Guidelines for Writing the three major parts of the Literature Review (Introduction, Literature, and Discussion) follow. Directions Do not begin typing until you see the level heading - An Overview and Purpose in your template. The Guidelines are organized by LECTURES and INSTRUCTIONS. Lectures and related reading material are included to assist in developing each part of the Review. Where there is to be writing, there are specific Instructions as what is to be included under each heading. Instructions appear in a box. Each instruction is numbered. Respond to ALL NUMBERED INSTRUCTIONS.
Introduction to the Literature Insert Your Brief Topic before the Colon: An Overview and Purpose Lecture Note: This section is revised with each new submission of a draft. The introductory section should describe the topic (problem area, guiding concept, theme or research question or problem) that is being reviewed. Aim for an “eye catching opening sentence”. Sometimes this is a dramatic expression of a number to catch the reader’s attention such as the prevalence of a disease, crime rate, school drop out rate, or sales volume. Be sure the topic is focused on the literature that will be reported.
Briefly define the key concepts. Introduce these immediately. The topic should be sufficiently focused to permit an in-depth, substantial investigation, relevant to an area of advanced study/global leadership that guides a range of inquiry, results in an extensive search of scholarly literature, and generation of questions for further inquiry. The purpose of a literature review is presented in the introduction. Bourner (1996) reports the following Purposes – of a literature review – (reasons for a review of the literature) before embarking on a research project.
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These reasons include: • to identify gaps in the literature • to avoid reinventing the wheel (at the very least this will save time and it can stop you from making the same mistakes as others) • to carry on from where others have already reached (reviewing the field allows you to build on the platform of existing knowledge and ideas) • to identify other people working in the same fields (a researcher network is a valuable resource) • to increase your breadth of knowledge of your subject area • to identify seminal works in your area to provide the intellectual context for your own work, enabling you to position your project relative to other work • to identify opposing views • to put your work into perspective • to demonstrate that you can access previous work in an area • to identify information and ideas that may be relevant to your project • to identify methods that could be relevant to your project Bourner, T. (1996). The research process: Four steps to success in T. Greenfield (Ed. ), Research methods: Guidance for postgraduates (pp. 7-11). London: Arnold. Retrieved 8-13-02 from Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology RMIT University http://www. ib. rmit. edu. au/tutorials/literature/litrev. html As you attempt to define concepts (variables) and their relationships to other variables, if applicable, identify causal (independent) variables and effects (dependent variables). You may also identify other variables that can be contextual, intervening, or mediating (see Creswell, pp. 94-95 or other texts). After you introduce the topic area properly (instructions follow), you will develop a succinct one-sentence purpose of the review. Three examples of a concluding purpose statement in the overview are:
Example 1: The purpose of this review is to critically analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on web-based instruction as an instructional method in distance education, with an emphasis on effectiveness studies that focus on instructional effectiveness, student learning outcomes, retention, student perceptions of this method of course delivery, and to identify areas of future scholarly inquiry. In this example, the causal variable (independent) is “instructional method of web-based instruction” and the effects (dependent variable) are instructional effectiveness, student learning outcomes, retention, and student perceptions.
Example 2: The purpose of this critical analysis of theoretical and empirical literature is to (a) examine historical and current literature to evaluate whether gender workplace bias exists; (b) explore the impact such a bias would have on women in the workplace, specifically women moving up the corporate ladder; and, (c) identify any theoretical or empirical gaps in the literature for the purpose of suggesting future areas of scholarly inquiry. In this example, the causal variable (independent) is “gender bias against women in the workplace” and the effect (dependent variable) is mobility up the corporate ladder.
Example 3 (Review carefully): The purpose of this critical analysis of theoretical and empirical literature is explore the influence of organizational leadership and other factors on organizational performance, in for-profit and not-for profit service organizations, and to identify areas of future scholarly inquiry. In this example, the causal variables (independent) are “organizational leadership” and “other factors”, contextual (intervening or mediating) variables are the type of organization (product versus service) and profit/non-profit, and the effect (dependent variable) is organizational performance.
Please note in developing your purpose statement, that the purpose statement begins with The purpose of …. and concludes with a statement related to identifying future areas of scholarly inquiry. 9 Instructions: Writing An Overview and Purpose (Follow precisely) *Review Blackboard Forum 5. Use your information and faculty comments for strengthening, as a guide to develop your Overview and Purpose (see items #1-9 below). *Draft 1 is due Week 3. Review Forum 6. You will get a great start if you develop this well. 1. Using the template: a. Develop a preliminary title for the Review and include on the title page.
The title should include the main concepts and themes (and/or key theories) for this review. Remember this is a critical analysis of the literature NOT a research study!!!! In no area of this paper, should you refer to this Review of Literature as a research study!!!!!! b. For the Introduction to the Literature, insert a brief subtitle preceding the colon for the level heading: ___: Overview and Purpose. 2. Under the Overview and Purpose, introduce the paper with an “eye catching” opening sentence for the first paragraph. 3. After the “eye catching” opening sentence, briefly – describe the topic (problem area, guiding concept, theme).
Get to the point – don’t let the reader guess what the review is about --a few sentences. 4. Next include brief definitions of each of the major concepts and cite references for these definitions in appropriate APA format. BE BRIEF – this is not the literature but an introduction to it! Anything you present in the introduction is developed in depth in the Review of the Literature. 5. Next, very briefly, attempt to identify how the literature explains these variables and their relationships to other variables. Include as many as possible variables because this will help in constructing a literature map.
The map will show relationships between the variables as you describe here. – Begin with the following: The causal variables (independent are) … The effects (dependent/outcome variables are… Contextual (intervening or mediating) variables that further impact the dependent or outcome variables are …. 6. Discuss how the topic area was identified and your reasons (point of view) for selecting the topic area to conduct your critical analysis of the literature. Review the Guidelines: How to Start - Select a Topic and Overview and Purpose, including purposes identified by Bourner (1996).
