Last Updated 28 Jan 2021

Financial Statement Analysis of Ibm

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Financial Statement Analysis of IBM Financial Statement Analysis of IBM I. Company Facts IBM – International Business Machines Corporation The home office of IBM is located in Armonk, Town of North Castle, New York, United States. IBM was founded in 1911 as the Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR) through a merger of three companies: the Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, and the Computing Scale Company.

CTR adopted the name International Business Machines in 1924, using a name previously designated to CTR's subsidiary in Canada and later South America. Standard Industrial Classification Codes are 7379 which are mainly on computer and relative stuff. Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of IBM now is Virginia M. Rometty. Chairman of the Board of IBM now is Samuel J. Palmisano. The end date of recent fiscal year of IBM is Dec. 31st 2011. Main services IBM provides include business consulting, IT related services, outsourcing service and training.

Main products IBM provides include mainframe, software, system and storage. IBM’s major operations consist of five business segments: Global Technology Services, Global Business Services, Software, Systems and Technology and Global Financing. In the latest fiscal year, IBM has an amount of 433,362 wholly owned employees all over the world. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PwC) is the independent auditor retained to audit IBM’s consolidated financial Statements and the effectiveness of the company's internal control over financial reporting.

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The stock ticker symbol is IBM. IBM common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, the Chicago Stock Exchange, and outside the United States. And the latest stock price was $188. 32 on Nov. 14th 2012 on NYSE. II. Business and Strategy Analysis 1. Industry Description and Competitive Anlysis Since IBM is a highly diversified company, it concentrates on several industries at the same time. So let’s say IBM mainly concentrates on the computer related hardware and software manufacturing industries. As we all now, these two industries supplement each other and depend on each other while the most competitive companies always work on both industries at the same time. The computer related software and hardware manufacturing industry is characterized by significant research and development activity and rapid technological change. The rapid pace of innovation in this sector creates a constant demand for newer and faster products and applications. While the sector has grown faster than most other industries over the past several decades, it faces challenges from rising costs, global market share, and the rapid pace of innovation.

The main competitors for IBM now are Hewlett-Packard, Dell and Microsoft. Here I will use the Porter five forces analysis to give a competitive analysis among these four companies. Threat of new competition: The market of this industry is profitable in some parts like high-level software and frames, not too profitable in some other parts like PCs. So we can say the market is still profitable and is attracting the new entrants, which has the possibility to decrease profitability for all firms in this industry.

While in this industry, because of the existence of several big companies, the barriers to entry are relatively high which are non-profitable for the new entry firms. The several big companies have held very high brand equity, customer loyalty, efficient distribution methods and scale effect to decrease the costs and increase the profits. There is not too much threat from the new firms to compete with IBM, there are high possibility for other main competitors like HP, Dell and Microsoft to enter the markets where IBM is making high profit, well they have the R&D capabilities.

But to make the biggest profits, although IBM's main competitors are Hewlett-Packard, Dell and Microsoft, each of these companies has a different focus area. Dell makes most of its money on PC and server hardware, while Hewlett-Packard is more diversified as the leader in PCs and Imaging ; Printing as well as offering IT services and Microsoft concentrates on the computer software development. So we can conclude that there is threat of new competition, but the level is relatively low.

Threat of substitute products or services: The threat of substitute products or services is relatively high compared with the threat of new competition. Also these threats come from the main competitors. For products, such as PC, most customers will compare the price, screen size, life time and other attributes instead of just the brand the same way as services such as IT consulting etc. Bargaining power of customers: The bargaining power of customers is also described as the market of outputs: the ability of customers to put the firm under pressure, which also affects the customer's sensitivity to price changes.

In this factor, because customers of these two industries have many channels to access the products and services, high information availability, different choices, differentiated advantages of products and customers is also kind of price sensitive. So we can conclude that the bargaining power of customers is strong. Bargaining power of suppliers: The bargaining power of suppliers is also described as the market of inputs. Suppliers of raw materials, components, labor, and services (such as expertise) to the firm can be a source of power over the firm, when there are few substitutes.

Because there are plenty of suppliers in most parts, presence of substitute keeps being produced, degree of differentiation of inputs is not high enough and supplier competition is very strong. Then we can conclude that bargaining power of suppliers is also in a lower level. Intensity of competitive rivalry: Intensity of competitive rivalry is the major determinant of the competitiveness of the industry. Sustainable competitive advantages through innovation, all these four big competitive companies have strong R&D team and invest much money on it.

And we can always see the advertisements of their products anywhere. Each company has a differentiated competitive strategy to concentrate on their own areas and holds sustainable competitive advantages through innovation. So we can conclude that the intensity of competitive rivalry is very high. Given the Porter five forces analysis above, here we have a general conclusion that computer related hardware and software industries are relatively highly competitive and sustainable based on the current situation and future development trends.

There do have some profitable niche market and some areas can be developed further. The big four companies have their own advantages and emphasis and also compete heavily with each other. There is no easy way for each of them to lead in all. 2. Industry’s Future Prospects Assessment When we come to talk about the future prospects of computer related hardware and software industries, I’m sure that it will not be that promising like nanotechnology or genetic therapy which is still in research period, since he computer related hardware and software industries have been developed many years, most of products, technologies and services have been mature enough. But it is still profitable and sustainable because the world has been established based on these two industries. Without their support, the world cannot step forward even a little. And the intense competition and fast replacement speed will drive these two industries to be developed faster and faster.

There may be some lawsuits and governmental regulations there confronting companies, such as the plagiarization, copyright infringement, anti-monopoly, cutthroat competition, tax issue, local protection and so on. These will be the main legal issues that companies of two these industries are certainly meeting now and will still never end in the future. Plagiarization and copyright infringement will be the two main issues that these companies should pay more emphasis on cuz these two are the vital parts for them to keep their competitive advantages and make profits.

Incorporating the relative small companies may be judged by the court saying it is buying the potential competitor due to the concern of monopoly of government. Cutthroat competition may not happen, while once it happened, it will certainly be a disaster. Tax issue and the local protection are always come together. Local government may protect the local companies by dealing high tax to the foreign competitors. Furthermore, due to the fast replacement speed, the price of products and services in these two industries will never be high as long as there is no monopoly.

