Alan Turing's credit for modern computing advancements was severely unpresent due to discrimination of his time. His advancements were hindered by society's backward's philosophies Turing was educated at a top private school. He entered the University of Cambridge to study mathematics in 1931. He, in a way both failed and succeeded in life but His discoveries greatly improved technologically advancements and changed the course of human history for the better.
Others sought to understand science and technology as cultural and social constructions, arguing that science was no more "objective" or "out there" than the arts; others focused on the interaction of networks and cultural meanings; the social construction of collective memory, or of identity. The punishment for homosexuality was chemical castration, a series of hormone injections that left Turing impotent. It also caused gynecomastia, giving him breasts. But Turing refused to let the treatment sway him from his work, keeping up his lively spirit.
The petition gathered over 37,000 signatures, but the request was discouraged by Lord McNally, who gave the following opinion in his role as the Justice Minister:
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A posthumous pardon was not considered appropriate as Alan Turing was properly convicted of what at the time was a criminal offence. He would have known that his offence was against the law and that he would be prosecuted. It is tragic that Alan Turing was convicted of an offence that now seems both cruel and absurd—particularly poignant given his outstanding contribution to the war effort. However, the law at the time required a prosecution and, as such, long-standing policy has been to accept that such convictions took place and, rather than trying to alter the historical context and to put right what cannot be put right, ensure instead that we never again return to those times.
All of Turing's contributions to the effort at the top secret Bletchley Park in World War II was indispensable. Not only did he make the first breakthroughs with the Naval Enigma code, allowing Britain's food and supplies to be shipped across the Atlantic, but, along with Gordon Welchman, designed a machine to break Enigma. This code breaking machine was called the Bombe, a name chosen to honour the earlier Polish code breaking machine called Bomba.
The Bombe worked using the mathematical principle of contradiction. Given an Enigma code, the code breakers would try and guess a short phrase, or 'crib', that might appear in the message. They would input this guess into the Bombe and, if this input did not result in a valid Enigma code, it would be rejected.
However, if left to continue, all other deductions made by the Bombe Machine were then equally invalid, and so could all be rejected at once as fruit of the poison tree. On a good day, the Bombe machine could find the Enigma setting in 15 minutes. In 1945 Turing received an Order of British Empire for his work at Bletchley Park, even though the work remained top secret for another 30 years.
All in all, cultural sociologists have by theory, example and practice much to contribute to the vital and potentially dangerous debates that pervade such domains as that of "identity," including ethnicity, gender, race, and many others with a strongly political loading.
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