Begin with the following: The topic area of ____ was selected because___. 7. Explain what you want to know about the topic. Review Hart, 1999, p. 14 (Questions the Review Can Answer). Begin with the following: Some questions to be answered through this critical analysis of the literature are:…… 8. Answer the following: Is the topic about the problems in a discipline or field of study, the processes in a discipline or field of study, or the practices in a discipline or field of study? Processes can refer to various epistemologic processes to develop knowledge (also See Hart, 1999, p. 4). Introduce this clearly so the reader knows what you are speaking about. Begin with the following: The problem area of … is about…… 9. Conclude the Overview and Purpose with a clearly formulated statement of purpose of the literature review. Use the examples in the guidelines, as a guide to develop this. Make this clear (see examples in the previous lecture note). Begin with the following and include the ending The purpose of this ……………………….. , and to identify areas of future scholarly inquiry. Organization of the Review, Scope, and Library Research Plan
Organization of the Review Lecture Collect appropriate articles, read critically, identify concepts, theories, and themes, and think about the best way to present your topic. Write these concepts, theories, and themes down (see your Blackboard forum 5 submission and instructor response. Develop a Literature Map. This is a Content Map (Concept Map or Mind Map): All students will have a literature map that will guide the organization of the review and literature search. Build (draw) a visual picture of the concepts and their relationships, which results in a literature map.
These evolve from your topic, key concepts, ideas, theme, and/or purpose. Don’t introduce new information or concepts. It should first be introduced in the overview. The literature map is presented in-depth here. There are many methods to organize the review, which often change as you learn more about the topic. Concept Mapping - Representing information in diagram form where key words are linked by lines. These lines are then labeled to express the relationship between the terms. The resulting 'map' shows links between key ideas and can then be read through to clarify relationships between key terms. . Definition and Purpose of a Literature Map. This map is a visual/graphic representation of concepts, ideas, and themes that serve to guide thinking. In this case, the purpose is to guide the search and organizational presentation of your review. This map serves to: i. Develop ideas for your review ii. Show relationships and interrelationships between the concepts, theories, and themes – and if so, what type of relationships iii. Assist in organizing old knowledge and integrating it with new knowledge iv. Guide your literature search plan/strategy v.
Identify subtitles (subheadings) to organize your literature review so that you can communicate your ideas systematically. vi. A literature/content map is a creative, intuitive, and artistic endeavor to see how things fit – to generate alternatives. It is also analytical and critical, based on what you are finding in the literature. REVIEW THESE LINKS A simplified explanation of understanding of a Content map is described in the following URL – web link – http://users. edte. utwente. nl/lanzing/cm_home. htm b. Various types of Graphic or Visual Organizers (review this online.
Click each box) (you need to have the syllabus downloaded and Internet connection on) |Chain of Events |Clustering |Compare/Contrast | |Continuum |Cycle |Family Tree | |Fishbone |Interaction Outline |Problem/Solution | |Spider |Storyboard |Venn Diagram | Source: http://www. sdcoe. k12. ca. us/score/actbank/sorganiz. htm Other Web sites: Graphic or Visual Organizers Graphic or Visual Organizers: A good site review this online by clicking link. ttp://edservices. aea7. k12. ia. us/edtech/classroom/workshops/organizers. html http://www. cast. org/ncac/index. cfm? i=3015 http://www. veale. com. au/phd/files/Lit_Map. pdf Some diagrams of content maps are depicted in the following URL web link http://trochim. human. cornell. edu/research/epp2/epp2. htm#Table1 Free Mind Mapping Software (Smart Draw) http://www. smartdraw. com/specials/mindmapping. asp? id=13054 Readings on Mapping Ideas: See Hart, 1999, pp. 142-162 Blackboard’s Assignments Toolbar: See example of literature maps in Assignments – Weeks 1-8 Literature Review (Critical Analysis) 50%.
Within this folder is information on PowerPoint Presentation and Student Examples. Most of the student examples include literature maps for RES 702 (RES600) students. Organizing the review of the literature by themes, theories, or major concepts and related concepts provides a “frame for the central topic” to organize. In this case, you may proceed inductively or deductively. http://trochim. human. cornell. edu/kb/dedind. htm Exercise in Deductive/Inductive thinking: http://www2. sjsu. edu/depts/itl/graphics/induc/ind-ded. html#3b
For example, a deductive approach might start with the broader view or concept(s) then move to the specific topic area. Example FOLLOWS: A literature map (Figure 1) is used to guide the library search for theoretical and empirical literature about distance learning. The map shows a deductive pattern of the major themes, using an “interaction line style” type of graphic organizer. Beginning with the broadest concept of distance education, web-based instruction interacts with student characteristics, which leads to evaluation of effectiveness of web-based instruction in distance education. . . Other concepts and their relationships to guide the review are . . ……. Other Organizational Methodologies for Reviews: While RES 702 students are asked to develop literature maps that serve to organize the review, with more scholarly experience and depending upon the topic, you could also present the Review using an “opposing view” or “methodological approach”. This is not expected now. c. The literature map generates an outline for the Review of the Literature Review “Why do an Outline, and Basic Outlining skills: http://www. und. du/instruct/wstevens/PROPOSALCLASS/PATRAS. html http://www. mnstate. edu/wasson/ed603/ed603lesson5. htm An outline provides a blueprint, skeleton, or a roadmap for the final written review. An outline is an organizational process that is a logical description of the important components of the literature review. It provides a visual and conceptual design for writing. 1. Identify the main points in the order they should be presented. 2. Differentiate each main heading into logical subheadings. 3. Use further subdivisions if necessary.
IT IS STRONGLY SUGGESTED THAT YOU INCLUDE A SECTION ON MEASUREMENT OF YOUR MAJOR VARIABLES. REPORT SOME OF THE MAJOR METHODS, TOOLS, OR INSTRUMENTS THAT HAVE BEEN USED IN PRIOR STUDIES TO MEASURE THE KEY CONCEPTS IN YOUR OUTLINE. Notice in the outline that follows, a sub-level heading is measurement of leadership and organizational performance. In the Review of the Literature section, you would then describe the tools whether qualitative or quantitative, and reliability, validity (quantitative tools), and trustworthiness of qualitative tools. Run a Proquest or Google search such as: “measurement leadership”.