So the cost control is one of the key parts to determine these companies’ future. And innovation will never be too much. 3. Summarization and Evaluation of IBM’s Future Goals and Strategies The next decade holds enormous promise for IBM. They are uniquely positioned to deliver the benefits of a vast new natural resource – a gusher of data from both man-made and natural systems that can now be tapped to help businesses and institutions succeed in an increasingly complex and dynamic global economy.

IBM has steadily realigned its business to lead in a new era of computing and to enable its clients to benefit from the new capabilities that era is creating. As a consequence, its investors benefit from a business model that is both sustainable over the long term and fueled by some of the world’s most attractive high-growth markets and technologies. It will be on track toward its 2015 Road Map goal of at least $20 in operation earnings per share and $20 billion in revenue growth by 2015. This goal for IBM is quite suitable.

There are four high-growth spaces as following, growth markets, business analytics, cloud and smarter planet. These four spaces IBM is working hard on will certainly drive to high profits due to its high emphasis and profession. The world is undergoing disruption, but IBM now stands out among its industry peers and in business at large as distinctively able to keep moving to the future, and to keep generating differentiating value for its clients, its employees and the citizens of the world. III. Accounting Analysis

The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and foot notes of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM or the company) have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP). 1. Revenue The revenue recognition principle provides guidance on when a company must recognize revenue. To recognize means to record it. If revenue is recognized too early, a company would look more profitable than it is. If revenue is recognized too late, a company would look less profitable than it is. The company recognizes revenue when it is realized or realizable and earned.

The company considers revenue realized or realizable and earned when it has persuasive evidence of an arrangement, delivery has occurred, the sales price is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured. Delivery does not occur until products have been shipped or services have been provided to the client, risk of loss has transferred to the client, and either client acceptance has been obtained, client acceptance provisions have lapsed, or the company has objective evidence that the criteria specified in the client acceptance provisions have been satisfied.

The sales price is not considered to be fixed or determinable until all contingencies related to the sale have been resolved. IBM’s revenue was growing in an increasing speed and its pre-tax income margin grew from 18. 9 percent in 2009 to 19. 7 percent in 2010 to 20. 02 percent in 2011 which is the ninth consecutive increasing year. If only based on this, IBM was doing better and better in last three years. 2. Major Expenses The expense recognition (or matching) principle, prescribes that a company record the expenses it incurred to generate the revenue reported.

The expense recognition (or matching) principle aims to record expenses in the same accounting period as the revenues that are earned as a result of those expenses. This matching of expenses with the revenue benefits is a major part of the adjusting process. Under the accrual basis of accounting, expenses are recognized when incurred, usually when goods are received or services are consumed. This may not be when the goods or services are actually paid for. The point at which an expense is recognized is dependent on the nature of the transaction or other event that gives rise to the expense.

The major expense of IBM includes stock-based compensation, prepared expense, advertising and promotional expense, research expense, development expense, engineering expense, workforce rebalancing charges, retirement-related costs, amortization of acquired intangibles assets, interest expense and other expense. Below tables show the main expenses IBM recognized from 2009 to 2011. Table 3-2-1 Total Expense and Other Income ($ in millions) For the year ended December 31:| 2011| 2010| 2009|

Total consolidated expense and other (income)| $29,135| $26,291| $25,647| Total operating (non-GAAP) expense and other (income) | $28,875| $26,202| $25,603| Total consolidated expense-to-revenue ratio| 27. 30%| 26. 30%| 26. 80%| Operating (non-GAAP) expense-to-revenue ratio| 27. 00%| 26. 20%| 26. 70%| We can see from this table that the expense is increasing with time goes on. While compared with the increasing speed of revenue and that of expense-to-revenue, we can figure out a little bit progress on expense control of IBM. Table 3-2-2 Selling, General and Administrative ($ in millions) For the year ended December 31:| 2011| 2010| 2009|

Selling, general and administrative expense| | | | Selling, general and administrative—other| $20,287| $18,585| $17,872| Advertising and promotional expense| $1,373| $1,337| $1,255| Workforce rebalancing charges| $440| $641| $474| Retirement-related costs| $603| $494| $503| Amortization of acquired intangibles assets| $289| $253| $285| Stock-based compensation| $514| $488| $417| Bad debt expense| $88| $40| $147| Total consolidated selling, general and administrative expense| $23,594| $21,837| $20,952| Non-operating adjustments| | | |

Amortization of acquired intangible assets| ($289)| ($253)| ($285)| Acquisition-related charges| ($20)| ($41)| ($8)| Non-operating retirement-related (costs)/income| ($13)| $84| $127| Operating (non-GAAP) selling, general and administrative expense| $23,272| $21,628| $20,787| Table 3-2-3 Research, Development and Engineering ($ in millions) For the year ended December 31:| 2011| 2010| 2009| Total consolidated research, development and engineering| $6,258| $6,026| $5,820| Operating (non-GAAP) research, development and engineering| $6,345| $6,152| $5,943| Table 3-2-4 Interest Expense ($ in millions)

For the year ended December 31:| 2011| 2010| 2009| Interest expense| $411| $368| $402| From all the tables above, we can find that the most important or the highest portion of the expense is the selling, general and administrative expense which includes most of the expense. 3. Investments IBM’s 2009 cash investment was $1. 2 billion for six acquisitions — five of them in key areas of software. And after investing $ 5. 8 billion in R &D and $3. 7 billion in net capital expenditures, IBM was able to return more than $10 billion to you — $7. billion through share repurchase and $2. 9 billion through dividends. Last year’s dividend increase was 10 percent, marking the 14th year in a row in which it has raised its dividend. IBM’s 2010 cash flow has enabled it to invest in the business and to generate substantial returns to investors. Our 2010 cash investment was $6 billion for 17 acquisitions— 13 of them in key areas of software. After investing $6 billion in R&D and $4 billion in net capital expenditures, IBM was able to return more than $18 billion to you— $15. billion through share repurchases and $3. 2 billion through dividends. Last year’s dividend increase was 18 percent, marking the 15th year in a row in which it has raised its dividend. Over the past decade, IBM has returned $107 billion to you in the form of dividends and share repurchases, while investing $70 billion in capital expenditures and acquisitions, and almost $60 billion in R&D. IBM’s 2011 cash flow has enabled IBM to invest in the business and to generate substantial returns to investors, while spending $6. billion on R&D. In 2011 IBM invested $1. 8 billion for five acquisitions in key areas of software and $4. 1 billion in net capital expenditures. IBM was able to return $18. 5 billion to you — $15 billion through share repurchases and $3. 5 billion through dividends. Last year’s dividend increase was 15 percent, marking the 16th year in a row in which IBM has raised its dividend, and the 96th consecutive year in which it has paid one. From the table and the description above, the R&D investment was always above 5% of total revenue.

