referring to ethnic groups within the United States; George is correct when referring to all ethnic groups. Hannah is correct when the people in the ethnic group all share the same socioeconomic status; George is correct when the people in the ethnic group do not share the same socioeconomic status.

5. Which of the following contains the names of three theorists who suggested that behaviour is learnt in the environment, either through paired associations, punishments and reinforcements, or modelling? A B C D Ivan Pavlov, B. F. Skinner, Albert Bandura Sigmund Freud, Urie Bronfenbrenner, Erik Erikson John Bowlby, Noam Chomsky, Konrad Lorenz Jean Piaget, Sigmund Freud, Lev Vygotsky

6. A chemical that is contained at the end of the axon, whose purpose is to pass information on to another neuron, is called a(n): A B C D Axon Dendrite Neurotransmitter Synapse

7. Of the following infants, who is most at risk for SIDS? A B C D Aimee; her mother smokes Grace; she was born weighing more than most babies Kyoko; her parents are Japanese Sylvia; she sleeps in firm bedding Copyright © The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand 3

8. ‘Want ice cream’, ‘fall down’, and ‘Mommy give drink’ are examples of: A B C D Holophrases Repetitive speech patterns Telegraphic speech Reflexive speech patterns

9. A newborn baby widens her eyes after her mother widens her eyes and mouth and smiles at the baby. Meltzoff would say this baby is: A B C D Exhibiting a reflex Engaging in true imitation Showing deferred imitation Habituating to the mother’s facial expression

10. A mother hands her baby a rattle, saying, ‘Here you are’. She then gently takes the rattle away, smiling and saying, ‘Thank you’. She does this repeatedly, letting the baby keep the rattle for several seconds each time and encouraging the baby to offer the rattle. Eventually, the baby takes the rattle, holds it for a few seconds, and then holds it out to her mother and smiles.

This is an example of: A B C D Sociability Scaffolding Emotionality Reciprocal socialisation

11. In the Strange Situation, Cameron did not explore the playroom, clung to his mother when she was in the room, and was very upset when she left the room. When she returned, he appeared to be ambivalent – both wanting to be comforted by his mother, but pushing her away when she attempted to do so. Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Cameron as: A B C D Securely attached Insecure avoidant Insecure resistant Insecure disorganised 4 Copyright © The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand

12. Miranda developed a basic sense of mistrust during infancy. Her parents bickered a lot and separated, and Miranda was often lost in the shuffle. According to Erik Erikson, Miranda: A B C D Will not trust her parents but will trust most other people Will maintain a basic sense of mistrust for the rest of her life Will likely develop a sense of trust with her mother but not with her father May learn to trust other important people later in her life, but they will need to demonstrate their trustworthiness

13. Javier and his father are at the circus. A clown jumps in front of them, and Javier looks at his father to see if he is afraid or laughing. Javier is using: A B C D Social referencing Emotional regulation Social reassurance Modelling

14. Three-year-olds scribble all over the page, but 4-year-olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4-year-olds have more highly developed: A B C D Artistic ability Fine motor skills Gross motor skills Sense of what others appreciate

15. Howie and his little sister, Stephie, are each given one large cookie. Their mother breaks Stephie’s cookie into four pieces to help her eat it. Howie immediately begins to cry and says it is not fair for Stephie to get so many cookies when he only has one. Howie is showing a lack of: A B C D Centration Conservation Intuitive thought Symbolic function Copyright © The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand 5

16. In short-term memory, individuals retain information for: A B C D Up to 30 seconds One to 2 minutes Two to 3 weeks One to 2 months

17. Jennie is in third grade. She is tempted to cheat on a test but chooses not to because she knows it would be wrong. According to the psychoanalytic theory of moral development, what is responsible for keeping Jennie from oing wrong? A B C D Guilt from her superego Empathy for other people Reprimands from caregivers Rewards from caregivers

18. A parent who uses a restrictive, punitive style to control the behaviour of their children is a(n): A B C D Authoritarian parent Authoritative parent Indulgent parent Neglectful parent

19. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky considered play to be valuable because it: A B C D Allows children to release tension Advances the child’s cognitive development Helps children satisfy their need for mastery over their environment Allows children to interact with their peers 6 Copyright © The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand

20. Steur, Applefield, and Smith (1971) randomly assigned children to two groups. One group watched cartoons containing violence, and the other group watched cartoons with the violence removed. During a free-play session, the children who had watched the cartoons containing violence showed more aggression than the children who had watched the nonviolent cartoons. Which conclusion can be drawn from this study? A B C D We can say that TV is the only factor that causes aggression. We cannot say that violent TV caused the increased aggression, because this was a correlational study. We cannot say what caused the aggression, since aggression is caused by so many other factors. We can say that the violent TV caused the increased aggression if all other factors in the groups were equal.