This saves you time in the QP and literature in the ”dissertation” where you need to know how your variables have been studied and measured. It is best to have MORE detail in these themes. You can always change later. Example of an Outline: (Let us say that the following concepts are present in the literature map which could be Chain of Events, Clustering, or Interaction Outline. This is an example of an outline (quite detailed). It includes the major concepts that can be used for the literature search, and the outline is placed in the 2nd part of this Review (Review of the Literature) to organize how to present the literature.
Leadership Classical, Progressive, Risk Leadership Theories Traits and Characteristics of Leaders; Leadership, Power and Influence; Gender and Equity Issues in Leadership Practice Cultural Issues and Leadership Developing Teams Leading Organizational Change Organizational Leadership Development; Strategic Leadership Leadership Measurement Organizational Performance Dimensions of Organizational Performance Organizational Climate Individual Performance Team Performance Supplier/Vendor Perspectives Customer Satisfaction Financial Performance Effectiveness Indicators Performance Driven Organizations Competency Modeling
Managing Performance 360 Degree Feedback Collaborative Change Organizational Performance Measurement: Output (Activities) and Outcome (Results) Measures Factors Influencing Organizational Performance Leadership and Performance of Organizations Leadership Style and Team Performance Leadership Style and Organizational Outcomes Leadership Style and Vendor/Supplier and Customer Satisfaction Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture, and Organizational Effectiveness 7 Instructions for Writing the Organization of the Review Do not present literature that you reviewed here. Just respond to questions 1-7. . After you design the literature map, begin with the statement: A literature map (Figure 1) is used to guide the library search for theoretical and empirical literature in this review about ___. 1. Next, describe the specific type of organizer that you used to design your map (for example, cluster, chain of events, cycle, etc). To do this, you need to review this syllabus on line, and click the different URL links of examples of visual or graphic organizers (review preceding lecture which provides several types). 2. Identify the specific the concepts, theories, and themes that are in your literature map. 3.
Next, briefly, describe the relationships between these concepts, theories and themes (such as what leads to what? Which are the causal, outcome and/or intervening variables? Are the concepts organized inductively or deductively? This all refers to the concepts, theories, and themes in your literature map. 4. Next explain that in addition to guiding the literature search, the literature map serves to identify themes, theories, and concepts that will organize the Literature Review. Present these theories, concepts, and themes in outline form, differentiating each main heading into logical subheadings. (Keep it simple). . Due for draft 1, go to the next major section (Review of the Literature) – insert these themes/concepts as level headings/sublevel headings in outline form. They serve to organize the Review of the Literature. Use appropriate APA (see p. 113 of APA) level headings. An example using APA level headings, is shown in the next major section of these guidelines. The concepts and themes for the example, uses the outline of themes previously discussed (leadership and organizational performance). 6. Insert the Figure 1, Literature Map at the end of this discussion of the Organization of the Review (before Scope and Context). . Make sure that you develop your literature map in a software application that can be copied and pasted into your Microsoft word document containing your paper. b. Make sure the map is an appropriate size and fits within the required paper margins. c. The Figure and #, and Title (Literature Map) belong at the bottom, centered: Figure 1 Literature Map Your goal is to have the map well-developed in draft 1 and finalized in (draft 2). It is expected that this map will change as you “tighten” and “organize your literature review in the next section” as well as well as in your qualifying paper.
Refine this part with each new draft (and particularly as your literature map evolves). Scope and Context Lecture This section lets the reader know what is and is not included in your literature review (scope). The topic is described in such a way that an appropriate context for the review of the literature is established, in a meaningful, logical way. The key terms here are included/excluded. You can restate the theories, concepts and constructs that you will include and obvious theories, concepts and constructs you won’t include (Look at your problem and topic area).
Identify what might be included in the search in terms of types of organizations (public/private; for-profit, not for profit; service/product; types of businesses, types of educational institutions); populations such as young versus old; gender; cultural groups; countries; or type of occupation. The major types of scholarly literature to review are: empirical studies, review articles (critical analysis), theoretical articles/books, methodological articles, and case studies.
These types of literature may be in the form of a book, hard copy journal articles, and electronic journal articles. The following are different types and forms of literature: Periodical Abstract in a primary source, Abstract in a secondary source, Periodical (hard copy), Periodical (electronic), Non-periodical (Book), Non-periodical (chapter in a book), Proceeding of meetings or symposia, Doctoral Dissertations (including abstracts), Unpublished work, Audio-Visuals, Newspaper, Government documents, and Electronic Media. Instructions for Writing the Scope and Context 1. As you write this, discuss what is and is not included. Regarding the topic or problem area, discuss what is and is not included in terms of concepts/theories, applications to different populations and settings. 1. Identify the forms (not types) of publications that are included. You don’t need to name specific articles, but identify the forms of literature to be included. 2. Identify the discipline(s) you are focusing in (e. g. , education, health, business, criminal justice, accounting, sociology)?
Included specialized areas within these disciplines, such as: gender theories in sociology, accounting ethics, special education for specified populations, urban violence, etc. 3. Identify the scope in terms of the years (period of time) that your literature review covers and exclusions. 5. Discuss whether you are limiting your review to U. S. literature, and/or Global literature. For global literature, identify the “countries”. If seminal books are emphasized, include the titles. Refine this part with each new draft (and particularly as your literature expands).