IBM put much emphasis on its R&D to keep the sustainable development and competitive advantages. 4. Inventories Raw materials, work in process and finished goods are stated at the lower of average cost or market. Cash flows related to the sale of inventories are reflected in net cash from operating activities in the Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows. Table 3-4-1 Inventories ($ in millions) At December 31:| 2011| 2010| 2009| Finished goods| $589| $432| $533| Work in process and raw materials| $2,007| $2,018| $1,960| Total| $2,595| $2,450| $2,494| 5.

Property, Plant and Equipment Property, plant and equipment are carried at cost and depreciated over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method. The estimated useful lives of certain depreciable assets are as follows: buildings, 30 to 50 years; building equipment, 10 to 20 years; land improvements, 20 years; plant, laboratory and office equipment, 2 to 20 years; and computer equipment, 1. 5 to 5 years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the related lease term, rarely exceeding 25 years.

Below is the table of Property, Plant and Equipment from 2009 to 2011 including the depreciation. Table 3-5-1 Property, Plant and Equipment ($ in millions) At December 31:| 2011| 2010| 2009| Land and land improvements| $786| $777| $737| Buildings and building improvements| $9,531| $9,414| $9,314| Plant, laboratory and office equipment| $26,843| $26,676| $9,314| Plant and other property—gross| $37,160| $36,867| $35,940| Less: Accumulated depreciation| $24,703| $24,435| $23,485| Plant and other property—net| $12,457| $12,432| $12,455| Rental machines| $2,964| $3,422| $3,656|

Less: Accumulated depreciation| $1,538| $1,758| $1,946| Rental machines—net| $1,426| $1,665| $1,710| Total—net| $13,883| $14,096| $14,165| The data from the table show a relatively steadily decreasing status of IBM’s property, plant and equipment in all. This means a good control and a relatively 6. Goodwill and Intangibles Below tables show the intangibles from 2009 to 2011 Table 3-6-1 Intangibles in 2009 ($ in millions) At December 31, 2009:| GrossCarryingAmount| Accumulated Amortization| Net Carrying Amount| Intangible asset class| | | |

Capitalized software| $1,765| ($846)| $919| Client relationships| $1,367| ($677)| $690| Completed technology| $1,222| ($452)| $770| Patents/trademarks| $174| ($59)| $115| Other*| $94| ($75)| $19| Total| $4,622| ($2,109)| $2,513| Table 3-6-2 Intangibles in 2010 ($ in millions) At December 31, 2010:| GrossCarryingAmount| Accumulated Amortization| Net Carrying Amount| Intangible asset class| | | | Capitalized software| $1,558| ($726)| $831| Client relationships| $1,709| ($647)| $1,062| Completed technology| $2,111| ($688)| $1,422|

In-process R&D| $21| $0| $21| Patents/trademarks| $211| ($71)| $140| Other*| $39| ($28)| $11| Total| $5,649| ($2,161)| $3,488| Table 3-6-3 Intangibles in 2011 ($ in millions) At December 31, 2011:| GrossCarryingAmount| AccumulatedAmortization| NetCarryingAmount| Intangible asset class| | | | Capitalized software| $1,478| ($678)| $799| Client relationships| $1,751| ($715)| $1,035| Completed technology| $2,156| ($745)| $1,411| In-process R&D| $22| ($1)| $21| Patents/trademarks| $207| ($88)| $119| Other*| $29| ($22)| $7| | $5,642| ($2,250)| $3,392|

The net carrying amount of intangible assets decreased $96 million during the year ended December 31, 2011, primarily due to amortization, partially offset by intangible asset additions. No impairment of intangible assets was recorded in any of the periods presented. Total amortization was $1,226 million, $1,174 million and $1,221 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 respectively. The aggregate intangible amortization expense for acquired intangibles (excluding capitalized software) was $634 million, $517 million and $489 million for the years ended December 31, 2011, 2010 and 2009 respectively.

In addition, in 2011 the company retired $1,133 million of fully amortized intangible assets, impacting both the gross carrying amount and accumulated amortization for this amount. The amortization expense for each of the five succeeding years relating to intangible assets currently recorded in the Consolidated Statement of Financial Position is estimated to be the following at December 31, 2011: Table 3-6-4 Estimated consolidated statement of financial position ($ in millions) | Capitalized Software| Acquired Intangibles| Total| 012| $480| $634| $1,113| 2013| $250| $590 | $840 | 2014| $70| $446 | $516 | 2015| —| $340 | $340 | 2016| —| $303 | $303 | The changes in the goodwill balances by reportable segment, for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2010 and 2011, are as follows: Table 3-6-5 Goodwill Balances in 2009 ($ in millions) Segment| Balance anuary 1, 2009| Goodwill Additions| Purchase Price Adjustments| Divestitures| Foreign Currency Translation and Other Adjustments| Balance December 31, 2009|

Global Business Services| $3,870 | —| —| —| $172 | $4,042 | Global Technology Services| $2,616 | $10 | $1 | —| $150 | $2,777 | Software| $10,966 | $994 | ($50)| ($13)| $708 | $12,605 | Systems and Technology| $772 | —| ($7)| —| $1 | $12,605 | Total| $18,226 | $1,004 | ($56)| ($13)| $1,031 | $20,190 | Table 3-6-6 Goodwill Balances in 2010 ($ in millions) Segment| Balance anuary 1, 2010| Goodwill Additions| Purchase Price Adjustments| Divestitures| Foreign Currency Translation and Other Adjustments| Balance December 31, 2010|

