Global Media and Constructivism
Global Media and Constructivism Media globalization plays a significant role in the global culture. It can be very convenient for people in different countries to exchange information. Also, the exchange of trade and products between the countries has become convenient and simple too.
Nowadays, the rapid changes in technology have been increased to a new media platform, so the evolution of media is important to explore. From my view point, the globalization of media leads to better-informed citizens.
Moreover, I agree with the statement that global media contributes to the creation of a global village because it can help share cultures, and constructivists can investigate global change and transformation. But the global village also has some disadvantages, like problems with political control of the media. Media globalization cannot be stopped. It is a result of new communications technology, and it is also the prerequisite and facilitator for all other forms of globalization. Because of new technology, such as the growth of satellite broadcasting, phone system and cross-border advertising, the way people accept information has changed.
At first, people get information from newspapers and books, and then it evolved into the computer and Internet. The spread of the Internet and global communications media has expanded our information society into a global information society, and the one aspect of the globalization of the media is the multinational media company and market dominance. So, some people think that without mass media there would be no contemporary consumer society which means no globalization. In short, the media network cannot survive without the technological innovation.
In addition, the media evolved from single to multiple, from national to the global, and also from developed areas to underdeveloped areas. Some people believe that the globalization of media does not lead to better- informed citizens because political control of the media, and people do not know the information that they find in the media or Internet is reliable or not. Idealism argues that “the most fundamental feature of society is social consciousness” (The Globalization of World politics, PP163).
In short, idealism does not disregard the material forces such as media power, but the meaning of these material forces are not given by nature but driven by human interpretation. So, an idealist view of global media argues that people get their social consciousness not from natural truth, but from other people who create the information. For example, if the growing media monopolies and government deregulation have diminished the quantity, quality, and diversity of political content in the mass media, citizens never get the truth.
Therefore, the globalization of media under government control can lead to worse- informed citizens. However, I think that the globalization of media can lead to better-informed citizens because it changes people’s perception and habits, and it also expands the horizons of people. According to the movie, “Global media for a global culture? ” many years ago, there were no Asian people who knew the Christmas festival or Halloween, but these two western festivals have become two of the most popular festivals in China, Japan and Korea because the transnational media corporations came to Asia.
As normative structure theory mentioned that “actors adhere to norms not only because of benefits and costs for doing so, but also because they are related to a range of self” (The Globalization of World politics, PP163). This is means the global media has an impact on culture, and these new beliefs not only constraint actors, they also constructed categories of meanings in their identities and interests, and define standards of appropriate conduct which can lead to better-informed citizens.
Therefore, people can share similar culture and viewpoint which means the distance between the people become closer. People in some underdeveloped areas can become democratic and liberal, and we can easier understand each other. Furthermore, I agree with the statement that global media contributes to the creation of a global village because transnational media corporations are attempting to establish operations in nations around the world, and people share the same information, culture and worldview. Institutional isomorphism (such as transnational media corporations) raises issues of growing homogeneity in world politics, international community and socialization processes” (The Globalization of World politics, PP163). For example, America’s dominance in the entertainment industries (such as Disney, Time Warner) made it difficult for other cultures to produce and distribute their own cultural products. American popular culture, in addition, challenges authority and outmoded traditions.
So, the media globalization affects the development of native culture and its people, especially the impact on teenagers. Teenagers in other nations have rejected their own cultural traditions. Instead, they want to wear American styles. Additionally, it is popular for people in other countries to sing in English rather than use their native tongue (“Globalization and Mass Media” P5). So, constructivists generally hold that identities shape interests (The Globalization of World politics, PP163).
We know who we are because identities are social and are produced through interactions they can change. The global media change people’s identity, and the country is composed by the people, so the global media contributes to the creation of a global village. Therefore, “The internationalization of cultural business and cultural texts, as well as the remarkable worldwide proliferation of new communications technologies has undeniably influenced the global culture” (Hesmondhalgh, 2007:2).
While global media contributes to the creation of a global village, it also creates social, political and security problems. Some people fear the globalization of media because although the Internet connects people on a global level, people can also use it to form small groups with diverse political agendas. For this reason, the Internet’s lack of centralized control makes some governments reluctant to let their citizens have Internet access. For example, Singapore, China, and Saudi Arabia attempt to censor sites for political and religious reasons.
I think that governmental concern about how people will use the Internet is well founded: “some media and journalists wantonly distorted the political facts or add extreme rhetoric, which cause the citizen of the decline in trust in government. Many public-sphere liberals find a malaise in American democracy about declining voter participation and public mistrust and cynicism toward government” (Democratizing Global Media: One World, Many Struggles, Robert A. Hackett, PP12).
Moreover, “critical political economists and anti-globalization activists identify Western-based transnational media and ‘the organization of global information flows along free-market lines’ as agents of domination, eroding the ability of states to protect “autonomous information spaces” (Waisbord and Morris 2001: ix). Therefore, global media have been criticized for homogenizing global culture by disrupting national traditions. The Web creates a chaotic marketplace of cultures that allows the development of cultural imperialism, rather than uniting the world into one large and homogeneous global village.
So, it is very common and necessary to know that nationally organized media are subject to varying degree of political control in some countries. In conclusion, a key factor in Internet evolution is the ability of citizens to easily communicate with each other. Globalized media means that people can get information quickly and easily, and that it can lead to a global village where people share similarities and can create a more equal civilization. However, even though some people believe that the global media are enhancing the process of peace and democracy, it actually does not have completely transformative power.
For example, the radical democrats endorse media role as “government watchdogs” and “public-sphere models” and they also expect a democratic media system to counteract power inequalities within the social order. Ultimately, global media has advantages and disadvantages, so we need more critical thinking about whether the information that we find in the media or Internet is reliable or not. Work cited David Held and Anthony McGrew, The Global Transformations Reader, UK: Polity Press, PP 216, 2000 McChesney Robert, “Global Media Neoliberalism and Imperialism Monthly Review”, 52. 0, P. 1, 2001 March Peterson, David, “The Global Media: An Interview with Edward S. Herman and Robert W. McChesney. ZMagazine”, 1997 June Robert A. Hackett, Democratizing Global Media: One World, Many Struggles, PP12 Siochru, S. O. Social consequences of the globalization of the media and communication sector: Some strategic considerations, Geneva: International Labour Office, 2004 Klotzer, Charles L, “The 10 Best-Censored Stories: Key Issues that the Mass Media Largely Ignore”, St. Louis Journalism Review, 34. 270, P. 30, 2004 October Kellner, D. Theorizing Globalization” in Sociological Theory, pp285-305, 2002 Bagdikian, 2000; McChesney, 1999; Herman & Chomsky, 1988 Ingmar Zielke, Neoliberalism, Media and Globalization Western Media Policies in the 1980s and their Implications, 2010, Gottingen Peter Singer, One World the ethics of globalization, United States of America: Yale University press, one community John Baylis, Steve Smith and Patricia Owens, The Globalization of World Politics, PP163, Oxford University Press Inc. New York 2011, ———————– Wang 6