Library Research Plan and Strategy Lecture THIS IS THE PLAN, NOT THE REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE!! The review is presented in the second major section (Review of the Literature) Searching the Literature: A good review of the literature is dependent upon knowledge of the use of indexes and abstracts, the ability to conduct exhaustive bibliographic searches, and ability to organize the collected data meaningfully. Information literacy skills assist with information seeking and retrieval methods and scholarly communication. Recognize scholarly and peer reviewed journals (See Week 1 Lecture)
The e-Learning tutorials about Lynn Library can assist research students with the development of literature reviews using electronic databases, abstracts, bibliographic software, Internet searching, Library catalogue searching, subject resources, off-campus searching, and research and writing skills. You need to complete the tutorials. Library Research Plan/Strategy: In reporting your library plan/strategy, identify concepts, themes (key words) or descriptors and search the relevant databases for research on your topic. Be consistent with the Literature map concepts and themes.
Focus your search on primary scholarly works including: empirical, theoretical, critical/analytic, or methodological inquiry. Recognize the differences between these types of scholarly inquiry. Review dissertation abstracts. Did you do a Lynn Library catalog search on the topic (at Lynn)? Did you search selected journals? Did you limit the search to peer-review journals? Did you limit the search to certain years? If you are having difficulty in your library search, you may make an appointment with the Reference Librarian who may assist in building effective search strategies.
When visiting the Library, you should come prepared with your search words. Requesting Materials: It is suggested that you read the abstracts before requesting the materials from the Librarian, because certain abstracts may provide enough information to help you make a decision on the material’s relevance. Expect that you will obtain more literature than you will need to include in your literature review. Quantity, however, is not as important as selecting appropriate literature, that is of value and relevant.
While many published review articles may have more than 100 cited references, due to time constraints in the course, the expectation is a minimum of 20 “relevant”, scholarly citations in the text of your paper. Do not go overboard. Quality and relevance is what counts. Don’t use references from “consulting firms” or firms that are “promoting” their products or services. Look for scholarly publications. Types and Forms of Literature: Minimum Requirements i. The preference is that you review a variety of types and forms of literature so that you many learn to: ii.
Search for and evaluate different types and forms information iii. Integrate a variety of types information in the text of your paper iv. Recognize classic (seminal) works as well as current literature Give yourself time to read the material; do not make a library request for everything at once. Readings: Search Strategy worksheet: http://library. humboldt. edu/infoservices/sstrawrksht. htm http://www. noodletools. com/debbie/literacies/information/5locate/adviceengine. html http://www. lynn. du/clientuploads/Library/Graduatestudentsmanual. doc 11 Instructions for Writing the Library Research Plan and Strategy In a Review, a discussion of the plan or strategy you used to develop your literature search is presented. Don’t discuss what you “will” do, but rather “what you did”. 1. Identify the descriptors (concepts, themes, theories, phrases/key words) used to search the relevant databases for research on your topic. Include “themes” or groups of words used in the search plan. Add the terms “theory” or “research” to your themes when you are searching.
You should uses many “themes” to limit the search. Example of a theme for a library search: “leadership organizational performance research”. Try to include several themes. 2. Report databases used in your library search. 3. Indicate which of the following types of primary scholarly works were reviewed: empirical, theoretical, critical/analytic, or methodological inquiry (aim to obtain all of these)? 4. Were secondary citations of references used in your paper? Explain Why? Review APA p. 247 to understand a secondary citation of a source. Remember that these need to be limited.
In your dissertation, you need to mostly use primary sources of literature. Remember that if you report literature from secondary sources in your paper use (as cited in __). 5. Explain if you reviewed dissertation abstracts (yes/no). If so, on what topics, which abstracts? You should use these. 6. Explain if you did a Library catalog search on the topic (at Lynn or where? ) Yes/ or no 7. Provide the titles of the key journals reviewed. (Put these titles in Italics). 8. Indicated whether or not you limited the search to peer-reviewed journals? . Indicate if you limited the search to certain years? If so, which years? 10. Refer the reader to the example of a library Search Print-out that you will place in Appendix A. 11. Report any problems encountered in your library search and how these problems were managed. Refine this part with each new draft. Interest, Significance, and Rationale for the Critical Analysis Lecture In this last part of the introduction to the literature review, you explain the importance and significance of the Review that will follow.
As you read more, you will find more rationale as to why this review is important. Provide a transition sentence from this Introduction to the Review of the Literature. Then end with a statement that explains how the Review will conclude in the Discussion section. Example of concluding statement: As an emerging method of instructional delivery in higher education, and one that continually evolves with the growth in technology, it is important to understand its impact on learning, retention, instruction, and students.
This critical analysis of the literature concludes with a summary and interpretation of theoretical, empirical, and methodological literature, conclusions, and recommendations for future scholarly inquiry into web-based instruction in distance education. 4 Instructions for Writing the Interest, Significance, and Rationale for the Critical Analysis 1. Discuss if the topic is of limited interest, regional, national, or perhaps of global interest? Explain why? You can include personal interest based on experience and potential applications. 2.
Describe why it is worth studying (or examining)? 3. Indicate that the presentation of the Review of the Literature follows 4. Develop a concluding statement (see example above, in lecture) to the effect that a synopsis and interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are presented at the end of the review in the discussion section. Refine this part with each new draft. Review of the Literature About ___ (add your topic) Lecture This is the second major part of this critical analysis. This has a long lecture. Now is the time to write “your in-depth Literature Review”.
You laid the foundations for this section in the Introduction to the Review, to organize your review according to those themes. Present the theoretical literature (theories, model, constructs, concepts) about those themes, and empirical literature (studies) regarding those themes, in a proper manner. Follow the instructions (see presenting theoretical literature, and presenting empirical literature) in this Review of the Literature section. If you present the literature appropriately in this body of the review, then you will have information to present in the Discussion of the Literature. If you don’t, this Review falls apart.