Global Business Services| $4,042 | $252 | $0 | —| $35 | $4,329 | Global Technology Services| $2,777 | $32 | ($1)| —| ($104)| $2,704 | Software| $12,605 | $4,095 | ($52)| —| $315 | $16,963 | Systems and Technology| $766 | $375 | ($1)| —| ($1)| $1,139 | Total| $20,190 | $4,754 | ($54)| —| $245 | $25,136 | Table 3-6-7 Goodwill Balances in 2009 ($ in millions) Segment| Balance anuary 1, 2011| Goodwill Additions| Purchase Price Adjustments| Divestitures| Foreign Currency Translation and Other Adjustments| Balance December 31, 2011|

Global Business Services| $4,329 | $14 | $0 | ($10)| ($20)| $4,313 | Global Technology Services| $2,704 | —| ($1)| ($2)| ($55)| $2,646 | Software| $16,963 | $1,277 | $10 | ($2)| ($127)| $18,121 | Systems and Technology| $1,139 | —| ($6)| —| $0 | $1,133 | Total| $25,136 | $1,291 | $2 | ($13)| ($203)| $26,213 | Purchase price adjustments recorded in the 2011, 2010 and 2009 were related to acquisitions that were completed on or prior to December 31, 2010, 2009 or 2008 respectively, and were still subject to the measurement period that ends at the earlier of 12 months from the acquisition date or when information becomes available.

There were no goodwill impairment losses recorded in 2011, 2010 or 2009 and the company has no accumulated impairment losses. IV. Financial Analysis 1. Financial Ratio Display and Interpretation 2. 1 Liquidity and Efficiency Ratios a. Current ratio 2011 Current ratio=Current assetsCurrent liabilities=50,92842,123=1. 21:1 2010 Current ratio=Current assetsCurrent liabilities=48,11640,562=1. 19:1 The current ratio is a financial ratio that measures whether or not a firm has enough resources to pay its debts over the next 12 months. It compares a firm's current assets to its current liabilities.

Here, we can conclude that IBM is totally able to pay for its debt. b. Quick ratio (Acid-test ratio) 2011 Quick ratio=Cash+Short-term investments+ Current receivablesCurrent liabilities=11,922+4,895+18,38242,123=0. 84:1 2010 Quick ratio=Cash+Short-term investments+ Current receivablesCurrent liabilities=10,661++4,895+17,39140,562=0. 81:1 Quick assets are cash, short-term investments, and current receivables. These are the most liquid types of current assets. The acid-test ratio, also called quick ratio, reflects on a company’s short-term liquidity.

The quick ratio is more conservative than the current ratio, a more well-known liquidity measure, because it excludes inventory from current assets. Inventory is excluded because some companies have difficulty turning their inventory into cash. Here, the quick ratio is pretty good for IBM. c. Accounts receivable turnover 2011 Accounts receivable turnover=Net salesAverage accounts receivable, net=106,91617,886. 5=5. 97 times 2010 Accounts receivable turnover=Net salesAverage accounts receivable, net=99,87016,724=5. 97 times

An accounting measure used to quantify a firm's effectiveness in extending credit as well as collecting debts. The receivables turnover ratio is an activity ratio, measuring how efficiently a firm uses its assets. d. Inventory turnover 2011 Inventory turnover=Cost of goods soldAverage inventory=56,7782,522. 5=22. 51 times 2010 Inventory turnover=Cost of goods soldAverage inventory=53,8572,472=21. 89 times The Inventory turnover is a measure of the number of times inventory is sold or used in a time period such as a year. e. Days’ sales uncollected 011 Days’ sales uncollected=Accounts receivable, netNet sales*365=18,382106,916*365=62. 75 days 2010 Days’ sales uncollected=Accounts receivable, netNet sales*365=17,39199,870*365=63. 56 days Accounts receivable turnover provides insight into how frequently a company collects its accounts. Days’ sales uncollected is one measure of this activity. f. Days’ sales in inventory 2011 Days’ sales in inventory=Ending inventoryCost of goods sold*365=2,59556,778*365=16. 68 days 2010 Days’ sales in inventory=Ending inventoryCost of goods sold*365=2,45053,857*365=16. 0 days Days’ sales in inventory is a useful measure in evaluating inventory liquidity. A measure of how quickly a company turns its inventory into sales. Days’ sales in inventory is linked to inventory in a way that days’ sales uncollected is linked to receivables. g. Total assets turnover 2011 Total assets turnover=Net salesAverage total assets=106,916114,942. 5=0. 93 times 2010 Total assets turnover=Net salesAverage total assets=99,870111,237=0. 90 times The total asset turnover ratio measures the ability of a company to use its assets to efficiently generate sales.

