Definition of hair coloring: Hair coloring is the practice of changing the color of hair. The main reason for this practice are cosmetic, e. g. to cover gray hair, to change to a color regarded as more fashionable or desirable, and to restore the original hair color after it has been discolored by hairdressing processes or sun bleaching. Hair dying, which is an ancient art, involves treatment of the hair with various chemical compounds. Today, hair coloring is immensely popular, with over 75 percent of American women dyeing their hairHistory
History: The dyeing of hair is an ancient art. In ancient times, the dyes were obtained from plants. [ Some of the most well known are henna (Lawsonia inermis), indigo, Cassia obovata, senna, turmeric and amla. Others include katam, black walnut hulls, red ochre and leeks. In the 1661 book Eighteen Books of the Secrets of Art & Nature, various methods of coloring hair black, gold, green, red, yellow, and white are explained. The development of synthetic dyes for hair is traced to the 1860s discovery of the reactivity of PPD with air.
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Hair dyeing is now a multibillion dollar industry that involves the use of both plant-derived and synthetic dyes Types of hair coloring: Permanent hair color: A popular way to achieve permanent hair coloring is through the use of oxidation dyes. The ingredients of these products include 1,4-diaminobenzene (historically) or 2,5-diaminotoluene (currently), a coupling agent, and an oxidant. The process is typically performed under basic conditions. The mechanism of oxidation dyes involves three steps:
- Oxidation of 1,4-diaminobenzene derivative to the quinone state.
- Reaction of this diimine with a coupler (more detail below).
- Oxidation of the resulting compound to give the final dye Semi-permanent hair dye: Semi-permanent hair color has smaller molecules than temporary dyes.
These dyes only partially penetrate the hair shaft. For this reason, the color will survive repeated washing, typically 4–5 shampoos or a few weeks. Semi-permanents contain no, or very low levels of developer, peroxide or ammonia, and are therefore safer for damaged or fragile hair.
However, semi-permanents may still contain the toxic compound p-phenylenediamine or other such ingredients. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency reported that in rats and mice chronically exposed to PPD in their diet, it simply depressed body weights, and no other clinical signs of toxicity were observed in several studies.  The final color of each strand of hair will depend on its original color and porosity, so there will be subtle variations in shade across the whole head. This gives a more natural result than the solid, all over color of a permanent color.
However, it also means that gray or white hairs will not appear as the same shade as the rest of the hair. If there are only a few grey/white hairs, the effect will usually be enough for them to blend in, but as the gray spreads, there will come a point where it will not be disguised as well. In this case, the move to permanent color can sometimes be delayed by using the semi-permanent as a base and adding highlights. Semi-permanent color cannot lighten the hair Demi-permanent hair color: Demi-permanent hair color is permanent hair color that contains an alkaline agent other than ammonia (e. g. ethanolamine, sodium carbonate) and, while always employed with a developer, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in that developer may be lower than used with a permanent hair color. Since the alkaline agents employed in demi-permanent colors are less effective in removing the natural pigment of hair than ammonia these products provide no lightening of hair's color during dying. As the result, they cannot color hair to a lighter shade than it was before dyeing and are less damaging to hair than their permanent counterpart. Demi-permanents are much more effective at covering gray hair than semi-permanents, but less so than permanents.
Demi-permanents have several advantages as compared with permanent color. Because there is essentially no lifting (i. e. , removal) of natural hair color, the final color is less uniform/homogeneous than a permanent and therefore more natural looking; they are gentler on hair and therefore safer, especially for damaged hair; and they wash out over time (typically 20 to 28 shampoos), so root regrowth is less noticeable and if a change of color is desired, it is easier to achieve. Demi-permanent hair colors are, in essence, permanent color and the darker shades in particular may persist longer than indicated on the packet
Temporary hair color: Temporary hair color is available in various forms including rinses, shampoos, gels, sprays, and foams. Temporary hair color is typically brighter and more vibrant than semi-permanent and permanent hair color. It is most often used to color hair for special occasions such as costume parties and Halloween. The pigment molecules in temporary hair color are large and cannot penetrate the cuticle layer. The color particles remain adsorbed (closely adherent) to the hair shaft and are easily removed with a single shampooing.