Only literature presented in this Review of the Literature can be analyzed in the next section, Discussion of the Literature. You will save a stitch in time, if you follow instructions and learn how to present theories, and how to present studies, including the authors stated limitations and recommendations for future inquiry, in addition to your critique of those studies. • General comments: The theoretical and empirical literature is summarized, analyzed, evaluated, and synthesized in a more in-depth “coherent” manner within organized headings and sublevel headings. Specifically, information ertaining to theoretical, empirical, methodological, critical review, and case studies about the topic is reported. As reported previously, expect that you will obtain more literature than you will need to include in your literature review. Quantity, however, is not as important as selecting appropriate literature to present, that is of value and relevant. While many published Review articles may have more than 100 cited references, due to time constraints in the course, the expectation is a minimum of 20 “relevant”, scholarly citations in the text of your paper. This will increase to 50 references in the qualifying paper.
It certainly isn’t unusual to have over 100 references in a dissertation. Do not go overboard. Quality and relevance is what counts. Don’t use references from “consulting firms” or firms that are “promoting” their products or services. Look for scholarly publications. As you present literature in your “word” document, it is okay to talk to yourself. Make notes in the document to your self. You can use different font colors or highlights for these messages to yourself. o Perhaps you want to leave a message to yourself to review a particular article that you didn’t yet have the chance to review, or o you want to search another theme. Or you read an article, but didn’t have a chance yet to write about it – jot down notes o Use the word file as a tool where you keep all information in one place. You will find this technique very helpful in developing the qualifying paper, and in developing the your dissertation. The instructor does not mind (and in fact encourages you do to this, even in final copies0. Just make the messages “neat” – and not to distracting) Of utmost importance, is that you present your review appropriately. Practice doing it correctly immediately or you will be WASTING time (having to redo it later). Your review must be organized within the headings/sublevel headings. Insert the outline developed in the Introduction to the Review. Make sure that the outline is consistent with the organization of themes, concepts add theories in your literature map. • It is ok if you reorganize or rename the themes, but make the changes if the Organization of the R (and literature map, in the prior section). You want the Introduction to the Review, Review of the Literature, and the Discussion section all to be “internally consistent” with one another. • Instructions follow on how to present CRITICALLY present, theoretical and empirical literature.
FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS. Quotations and Paraphrasing and Critical Analysis • This is a literature review, and not your opinion. Almost all of what you say is referenced, except when you are introducing themes and concepts, and critiquing the theoretical or empirical literature (using appropriate criteria – which is explained later • Reminder: Make sure that you adhere to ethical responsibilities of providing accurate information and communicate effectively. Include “quote marks” for information that is word for word from another literature source follow APA for (Author, year, p. x). For information that is paraphrased, reference the source as (Author, year). • Whether you are referencing a quote or paraphrased information, NOTE THE LOCATION OF THE “PERIOD”. IT IS NOT BEFORE THE PARENTHESES BUT AFTER. • Do not copy any material that is word for word or paraphrase without citing sources. • Limit your quotations. We do not want a “summary” or “copy” of the literature. • You cannot present a “string of quotes”. (Quote after quote after quote). IMPORTANT: If you paraphrase as you write (it must truly be paraphrasing), cite the (author(s), year. A good way to make sure that you paraphrase is to: • Read material Move the material away from your eyesight • Write out what you recall. • Note: Paraphrasing is not changing the order of words. • Review the Required Information Literacy Tutorial which discusses plagiarism. Review the following URLs about Plagiarism, Student Writing, Citing Sources, and Paraphrasing (IMPORTANT to Review) Plagiarism and Student Writing Paraphrasing, citing sources, use of quotations, plagiarism: http://www. ipl. org/div/aplus/linkciting. htm http://depts. washington. edu/psywc/handouts/pdf/plag1. pdf http://www. hamilton. du/academics/resource/wc/usingsources. html • REFERENCE list and BIBLIOGRAPHY list o Add the complete bibliographic citation of the article you reviewed to your REFERENCE list in appropriate APA format. Don’t wait until the end when the report is due. This is often one of the worst problems, “trying to find references”. o REFERENCE list – This contains all literature “referenced in your paper. o BIBLIOGRAPHY list – This contains all literature reviewed, but NOT referenced in your paper. o If you review literature, but don’t reference it “immediately” in your paper, place it on your BIBLIOGRAPHY.
If you eventually reference in your paper, all you need to do is to cut and paste from the BIBLIOGRAPHY list, to the REFERENCE list. o Literature reviewed is placed on either the REFERENCE or the BIBLIOGRAPHY list, NOT BOTH! Organization of the Review of the Literature • There are no sublevel headings given to you in the template. • The concepts and themes in your literature map AND THE OUTLINE serve as the basis to organize this section. BE CONSISTENT. Insert for draft 1. o Use your literature map and evolving outline to organize these sublevel headings (subtitles) of the literature review.
Remember that the concepts and themes in your literature map are theoretical in nature. Thus, in developing the Review, present the concepts and themes conceptually first followed by empirical studies that support or do not support the theoretical formulations. (see guidelines that follow for presenting theoretical and empirical literature) o Follow the organization that you described. If you alter the organization, concepts and themes in this part of the review, go back to the introduction and make the corresponding changes (in the introduction – organization, map, and outline). APA: Organize in a logical, meaningful and orderly manner. Use frequent APA level subheadings to connect main ideas and topics covered in a logical sequence (see APA publication manual for examples, pp. 111-113). The main ideas are concepts and sub-concepts in your literature map. The template for this paper uses five levels of headings (depicted on APA p. 113). The rationale for five level headings is that you may continue with this Review as your qualifying paper and but more importantly, it may become part of the Second Chapter of a Dissertation (REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE). See p. 13 of APA First Idea, Theme, or Topic (Second Level APA heading, centered italics) First Subconcept or Theme Related to First Idea and Topic (Third Level APA, Left Italics) Related Subconcept or theme (Fourth Level APA, indent ? inch, italics, lower case, end with period). Related Subconcept or theme. Second Subconcept or Theme Related to First Idea and Topic (Third Level APA) Second Idea and Topic First Subconcept or Theme Related to Second Idea and Topic (Third Level APA) Second Subconcept or Theme Related to Second Idea and Topic (Third Level APA) An example follows (next page)
Example to organize the review: for the topic the influence of organizational leadership on organizational performance (organized with appropriate APA level headings), and which follow the topical outline presented in the organization of the review (see Introduction to the Literature). Note there are 4 major themes (centered, italics) to organize this review. • In the presentation of the literature review, the first two themes (Leadership and Organizational Performance) would contain “rich” theory. Who developed the theories, when? how are the concepts in the theories defined?