This ratio considers all assets, current and fixed. Those assets include fixed assets, like plant and equipment, as well as inventory, accounts receivable, as well as any other current assets. 2. 2 Solvency Ratios a. Debt ratio 2011 Debt ratio=Total liabilitiesTotal assets=96,197 116,433 =82. 6% 2010 Debt ratio=Total liabilitiesTotal assets=90,279113,452=79. 6% A ratio that indicates what proportion of debt a company has relative to its assets. The measure gives an idea to the leverage of the company along with the potential risks the company faces in terms of its debt-load. b. Equity ratio 011 Equity ratio=Total equityTotal assets=20,236116,433=17. 4% 2010 Equity ratio=Total equityTotal assets=23,172113,452=20. 4% A financial ratio indicating the relative proportion of equity used to finance a company's assets. The two components are often taken from the firm's balance sheet or statement of financial position (so-called book value), but the ratio may also be calculated using market values for both, if the company's equities are publicly traded. c. Interest coverage ratio 2011 Interest coverage ratio=Income before interest expense and income taxesInterest expense=22,904411=55. times 2010 Interest coverage ratio=Income before interest expense and income taxesInterest expense=20,923368=56. 9 times A metric used to measure a company's ability to meet its debt obligations. It is calculated by taking a company's earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) and dividing it by the total interest payable on bonds and other contractual debt. It is usually quoted as a ratio and indicates how many times a company can cover its interest charges on a pretax basis. Failing to meet these obligations could force a company into bankruptcy. 2. Profitability Ratios a. Return on total assets 2011 Return on total assets=Net incomeAverage total assets=15,855114,942. 5=13. 8% 2010 Return on total assets=Net incomeAverage total assets=14,833 111,237=13. 3% A ratio that measures a company's earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) against its total net assets. The ratio is considered an indicator of how effectively a company is using its assets to generate earnings before contractual obligations must be paid. b. Return on equity 2011 Return on equity=Net income-Preferred dividendsAverage equity=15,855-3,47321704=57. % 2010 Return on equity=Net income-Preferred dividendsAverage equity=14,833- 3,177 22963. 5=50. 8% The amount of net income returned as a percentage of shareholders equity. Return on equity measures a corporation's profitability by revealing how much profit a company generates with the money shareholders have invested. c. Net income as a percentage of net sales (Profit margin ratio) 2011 Net income as a percentage of net sales=Net incomeNet sales=15,855106,916=14. 8% 2010 Net income as a percentage of net sales=Net incomeNet sales=14,833 99,870=14. % A ratio of profitability calculated as net income divided by revenues, or net profits divided by sales. It measures how much out of every dollar of sales a company actually keeps in earnings. Profit margin is very useful when comparing companies in similar industries. A higher profit margin indicates a more profitable company that has better control over its costs compared to its competitors. d. Gross profit rate (Gross margin ratio) 2011 Gross profit rate=Net sales-Cost of goods soldNet sales=106,916-56,778106,916=46. 9% 2010 Gross profit rate=Net sales-Cost of goods soldNet sales=99,870-5385799,870=46. % A company's total sales revenue minus its cost of goods sold, divided by the total sales revenue, expressed as a percentage. The gross margin represents the percent of total sales revenue that the company retains after incurring the direct costs associated with producing the goods and services sold by a company. The higher the percentage, the more the company retains on each dollar of sales to service its other costs and obligations. 2. 4 Market ratios a. Price-Earnings ratio 2011 Price-Earnings ratio=Market price per common shareEarnings per share=183. 8813. 25=13. 9:1 010 Price-Earnings ratio=Market price per common shareEarnings per share=146. 7611. 69=12. 6:1 P/E ratio is an equity valuation measure defined as market price per share divided by annual earnings per share. b. Dividend yield 2011 Dividend yield=Annual cash dividends per shareMarket price per share=2. 90183. 88=1. 6% 2010 Dividend yield=Annual cash dividends per shareMarket price per share=2. 50146. 76=1. 7% A financial ratio that shows how much a company pays out in dividends each year relative to its share price. In the absence of any capital gains, the dividend yield is the return on investment for a stock. . Comparison and Interpretation of Ratio Values With Main Competitors Microsoft All the comparisons are based on the data of 2011. 3. 5 Liquidity and Efficiency Ratios a. Current ratio 2011 IBM Current ratio=Current assetsCurrent liabilities=50,92842,123=1. 21:1 2011 Microsoft Current ratio=Current assetsCurrent liabilities=74,91828,774=2. 60:1 The lower current ratio means that Microsoft has more resources to pay its debts over the next 12 months. b. Quick ratio (Acid-test ratio) 2011 IBM Quick ratio=Cash+Short-term investments+ Current receivablesCurrent liabilities=11,922+4,895+18,38242,123=0. 84:1 011 Microsoft Quick ratio=Cash+Short-term investments+ Current receivablesCurrent liabilities= 9,610+43,162+14,98728,774=2. 35:1 Microsoft has a higher quick ratio which means that Microsoft’s shot-term liquidity is better than that of IBM. c. Accounts receivable turnover 2011 IBM Accounts receivable turnover=Net salesAverage accounts receivable, net=106,91617,886. 5=5. 97 times 2011 Microsoft Accounts receivable turnover=Net salesAverage accounts receivable, net=69,94314000. 5=5. 00 times The similar accounts receivable turnover means that both the companies have a relatively good ability to use its assets efficiently. . Inventory turnover 2011 IBM Inventory turnover=Cost of goods soldAverage inventory=56,7782,522. 5=22. 51 times 2011 Microsoft Inventory turnover=Cost of goods soldAverage inventory=53,8571,372=39. 25 times Microsoft has a higher inventory turnover which means a better inventory control. e. Days’ sales uncollected 2011 IBM Days’ sales uncollected=Accounts receivable, netNet sales*365=18,382106,916*365=62. 75 days 2011 Microsoft Days’ sales uncollected=Accounts receivable, netNet sales*365=14000. 569,943*365=73. 1 days IBM has a faster pace to collect its accounts. f.

Days’ sales in inventory 2011 IBM Days’ sales in inventory=Ending inventoryCost of goods sold*365=2,59556,778*365=16. 68 days 2011 Microsoft Days’ sales in inventory=Ending inventoryCost of goods sold*365=1,37253857*365=9. 30 days Microsoft has a quicker speed to turn its inventory into sales. g. Total assets turnover 2011 IBM Total assets turnover=Net salesAverage total assets=106,916114,942. 5=0. 93 times 2011 Microsoft Total assets turnover=Net salesAverage total assets=69,94397408. 5=0. 72 times IBM has better abilities to use its assets to efficiently generate sales. . 6 Solvency Ratios a. Debt ratio 2011 IBM Debt ratio=Total liabilitiesTotal assets=96,197 116,433 =82. 6% 2011 Microsoft Debt ratio=Total liabilitiesTotal assets=51,621 108,704 =47. 5% IBM has a higher proportion of debe relative to its assets, which means a higher risk. b. Equity ratio 2011 IBM Equity ratio=Total equityTotal assets=20,236116,433=17. 4% 2011 Microsoft Equity ratio=Total equityTotal assets=57,083108,704=52. 5% c. Interest coverage ratio 2011 IBM Interest coverage ratio=Income before interest expense and income taxesInterest expense=22,904411=55. times 2011 Microsoft Interest coverage ratio=Income before interest expense and income taxesInterest expense=28,071295=95. 2 times Microsoft has better ability to meet its debt obligations. 3. 7 Profitability Ratios a. Return on total assets 2011 IBM Return on total assets=Net incomeAverage total assets=15,855114,942. 5=13. 8% 2011 Microsoft Return on total assets=Net incomeAverage total assets=23,15066213. 5=35. 0% Microsoft is more efficient in generating earnings by using its assets. b. Return on equity 2011 IBM Return on equity=Net income-Preferred dividendsAverage equity=15,855-3,47321704=57. % 2011 Microsoft Return on equity=Net income-Preferred dividendsAverage equity=23,150-5,39451629=34. 4% IBM has a better performance in generating profitability by using shareholders’ investment. c. Net income as a percentage of net sales (Profit margin ratio) 2011 IBM Net income as a percentage of net sales=Net incomeNet sales=15,855106,916=14. 8% 2011 Microsoft Net income as a percentage of net sales=Net incomeNet sales=23,15069,943=33. 1% Microsoft is better in keeping earnings in how much out of every dollar of sales. d. Gross profit rate (Gross margin ratio) 011 IBM Gross profit rate=Net sales-Cost of goods soldNet sales=106,916-56,778106,916=46. 9% 2011 Microsoft Gross profit rate=Net sales-Cost of goods soldNet sales=69,943-56,77869,943=18. 8% Higher percentage of IBM means it retains more on each dollar of sales to service its other costs and obligations. 3. 8 Market Ratios a. Price-Earnings ratio 2011 IBM Price-Earnings ratio=Market price per common shareEarnings per share=183. 8813. 25=13. 9:1 2011 Microsoft Price-Earnings ratio=Market price per common shareEarnings per share=26. 872. 73=9. 84:1 P/E ratio gives a clear comparison, Microsoft is better. b.