21. Why do some researchers think that birth-order influences on child development have been emphasised too strongly? A B C D There are no clear patterns of birth-order influences on personality. If we continue to study birth order influences, our findings will create self-fulfilling prophecies that will perpetuate birth-order differences.

The pattern of birth-order influences that scientists have found makes little sense and is not very useful. Birth-order influences are not very large when compared with all other influences.

22. When her mother asks Selena why she feels so sad, Selena says it is because her best friend just lost her puppy. Selena is exhibiting: A B C D Guilt Empathy Heteronomous morality Lack of perspective taking

23. Two identical glasses are filled to the same level with juice. A child then watches as the juice from one glass is poured into a taller, thinner glass. A child who is capable of concrete operational thought might say: A B C D ‘The tall one has more juice – see how much taller it is? ’ ‘The tall one has more juice – they just look like they are the same. ’ ‘It’s still the same amount of juice – you can tell by just pouring it back. ’ ‘It’s still the same amount of juice – you can tell by how tall this one is. ’ Copyright © The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand 7

24. The social role theory of gender differences suggests that: A B C D Gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men in most societies The mother and father role are social constructions that merged from our evolutionary past Different social roles for men and women in most societies are chosen, not determined Nature is the primary determinant of differences between the social labels we call ‘gender’

25. Using props, plots, and roles in play is characteristic of: A B C D Associative play Constructive play Pretence/symbolic play Sensorimotor/practice play

26. Luis is able to organise coins in a row from the largest in size (the silver half dollar) to the smallest (a dime). His newfound ability is called: A B C D Centration Seriation Reversibility Classification

27. Robert J. Sternberg’s triarchic theory and Howard Gardner’s theory of intelligence are examples of the idea that: A B C D Intelligence is a general ability There are three types of intelligence Intelligence consists of a number of specific abilities There are separate information-processing components of intelligence

28. Carmenita is teaching her son to read by sounding out words in storybooks she reads to him. What approach is she using? A B C D Whole-language Phonics Balanced instruction Sound-it-out 8 Copyright © The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand

29.Erik Erikson’s fourth stage of development, appearing during middle and late childhood, is called: A B C D Industry versus inferiority Trust versus mistrust Ego integrity versus ego despair Ego autonomy versus ego independence

30. When asked why she participated with other students in a protest against the treatment of women on her campus, Kai says all humans have the fundamental right to be treated fairly, and that she is morally against the continuing discrimination against women. What is Kai’s likely moral level according to Lawrence Kohlberg? A B C D Postconventional Conventional Unconventional Preconventional 30 marks] Copyright © The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand 9 Section B: Short answer questions Answer any 14 of the 18 short answer questions listed below. This section is worth 70 marks (5 marks for each question). Time guide: Spend approximately 2 hours on this section. Note: Each short answer question is worth 5 marks. If you answer more than 14 short answer questions, the marker will mark the first 14 questions in the order you write them in the answer booklet.

31. Paul Baltes is a leading expert in the study of human development from the life-p perspective.

List five of the eight characteristics of the lifep perspective of development that Baltes says play a role in human development. Name the five environmental systems in ecological theory that were proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner. Name the theorist who developed the theory of natural selection. Define natural selection. Name five reflexes present in newborns that are not present in healthy adults. Describe two significant ways that neurons change during the first years of life. Describe the classic study of attachment by Harlow. What can we conclude about attachment based on the results of this study? Define temperament.

List the three types of temperament as classified by Stella Thomas and Alexander Chess. Describe the characteristics of babies in each of the categories. List five developmental changes in emotions that occur during the middle and late childhood years. Who is most likely to suffer from an eating disorder? What is anorexia nervosa? List two of the three main characteristics of people suffering with anorexia nervosa. Define adolescent egocentrism. Discuss the two key components of adolescent egocentrism. Name the researcher who came up with the theory of identity statuses. List the four identity statuses proposed by this researcher. The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand 12. According to Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, who interviewed some of the most creative people in the world, we are all capable of being creative if we cultivate our curiosity and interest. List five of the six steps he suggests you can take to do this. John Gottman conducted an extensive study of couples and their marriage history. List and briefly outline five principles, identified by Gottman, that make a marriage work. John Horn collected cross-sectional date to investigate how intelligence changes over time.

Two types of intelligence he examined were crystallised intelligence and fluid intelligence. Define crystallised intelligence and fluid intelligence. Explain how they change in middle adulthood. George Valliant conducted a longitudinal study looking at if an individual’s characteristics at age 50 could predict if they would be ‘happy-well’ at 75 to 80. List five factors Valliant found in 50-year olds that predict if one will be ‘happy-well’ at 75 to 80 years of age. Describe the free-radical theory of aging. How many stages are included in Erikson’s theory of development?

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