What are the propositions in the theories (statements of relationships), and have propositions in the theories been tested in empirical studies. (See presentation of theoretical literature – and internal and external criticism) • The second two themes Factors Influencing Organizational Performance and Leadership and Performance of Organizations would primarily focus on empirical studies that test the propositions in theories. (See presentation of empirical literature Leadership Classical, Progressive, Risk Leadership Theories Traits and Characteristics of Leaders Leadership, Power and Influence Gender and Equity Issues in Leadership Practice
Cultural Issues and Leadership Developing Teams Leading Organizational Change Organizational Leadership Development; Strategic Leadership Leadership Measurement Organizational Performance Dimensions of Organizational Performance Organizational climate. Individual performance. Team performance. Supplier/vendor perspectives. Customer satisfaction. Financial performance. Effectiveness indicators. Performance Driven Organizations Competency modeling. Managing performance. 360 degree feedback. Collaborative change. Organizational Performance Measurement Output (activities) measures in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations.
Output (activities) measures in service and product organizations. Outcome (results) measures in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. Outcome (results) measures in service and product organizations. Factors Influencing Organizational Performance Leadership and Performance of Organizations Leadership Style and Team Performance Leadership Style and Organizational Outcomes Leadership Style and Vendor/Supplier and Customer Satisfaction Transformational Leadership, Organizational culture, and Organizational effectiveness IMPORTANT: Presenting theoretical literature and empirical literature following these guidelines.
THIS IS AN ABSOLUTE MUST to understand and apply General Comments Literature reported in the Introduction of this critical analysis (should be very little), but ANY LITERATURE DISCUSSED IN THE INTRODUCTION must also be discussed here in the Review of the Literature – in depth, and linked with the appropriate concept (subtitle). • Present clearly to let the reader know if you are presenting a theory about something (theoretical literature) or a study about something (empirical literature, empirical study, research study). When you don’t use the term “study about”, it is generally assumed that you are speaking of someone’s theory. The critical analysis review distinguishes between an author’s theorizing or suggesting (author’s interpretations) versus author’s research findings (testing theories). • Always introduce the type of literature you are reporting such as: theoretical literature, empirical literature. For empirical literature, specify the type of study. This information is usually found in the abstract of the article. For empirical literature introduce as: i. Empirical – Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed ii. Empirical – Methodological iii. Empirical – Experimental, non-experimental; case study, historical, etc. v. Empirical – Descriptive, exploratory, predictive, explanatory, Reporting Theoretical Literature (IMPORTANT) Kerlinger (1973) presented a helpful definition of a theory that has “withstood” time. A theory is a set of interrelated constructs (concepts, definitions and propositions) that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among the variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting phenomena. Immanuel Kant provided this famous quote: “Experience without theory is blind but theory without experience is mere intellectual play” http://www. oop. uvic. ca/ArwrCoop/stuprepoverheads/1_Orientation/tsld003. htm Criteria that can be used to evaluate theories including theoretical frameworks, conceptual models or conceptual frameworks may be organized into internal and external criticism. a. Internal Criticism (of theories) 1. Semantics (Meaning – or definition - given to the elements such as concepts, constructs, variables): Semantics evaluates Clarity, Consistency, Correspondence between theoretical and operational definitions, and intersubjectivity (which is whether similar meanings are used by other scholars). . Syntax: (Logical Structure and Relationships Between the Elements) 1. What are the types of statements (propositions)? laws, postulates, theorems, principles, hypotheses, assumptions, empirical generalizations 2. What are the types of relationships: Time ordered, probabilities, conditional, causal, or concurrent? 3. What are the signs of the relationships? : position; inverse (negative) 4. Note: It is the propositions that are tested in theories, reformulated as hypotheses. 3.
Method of Theory Development (What is the method used in theory building – 1. Induction (Grounded theory, codification, definitional reduction or prepositional reduction); Deduction; Synthesis; Logical empirical approach) 2. Patterns: Is there a schematic model depicting the relationships between the concepts? If not, can you diagram the pattern of relationships between the key concepts? 3. Level of theory development: What kinds of outcomes are produced from the theory - (knowledge, principles, solutions, problems)? a.
Conceptual framework (definitions only), model (shows relationships between the concepts), and/or a theory (well developed propositions, well linked together, with evidence of empirical support? ) b. Is it Descriptive, exploratory, explanatory, predictive, prescriptive b. External Criticism of a Theory 1. Social Significance: 1. Value to society; theory addresses essential issues in the discipline; 2. Lends itself to further research 3. Efficacy of the theory over another in achieving desired outcomes 2. Social Utility: 1.
Pragmatic Adequacy: Is it useful? Does it contribute to understanding? Does it generate new knowledge, provide direction to in professional practice, research, education (pertinent to your topic)? 2. Scope: Is it narrow or broad? What is the degree of generality or abstractness and how does this affect is usefulness (pertinent to your topic)? 3. Complexity/Parsimony: 1. Does it explanation and interrelated many variables? 2. Could a simpler theory achieve the same purpose (parsimonious)? 4. Discrimination: 1. Can the theory be applied to more than one discipline, or is it unique to one discipline? . If it is borrowed from another discipline, are boundary lines demarcated? (example –a variety of disciplines use systems theory) 5. Empirical Validity 1. Does empirical evidence support the theory? Cite some studies. (Is there congruence between theoretical claims and empirical evidence? ) 2. Do results indicate confirmation, verification, support corroboration, or disconfirmation, failure to support the theory? 6. Social Congruence: 1. Does the theory fit with reality? 2. Is it accepted by society? a.