Dividend yield 2011 IBM Dividend yield=Annual cash dividends per shareMarket price per share=2. 90183. 88=1. 6% 2011 Microsoft Dividend yield=Annual cash dividends per shareMarket price per share=0. 64 26. 87=2. 4% Microsoft give higher percentage of dividend. 3. Comparison and Interpretation of Ratio Values with Key Business Ratios All the comparisons are based on the data of 2011. Only compared with those available online. 4. 9 Liquidity and Efficiency Ratios Table 3-3. 1-1Liquidity and Efficiency Ratios with Key Business Ratios Item| IBM 2011| IBM 2011| Key Business Ratios| Current ratio| 1. 21:1| 1. 19:1| 1. 9:1| Quick ratio| 0. 84:1| 0. 81:1| 0. 68:1| Return on equity| 57. 0%| 50. 8%| 13. 96%| Net income as a percentage of net sales| 14. 8%| 14. 9%| 10. 2%| Price-Earnings ratio| 13. 9:1| 12. 6:1| 13. 2:1| Dividend yield| 1. 6%| 1. 7%| 2. 05%| The lower current ratio means IBM has a more resource to pay its debts over the next 12 month compared to the industry average. IBM has a higher quick ratio which means that IBM’s shot-term liquidity is better than industry average. A higher return on equity ratio means IBM has a better performance than industry average in generating profitability by using shareholders’ investment.

A higher Net income as a percentage of net sales means IBM is better in keeping earnings in how much out of every dollar of sales than industry average. IBM’s P/E ratio increased and exceeded the industry average and is a little bit better. Its stock performed well last year. A lower dividend yield ratio means less dividend compared to industry average gave to shareholders. In conclusion, IBM had a quite well performance in last two years. All the ratios shows that IBM had got an obvious growth and improvement. 4. Common-size Comparative Statements Analysis Appendix 1 is IBM Common-Size Comparative Balance Sheets A 0. 4% point increase in cash and equivalents, which is likely balanced with a 0. 87% point decline in Marketable securities, both steady status in inventories and property, plant and equipment, a marked increase 8. 5% in retained earnings and with most of the good increase and good decrease in percentage means a better performance year in 2011 than that in 2010. Appendix 2 is IBM Common-Size Comparative Income Statement A 0. 33% decline in cost of services, a 0. 39% decline in cost of sales, a 0. 11% decline in cost of financing, a 0. 82% decline in total cost contributes a 0. 82% increase in gross profits, and a 0. 2% decline in net income (loss) shows a better performance of IBM in 2011 than that in 2010. Appendix 3 is IBM Common-Size Comparative Cash Flow Statement A 4. 01% increase in net income, a 1. 29% decline in inventories, a 5% decline in other assets/other liabilities, a 0. 09% increase in investment in software, a 0. 61% in non-operating finance receivables – net, a 21. 17% increase in acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired, and a 21. 37 increase in net cash flows from investing activities gives a enough evidence to show the better performance of IBM in 2011 than that in 2010.

So in conclusion, IBM performed better in 2011 than in 2010. 5. Trend Analysis Appendix 4 is IBM Income Statement Trend Percent The base period is 2009 and the trend percent is computed in each subsequent year by dividing that year’s amount by its 2009 amount. Total revenue in trend percent is 100% in 2009, 104. 29% in 2010, and 111. 65% in 2011; Total cost is 100% in 2009, 103. 62% in 2010, and 109. 25% in 2011; Total expense & other income is 100% in 2009, 102. 51% in 2010, and 113. 60% in 2011. These data shows a good control of cost but a relatively bad expense control.

IBM used the relatively same cost generates more revenue but fewer revenue with the same expense. Total revenue falls short of that for total expense & other income in 2011 but exceeded in 2010, IBM fails to show an ability to control these expenses as it expands in 2011. Appendix 5 is IBM Balance Sheet Trend Percent The base period is 2009 and the trend percent is computed in each subsequent year by dividing that year’s amount by its 2009 amount. Total revenue in trend percent is 100% in 2009, 104. 29% in 2010, and 111. 65% in 2011; Total assets are 100% in 2009, 104. 60% in 2010, and 106. % in 2011; Retained earnings are 100% in 2009, 114. 38% in 2010, and 129. 61% in 2011. With these percent, we can figure out that IBM was more efficient in using its assets in 2011. Management has generated revenues sufficient to compensate for this asset growth. And in retained earnings shows a better in expense control and higher efficiency in generate revenues. So in conclusion, IBM did a quite good job in 2011. V. Prospective Analysis and Summary Here, based on what I have calculated and the interpretation. We can definitely come to a conclusion that IBM is still growing and it did very good in most parts.

