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Functional Styles

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Scientific prose styleOratorical sub-stylePublicistic styles Pragmatic aimto prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts, to disclose the internal laws of existence, development, relations between different phenomena. is to exert influence on public opinion, to convince the listener that the interpretation given by the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the speech not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as well. o exert influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the speech, essay or article not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as well Situation of application

The genre of scientific works is mostly characteristic of the written form of language (scientific articles, monographs or textbooks), but it may also be found in its oral form (in scientific reports, lectures, discussions at conferences, etc.

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The oratorical sub- style is used in public speeches on political and social problems of the day, in orations and addresses on solemn occasions as public weddings, funerals and jubilees, in sermons and debates and also in the speeches of counsel and judges in courts of law. The publicistic style is used in public speeches and printed public works which are addressed to a broad audience and devoted to important social or political events, public problems of cultural or moral character.

Phonological featuresA group of some learned words drawn from the Romance languages and, though fully adapted to the English phonetic system, some of them continue to sound singularly foreign. Their very sound seems to create complex associations: deleterious, emollient, incommodious, meditation, illusionary. Use of exclamations to attract listener’s attention. Use of a strong rhythm and a clear rising + falling intonation sequence, convey a sense of rhetorical power, structural control, and semantic completeness.

They are widely used in formal writing. And they are especially common in political speeches, where the third item provides a climax of expression which can act as a cue for applause. Use of exclamations to attract listener’s attention. Semantic featuresSemantic accuracy. Words are used in their primary logical meaning. Hardly a single word will be found here which is used in more than one meaning. Nor will there be any words with contextual meaning. Even the possibility of ambiguity is avoided.

The stylistic devices employed in the oratorical style are determined by the conditions of communication. An antithesis is framed by parallel constructions, which, in their turn, are accompanied by repetition, while a climax can be formed by repetitions of different kinds. The stylistic devices employed in the oratorical style are determined by the conditions of communication. An antithesis is framed by parallel constructions, which, in their turn, are accompanied by repetition, while a climax can be formed by repetitions of different kinds.

Grammatical featuresnominal character ( the predominance of nouns over verbs) in the use of parts of speech, the use of prepositional “of-phrases” to substitute the genitive case, transposition of the classes of nouns, wide use of the Passive Voice, Indefinite Tenses, specialization of pronouns in demonstrative and intensification functions, numerous conjunctions revealing the logical order of the text as well as double conjunctions ( not merely… but also, whether … or both… and, as… s), adverbs of logical connection ;Use of the 1st person pronoun we; 2nd person pronoun you: We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness…(Th. Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence). The use of contractions I’ll; won’t; haven’t; isn’t and others. Use of Figures of Repetition and intensification. Use of the 1st person pronoun we; 2nd person pronoun you. The use of contractions I’ll; won’t; haven’t; isn’t and others.

Use of Figures of Repetition and intensification. Stylistic usage of morphological forms. Vocabulary usedhighly specialized scientific terminology, terminological groups, revealing the conceptual systems of the scientific style, the peculiarities of the use of terms in scientific speech, the use of nouns and verbs in abstract meanings, special reference words, scientific phraseology – cliches, stereotyped and hackneyed word combinations and idioms, priority of neutral vocabulary, limitations in the use of emotional- evaluative and expressive vocabulary and phraseology, absence of on-literary vocabulary and phraseology ( slang words, vulgarisms, obscene words) , peculiarities in word- building (standard suffixes and prefixes, mainly of Greek and Latin origin – tele-, morpho, philo- -ism, etc. , peculiarities in the scarce use of imagery (usually trite and hackneyed, the priority of the functions of intensification and decoration, non-systematic, narrow contextual character, absence of rich associations, schematic and generalized character)The oratory is usually characterized by emotional colouring and connotations. The vocabulary of speeches is usually elaborately chosen and remains mainly in the sphere of high-flown style.

Use of of neutral and bookish vocabulary, wide use of language means to actualize chronotop (proper and geographical names, abundance of statistics, toponymic and proper names, facts and data), means of evaluation, neologisms, social political terminology, a great number of loan-words and international words, use words and word-combinations of other styles ( especially, conversational), against the general background of the bookish style vocabulary, including terminology as well as means of imagery to increase expressiveness / trite metaphors, metonymies, personification, metaphorical paraphrases, metaphorical use of terminology/, newspaper terms: newspaper vocabulary and cliches (journalese and bookish), decomposition of phraseological units. Word-building: loan suffixes and prefixes as well as combination of words;

Morphological featuresSingular forms indicate mainly impossibility of referring number notion to the phenomena which are expressed by word-forms, so here weakening of number meaning takes place, because the form belongs to the abstract nounsThe use of the singular number of nouns in their collective meaning, plural number for the definition of generalization, wide use of the superlative degree of adjectives in order to reveal expressiveness as well as the use of adjectives-colouratives, substantiation and evaluation of the use of numerals, adjectives and participles. The use of the singular number of nouns in their collective meaning, plural number for the definition of generalization, wide use of the superlative degree of adjectives in order to reveal expressiveness as well as the use of adjectives-colouratives, substantiation and evaluation of the use of numerals, adjectives and participles. Syntactical featuresAverage sentence length (7-52 words) narmal academic writing.

Priority of full, logically correct, regular syntactical models, the syntax of simple sentence in the scientific speech – extensive use of extended two-member sentence, priority in the use of compound sentences, extensive use of secondary predicative constructions ( Complex Object, Participial and Gerundial Constructions), wide use of conjunctions and denominative prepositions, concise expression of syntactical connection in word combinations, sentences, groups of sentences, absolute priority of declarative sentences in the use of communicative types of sentences; Use of complex syntax, complex, composite and simple extended sentences, sentences in many cases make up the whole paragraphs, a wide use of attributive groups, and infinitives, participles, gerunds and constructions with them, use of syntactical complexes (Complex Object, Complex Subject), Nominal Absolute Participial Constructions, specific word order.

Average sentence length (9-11words) and average degree of complexity in the sentence structure. Wide use of declarative sentences. The use of questions, exclamatory sentences for the sake of expressiveness. Publicistic style is characterized by coherent and logical syntactical structure, with an expanded system of connectives and careful paragraphing. Use of complex syntax, complex, composite and simple extended sentences, sentences in many cases make up the whole paragraphs, a wide use of attributive groups, and infinitives, participles, gerunds and constructions with them, use of syntactical complexes (Complex Object, Complex Subject), Nominal Absolute Participial Constructions, specific word order.

Means of expressive syntax: inversions, parallelism, antithesis, parcellation, gradation, isolation, different types of the author’s words presentation and conversational constructions, different patterns in the use of homogeneous parts of the sentence – double, three-element and multi-element; Types of texts (see Morokhovskiy)According to the type of discourses it can be scientific, but popular scientific style which combines the features of scientific and belles-lettres styles can also existTransactionalThe expository text type, Mass Media text type Genres of texts (see Morokhovskiy)The genre of scientific works is mostly characteristic of the written form of language (scientific articles, monographs or textbooks), but it may also be found in its oral form (in scientific reports, lectures, discussions at conferences, etc. ); in the latter case this style has some features of colloquial speech. Transactional genreExpository genre Conclusion Different scolars subdivide functional styles in different way for example the classification of I. R. Galperin, M. D. Kuznets, I. V. Arnold , A. N. Morokhovsky in some aspects are the same but in other the differs, and the same we have with the division of the genres and text types.

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