When you are reporting theoretical literature, select criteria from the internal and external critical approaches to adequately address your description. Present theories systematically: YOU MUST DO THIS FOR ALL THEORETICAL LITERATURE. 1. First provide a good description of what the author stated about the theory, model, framework, construct or concept. –Example: 1. Introduce the title of the book(s) or theoretical article(s) in your own words which describes the theory (not studies). Next: 2. Begin with the internal critical analysis: a.
Report the major concepts and constructs and how these are defined by the author (Semantics) b. Present how the author relates the concepts to one another (Syntax). These are propositions. c. Does the author explain how was the theory developed: Induction (Grounded theory, codification, definitional reduction or prepositional reduction); Deduction; Synthesis; Logical empirical approach) d. Explain how patterns of relationships between the concepts are explained: Is there a schematic/visual model depicting the relationships between the concepts? . Secondly, report what the theorist (or other authors) stated about the External critical review: Social Significance (important), Complexity/Parsimony-simple, Discrimination, Empirical Validity (important) and Social Congruence. It is extremely important that you indicate what the author said about empirical validity: Do they report empirical studies to support the theoretical explanations? When presenting classic or recent theories pertinent to your topic, you may certainly describe the theory, but also describe the work done to test those theories. 2.
Finally, you may provide your critique comments to the above – ie what needs to be strengthened in the theory? Determine if you can succinctly identify key strengths and limitations, and perhaps areas that can be improved? Can you see the linkages between the theory, practice, and research? Does this help to understand a fairly common student question: "How do we use these models and theories in practice? " Provide a balanced appraisal and sufficient detail (particularly with major theories) so that readers have enough information to draw their own conclusions.
Reporting Empirical Studies (Critical! ) – Review the Instructions (you should be familiar with the information based on your critique – consult the worksheets for questions) Reporting methodological studies, you may follow the empirical approach. But focus on: the method being proposed – what method is being targeted? Is it a design? A different sampling approach? Is it a method to measure concepts? Introduce the study title (in your own words), the purpose, and present as above. Reporting Case studies may include use of prior data, or secondary analysis of data for a new study.
It may also include a single subject or single organization if a case study. You may follow the above empirical approach is presenting– but be quite clear in presenting whether the authors are using someone else’s data or their own or a single subject or organizational design. Reporting Review Articles (Critical Analysis of the Literature, or Meta-analysis). First Describe what the author said: Introduce the title (in your own words). Describe the purpose of the review and its scope, including the library research plan used to obtain the literature.
What sources of information were used (literature, observations)? Present the results, conclusions and future areas of inquiry needed (example: future studies) as reported by the author. Secondly, discuss your critique of the article. Note: Meta-Analyses conduct statistical analysis of other studies (analysis of analyses) General Pointers • Important Note: It is so critical for you to get in the habit, very early on in this process, of presenting theoretical and empirical literature appropriately and systematically.
If you do, you will find it easy to develop a nice state of the art of the literature, formulate interpretations, identify important gaps, develop conclusions, and generate recommendations for future study (which is presented in the Discussion section of this report). That is your path toward successfully completing this course, moving on toward a successful qualifying paper (whether or not you stay with the topic), and understanding the dissertation. If you don’t present the literature systematically and appropriately, the review falls apart and can’t be completed. So, plan ahead, follow directions, and you will find your path to success!! Generally, related articles and research findings should be presented together (under the appropriate sublevel heading). o Report areas of agreement and disagreement. o Only a little space should be used to report minor studies. As possible, group together minor studies that have similar results, methodologies, strengths and/or weaknesses. • Major empirical studies or seminal writings (theories). It is appropriate to present major studies or seminal writings individually in more detail. • As you write, you will need to integrate and synthesize the results in some logical manner. You don’t need to report everything that you read! When reading and evaluating the research studies for possible inclusion in your review, determine the relevance, worth and significance of studies to your topic. • While you initially identified some topic, theme, or point that you wanted to develop, you may find that a new or different theme is evolving not initially considered. This may be a reformulation of your topic. If you have questions if this arises, contact the instructor. • The review should contain fairly recent work (post 1995, and preferably 2000+). While older information can be relevant, the review should aim to provide current knowledge (a “state of the art review”). Remember you need to have the “most recent literature” if it is to be “state of the art”. o You will find that there are classic studies or theoretical papers repetitively cited in the literature. These are the classic (or seminal) examples of literature in the field. While you would certainly want to refer to these in your review, it would be redundant--and probably irrelevant--for you to review them. It is generally permissible to use secondary sources for some Seminal Literature.
Remember that if you do not read the original (primary source) article/theory, but rather you are reporting what someone else says, it is found in a secondary source (use appropriate APA referencing format, as cited in). There should be a limited number of secondary sources in your report. • As you write the Review, you will see that you are generating ideas for the Discussion section- next part - (Interpretations, Conclusions and Recommendations). You can “jump” to the Discussion as you have further understanding the literature. Do it concurrently while writing this part. You will see that you are summarizing, analyzing, critiquing and relating each literature sources logically to a concept or theme related to the area of inquiry. You are finding a meaningful way to organize the review. You are organizing, integrating and synthesizing the literature and preparing to generate your discussion of conclusions and recommendations! • A good review of the literature is more than simply a summary of the research. It is both a critical evaluation of the existing research and a synthesis of that work. You will need to synthesize the literature in some logical manner. This is a skill that develops with practice.
As you write things down, review it to see if you are integrating, evaluating, and synthesizing. Are you identifying opposing views, contradictory findings, and gaps in the literature (what questions are being suggested)? Are you bringing clarity to the issues? These will be clearly presented in the Discussion of the analysis, so lay the foundation in this part of the review. • You will see that you are summarizing, but also analyzing, critiquing and relating each literature sources logically to a concept or theme related to the area of inquiry. You are finding a meaningful way to organize the review.