As the trend analysis listed above, the faster growing total revenue and the slower growing total cost shows a quite good control of the cost. IBM used the relatively same cost generates more revenue. And IBM was becoming more efficient in using its assets to generate revenue. The fairly good current ratio gives an average performance in giving the debts in next 12 months. And with the quite good quick ratio, return on equity, net income as a percentage of net sales, P/E ratio in 2011 which are higher than the average key business ratios and the ratios of IBM in 2010, we can anticipate a good performance in 2012 and far future.

Common-size comparative statements analysis also gives a quite good result, such as the increase in cash and equivalents, gross profits, net income, acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired, net cash flows and retained earnings, the decline in cost of goods and inventories. Although IBM didn't perform as well as Microsoft, and there is still some defects in its performance in last two years. As a whole, I would like to invest my hard -earned dollars into the stock of IBM. Appendix 1 | | | Common-size Percent| Report Date| 12/31/2011| 12/31/2010| 12/31/2011| 12/31/2010| Cash ; cash equivalents| 11,922,000| 10,661,000| 10. 4%| 9. 40%| Marketable securities| 0| 990,000| 0. 00%| 0. 87%| Notes ; accounts receivable - trade, net| 11,179,000| 10,834,000| 9. 60%| 9. 55%| Short-term financing receivables| 16,901,000| 16,257,000| 14. 52%| 14. 33%| Other accounts receivable| 1,481,000| 1,134,000| 1. 27%| 1. 00%| Finished goods| 589,000| 432,000| 0. 51%| 0. 38%| Work in process ; raw materials| 2,007,000| 2,018,000| 1. 72%| 1. 78%| Inventories| 2,595,000| 2,450,000| 2. 23%| 2. 16%| Deferred taxes| 1,601,000| 1,564,000| 1. 38%| 1. 38%| Prepaid expenses ; other current assets| 5,249,000| 4,226,000| 4. 51%| 3. 2%| Total current assets| 50,928,000| 48,116,000| 43. 74%| 42. 41%| Land ; land improvements| 786,000| 777,000| 0. 68%| 0. 68%| Buildings ; building improvements| 9,531,000| 9,414,000| 8. 19%| 8. 30%| Plant, laboratory ; office equipment| 26,843,000| 26,676,000| 23. 05%| 23. 51%| Plant ; other property, gross| 37,160,000| 36,867,000| 31. 92%| 32. 50%| Less: accumulated depreciation| 24,703,000| 24,435,000| 21. 22%| 21. 54%| Plant ; other property, net| 12,457,000| 12,432,000| 10. 70%| 10. 96%| Rental machines, gross| 2,964,000| 3,422,000| 2. 55%| 3. 02%| Less: Accumulated depreciation| 1,538,000| 1,758,000| 1. 2%| 1. 55%| Rental machines, net| 1,426,000| 1,665,000| 1. 22%| 1. 47%| Plant, rental machines ; oth property, gross| 40,124,000| 40,289,000| 34. 46%| 35. 51%| Less: Accumulated depreciation| 26,241,000| 26,193,000| 22. 54%| 23. 09%| Plant, rental machines ; other property, net| 13,883,000| 14,096,000| 11. 92%| 12. 42%| Long-term financing receivables| 10,776,000| 10,548,000| 9. 26%| 9. 30%| Prepaid pension assets| 2,843,000| 3,068,000| 2. 44%| 2. 70%| Deferred taxes| 3,503,000| 3,220,000| 3. 01%| 2. 84%| Goodwill| 26,213,000| 25,136,000| 22. 51%| 22. 16%| Intangible assets, net| 3,392,000| 3,488,000| 2. 1%| 3. 07%| Deferred taxes| -| -| | | Deferred transition ; set-up costs ; other deferred arrangements| 1,784,000| 1,853,000| 1. 53%| 1. 63%| Derivatives, non-current| 753,000| 588,000| 0. 65%| 0. 52%| Alliance investments - equity method| 131,000| 122,000| 0. 11%| 0. 11%| Alliance investments - non-equity method| 127,000| 531,000| 0. 11%| 0. 47%| Prepaid software| 233,000| 268,000| 0. 20%| 0. 24%| Long-term deposits| 307,000| 350,000| 0. 26%| 0. 31%| Marketable securities| -| -| | | Other receivables| 208,000| 560,000| 0. 18%| 0. 49%| Employee benefit related| 493,000| 409,000| 0. 42%| 0. 6%| Prepaid income taxes| 261,000| 434,000| 0. 22%| 0. 38%| Other assets| 598,000| 663,000| 0. 51%| 0. 58%| Total investments ; sundry assets| 4,895,000| 5,778,000| 4. 20%| 5. 09%| Total assets| 116,433,000| 113,452,000| 100. 00%| 100. 00%| Taxes| 3,313,000| 4,216,000| 2. 85%| 3. 72%| Commercial paper| 2,300,000| 1,144,000| 1. 98%| 1. 01%| Short-term loans| 1,859,000| 1,617,000| 1. 60%| 1. 43%| Long-term debt - current maturities| 4,306,000| 4,017,000| 3. 70%| 3. 54%| Short-term debt| 8,463,000| 6,778,000| 7. 27%| 5. 97%| Accounts payable| 8,517,000| 7,804,000| 7. 31%| 6. 88%| Compensation ; benefits| 5,099,000| 5,028,000| 4. 8%| 4. 43%| Deferred income| 12,197,000| 11,580,000| 10. 48%| 10. 21%| Other accrued expenses ; liabilities| 4,535,000| 5,156,000| 3. 89%| 4. 54%| Total current liabilities| 42,123,000| 40,562,000| 36. 18%| 35. 75%| U. S dollar notes ; debentures| 24,192,000| 21,766,000| 20. 78%| 19. 19%| Other debt in Euros| 1,037,000| 1,897,000| 0. 89%| 1. 67%| Other debt in Japanese yen| 1,123,000| 1,162,000| 0. 96%| 1. 02%| Other debt in Swiss francs| 173,000| 540,000| 0. 15%| 0. 48%| Other currencies debt| 177,000| 240,000| 0. 