Temporary hair color can persist on hair that is excessively dry or damaged in a way that allows for migration of the pigment to the interior of the hair shaft Alternative hair colorants: A minority of hair coloring products are designed to create hair colors not typically found in nature. The available colors are diverse, including green and fuchsia. These dyes are typically sold in punk-themed stores (such as comic book and music stores), with brand names like "Beyond The Zone", "Splat", 'Fudge Paintbox' 'Crazy Colors' "Clairol Jazzing", "Manic Panic", "Special Effects", Punky Colour", "Stargazer", "La Riche Directions".
A permanent alternative in some colors (such as bold red and dark, inky purples and blues) are available from big haircare brands. Some alternative color shades are blacklight reactive, to show up under nightclub lighting. The chemical formula of alternative color dyes typically contain only tint and have no developer. This means that they will only create the bright color of the packet if they are applied to light blond hair. People with darker hair (medium brown to black) will need to use a bleaching kit prior to tint application.
Some people with fair hair may benefit from prior bleaching as well. Gold, yellow and orange undertones in hair that has not been lightened enough can adversely affect results, especially with pinks, blues and greens. Although alternative colors are semi-permanent in the cases of some colors, such as blue and purple, it could take several months to fully wash the color from bleached or pre-lightened hair Adverse effects of hair coloring: Hair coloring involves the use of chemicals capable of removing, replacing and/or covering up pigments naturally found inside the hair shaft.
Use of these chemicals can result in a range of adverse effects, including temporary skin irritation and allergy, hair breakage, skin discoloration and unexpected hair color results. Side effects of various products result in loss of hair and in extreme cases balding If consumed by the body by means of inhalation or digestion certain hair dye brands have shown evidence of causing constipation and other dangerous disruptions within human organs. Additionally, there is ongoing discussion regarding more serious health consequences of hair color usage, including lead poisoning.
Skin irritation and allergy In certain individuals, the use of hair coloring can result in allergic reaction and/or skin irritation. Symptoms of these reactions can include redness, sores, itching, burning sensation and discomfort.  Symptoms will sometimes not be apparent immediately following the application and processing of the tint, but can also arise after hours or even a day later. To help prevent or limit allergic reactions, the majority of hair color products recommend that the client conduct a patch test before using the product.
This involves mixing a small quantity of tint preparation and applying it directly to the skin for a period of 48 hours. If irritation develops, manufacturers recommend that the client not use the product. Hair breakage Hair that has been damaged by excessive exposure to chemicals is considered over-processed. This results in dry, rough and fragile hair. In extreme cases, the hair can be so damaged that it breaks off entirely. This is especially true for Afro-Caribbean hair, especially if used in combination with relaxers.
Treatments are available but the only real solution is to stop the use of chemicals until new hair grows and the damaged hair is cut off. Skin discoloration Skin and fingernails are made of the same type of keratinized protein as hair. That means that drips, slips and extra hair tint around the hairline can result in patches of discolored skin. This is more common with darker hair colors and persons with dry absorbent skin. This discoloration will disappear as the skin naturally renews itself and the top layer of skin is removed (typically takes a few days or at most a week).
A good way to prevent dye discoloration is to put a thin layer of Vaseline or any oil-based preparation around the hairline. It is recommended that latex or nitrile gloves be worn to protect the hand Plant-based dyes Henna is an orange dye commonly used as a deposit-only hair color whose active component, lawsone, binds to keratin. It is therefore considered semi-permanent to permanent, depending on a person's hair type. Most people will achieve a permanent color from henna, especially after the second dye. With repeated use the orange color builds up into red and then auburn.
While "natural" henna is generally a red color, variations exist. These variations usually contain ingredients from other plants and even synthetic dyes. Indigo is natural dye from a plant (Indigofera tinctoria, suffructicosa, or arrecta) that can be added to henna or layered on top of it to create brown to black colors in the hair. On the color wheel, henna is orange, and indigo is blue, so as complementaries, the two colors work together to create brown tones. Like henna, indigo may fade after one application, but it becomes permanent on the hair with repeated use.
Using a plant-based color such as henna can cause problems later when trying to do a perm or permanent hair color. Pure imported body art quality henna is claimed not to cause such problems, but most store-bought henna is mixed with additives which can lead to unpredictable results if the hair is later colored. Although it may not be visible on darker hair, the staining from henna will remain for several months and this may only be realized when dyeing is attempted and an unpleasant, permanent orange color results
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