You are organizing, integrating and synthesizing the literature! 5 “big” Instructions on Writing the Review of the Literature About… 1. Organization (APA and Level Headings for the Outline) a. Add the topic to the title of this section, Review of the Literature…About… b. Organize the Review of the Literature according to your literature map and topical outline. Use APA level headings to organize the review in a logical, meaningful and orderly manner. c. Present related theoretical literature and research findings together. d. Organizing, integrating and synthesizing the literature needs to be highly evident! . The first draft (week 3), at the minimum should contain 1a and b above, and some literature presented as possible. Draft 2 should have this part of the paper nearly complete. 1. Content and Quality of Theoretical Literature: IMPORTANT: Present the theoretical literature systematically and appropriately. Follow these steps responding to a-d a. Introduce the name or title of the theory, model, framework, construct. Do this for each major theory, construct, or concept in your topical outline (sublevel headings). b. Internal critical analysis (what the author(s) say): 1.
For each theory, name the major concepts and constructs that organize the theory, and provide the definitions by the author (Semantics) 2. Present how the author relates the concepts to one another (Syntax). These are propositions. 3. Report if the author of the theory provides a schematic/visual model depicting the relationships between the concepts. 4. Optional: How does the author explain the way the theory developed: Induction (Grounded theory, codification, definitional reduction or prepositional reduction); Deduction; Synthesis; Logical empirical approach c.
External critical analysis report what the theorist (or other authors) state about theory – Review Lecture notes on these items 1. Social Significance (importance) 2. Social Utility 3. Complexity/Parsimony 4. Discrimination 5. Empirical Validity (Do the author(s) report empirical studies to support the theoretical explanations) 6. Social Congruence d. Provide Your critique comments to the above: What needs to be strengthened in the theory? Determine if you can succinctly identify key strengths and limitations, and perhaps areas that can be improved?
How are linkages between the theory, practice, and research described in the literature? Does this help to understand a fairly common student question: "How do we use these models and theories in practice? " Provide a balanced appraisal and sufficient detail (particularly with major theories) so that readers have enough information to draw their own conclusions about the quality of the theory. INSTRUCTIONS ALSO CONTINUED – NEXT PAGE Example Combining 2a, b, c and d (presenting theoretical literature):
In 1984, Jones introduced his seminal theory of ______________ (based on his qualitative, phenomenological studies about___ (as cited in Smith, 2004). This theory identifies 3 major constructs ____________ defined as ___. The major propositions in this theory are ________ (as cited in Smith, 2004). In the last 20 years, the theory has been revised and adapted to ___ by ____. Several empirical studies by ___, led to refinement in the theory. Brown (2000) developed a schematic model depicting these direct and indirect relationships among concepts, which continues to be examined today (Smith, 2004).
This theory is socially significant addressing essential issues about ___ in the discipline of ___, and is useful in explaining, predicting, and discriminating among those with ___ and those without ___. Thus it is a well-developed guide to ___. The theory has a good balance between simplicity and complexity, contributing to its usefulness. Studies by __ verify the propositions of __. The major proposition with conflicting results in empirical studies is ___. The theory has been adapted to ___ situations and __ populations. This is the predominant theory used to examine ____ with well-developed propositions and strong empirical support.
Competing theories are ___ (cite reference). You would then present these competing theories next.. 3. Content and Quality of Empirical Literature: IMPORTANT: Presents the empirical literature (including scientific investigations, case studies, methodological studies, secondary analyses, meta-analyses) systematically and appropriately, following these guidelines!! :)) a. Introduce the study title (paraphrased - in your own words –and the “general” design (in one sentence) b. Explain the purpose of the study is ….
And link with paraphrased research questions and hypotheses (these can be abbreviated or paraphrased – not word for word – be brief) c. Discuss the quality of the literature review presented by the author and the theories and concepts (or propositions) tested (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed; and experimental, or not experimental design) d. Be explicit in reporting the specific research design for the qualitative, quantitative, or mixed study) and o Non-Experimental - descriptive, exploratory (cross-sectional, longitudinal, predictive, etc) o Type of Experimental including type of design. . Describe the sampling method (whether or not it was probability or non-probability sampling), the specific type of sampling, the sample size and characteristics of the sample. f. Present the methods of data collection (how were each of the variables are measured-instrumentation), and provide reports of reliability and validity of quantitative the tools/measures and trustworthiness of qualitative tools. This is very important, as you will begin to see how the concepts of interest, are measured. Be fairly explicit in describing these tools. Include the names of these data collection tools. g.
Other procedures (data collection procedures and ethical considerations) h. Present the results - study findings (including hypotheses supported/not-supported), research questions answered? – Don’t restate these word for word - present in an abbreviated or paraphrased manner. i. Very important is to present the “author’s” (not your) Discussion. The discussion must include the author’s important: o Interpretations o Implications (applications for practice) o Conclusions o Limitations o Recommendations (of utmost importance, are the author’s recommendations for future areas of inquiry, example: future studies).
Include this j. Discuss your critique of the article (Introduction, Literature/Theory, Methods, Results, Discussion). Select IMPORTANT POINTS. Based on your summarizing the article, you can now identify strengths and weakness, and areas needing improvement. You can do this as you describe the study or at the end of your description of the study. Provide a balanced appraisal and sufficient detail (particularly with major studies) so that readers have enough information to weigh the results and draw their own Remember that the “critical analysis of the literature” is not a mere summary (descriptive). onclusions. It is interpretative and evaluative of an area of inquiry of scholarly work. INSTRUCTIONS CONTINUED Example follows: USE YOUR CRITIQUE WORKSHEETS AS AN AID IN DEVELOPING THE PRESENTATION FOR EACH OF THE STUDIES. Example Presenting Empirical Literature - Combining 3a -j above: - Smith (2004) conducted a study about ….. He used a non-experimental, causal comparative, quantitative design, of __ (sample-population). Smith’s literature review was thorough, current and ___ in comparing and contrasting theories about ____.
Empirical studies of ___ were examined, leading to the major gap and conflict in the literature about_________. This resulted in Smith’s study testing the proposition of ….. developed in 1998 by Jones (as cited in Smith, 2004). A non-prob
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