15%| 0. 21%| Long-term debt| 26,702,000| 25,606,000| 22. 93%| 22. 7%| Less: net unamortized premium (discount)| -533,000| -531,000| -0. 46%| -0. 47%| Add: SFAS No. 133 fair value adjustment| 994,000| 788,000| 0. 85%| 0. 69%| Long-term debt before current maturities| 27,161,000| 25,863,000| 23. 33%| 22. 80%| Less: Current maturities| 4,306,000| 4,017,000| 3. 70%| 3. 54%| Long-term debt| 22,857,000| 21,846,000| 19. 63%| 19. 26%| Retire ; nonpension postretire benef obligs| 18,374,000| 15,978,000| 15. 78%| 14. 08%| Deferred income| 3,847,000| 3,666,000| 3. 30%| 3. 23%| Income tax reserves| 3,989,000| 3,486,000| 3. 43%| 3. 07%| Executive compensation accruals| 1,388,000| 1,302,000| 1. 19%| 1. 5%| Disability benefits| 835,000| 739,000| 0. 72%| 0. 65%| Derivatives liabilities| 166,000| 135,000| 0. 14%| 0. 12%| Restructuring actions| 347,000| 399,000| 0. 30%| 0. 35%| Workforce reductions| 366,000| 406,000| 0. 31%| 0. 36%| Deferred taxes| 549,000| 378,000| 0. 47%| 0. 33%| Enviromental accruals| 249,000| 249,000| 0. 21%| 0. 22%| Non-current warranty accruals| 163,000| 130,000| 0. 14%| 0. 11%| Asset retirement obligations| 166,000| 161,000| 0. 14%| 0. 14%| Other liabilities| 777,000| 841,000| 0. 67%| 0. 74%| Total other liabilities| 8,996,000| 8,226,000| 7. 73%| 7. 25%| Total liabilities| 96,197,000| 90,279,000| 82. 2%| 79. 57%| Common stock| 48,129,000| 45,418,000| 41. 34%| 40. 03%| Retained earnings| 104,857,000| 92,532,000| 90. 06%| 81. 56%| Treasury stock, at cost| 110,963,000| 96,161,000| 95. 30%| 84. 76%| Net unreal gains (losses) on cash flow hedge derivatives| 71,000| -96,000| 0. 06%| -0. 08%| Foreign currency translation adjustments| 1,767,000| 2,478,000| 1. 52%| 2. 18%| Net change retirement-related benefit plans| -23,737,000| -21,289,000| -20. 39%| -18. 76%| Net unrealized gains (losses) on mktble secur| 13,000| 164,000| 0. 01%| 0. 14%| Accum gains ; (losses) not affecting ret earns| -21,885,000| -18,743,000| -18. 0%| -16. 52%| Total stockholders' equity| 20,138,000| 23,046,000| 17. 30%| 20. 31%| Non-controlling interests| 97,000| 126,000| 0. 08%| 0. 11%| Total equity| 20,236,000| 23,172,000| 17. 38%| 20. 42%| Appendix 2 | | | Common-size Percent| Report Date| 12/31/2011| 12/31/2010| 12/31/2011| 12/31/2010| Services revenue| 60,721,000| 56,868,000| 56. 79%| 56. 94%| Sales| 44,063,000| 40,736,000| 41. 21%| 40. 79%| Financing revenue| 2,132,000| 2,267,000| 1. 99%| 2. 27%| Total revenue| 106,916,000| 99,870,000| 100. 00%| 100. 00%| Cost of services| 40,740,000| 38,383,000| 38. 10%| 38. 43%| Cost of sales| 14,973,000| 14,374,000| 14. 0%| 14. 39%| Cost of financing| 1,065,000| 1,100,000| 1. 00%| 1. 10%| Total cost| 56,778,000| 53,857,000| 53. 11%| 53. 93%| Gross profit| 50,138,000| 46,014,000| 46. 89%| 46. 07%| Selling, general & administrative - base expense| 20,287,000| 18,585,000| 18. 97%| 18. 61%| Advertising & promotional expense| 1,373,000| 1,337,000| 1. 28%| 1. 34%| Workforce reductions - ongoing expense| 440,000| 641,000| 0. 41%| 0. 64%| Retirement-related expense| 603,000| 494,000| 0. 56%| 0. 49%| Amortization expense-acquired intangibles| 289,000| 253,000| 0. 27%| 0. 25%| Stock-based compensation| 514,000| 488,000| 0. 8%| 0. 49%| Bad debt expense| 88,000| 40,000| 0. 08%| 0. 04%| Total selling, general & administrative exps| 23,594,000| 21,837,000| 22. 07%| 21. 87%| Research, development & engineering expenses| 6,258,000| 6,026,000| 5. 85%| 6. 03%| Intellectual property & custom development income| 1,108,000| 1,154,000| 1. 04%| 1. 16%| Foreign currency transaction gains (losses)| (513,000)| (303,000)| -0. 48%| -0. 30%| Gains (losses) on derivative instruments| 113,000| 239,000| 0. 11%| 0. 24%| Interest income| 136,000| 92,000| 0. 13%| 0. 09%| Net gains from securities & investments assets| 227,000| (31,000)| 0. 1%| -0. 03%| Other income & (expense)| 58,000| 790,000| 0. 05%| 0. 79%| Total other income (expense)| 20,000| 787,000| 0. 02%| 0. 79%| Interest expense| 411,000| 368,000| 0. 38%| 0. 37%| Total expense & other income| 29,135,000| 26,291,000| 27. 25%| 26. 33%| Income (loss) bef income taxes - U. S. opers| 9,716,000| 9,140,000| 9. 09%| 9. 15%| Income (loss) bef inc taxes - Non-U. S. opers| 11,287,000| 10,583,000| 10. 56%| 10. 60%| Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes| 21,003,000| 19,723,000| 19. 64%| 19. 75%| U. S federal income taxes (benefit) - current| 268,000| 190,000| 0. 5%| 0. 19%| U. S. federal income taxes (benef) - deferred| 909,000| 1,015,000| 0. 85%| 1. 02%| Total U. S. federal income taxes (benefit)| 1,177,000| 1,205,000| 1. 10%| 1. 21%| U. S. state & local inc tax (benef) - current| 429,000| 279,000| 0. 40%| 0. 28%| U. S. state & local inc tax (benef) - deferred| 81,000| 210,000| 0. 08%| 0. 21%| Total U. S. state & local income taxes (benef)| 510,000| 489,000| 0. 48%| 0. 49%| Non-U. S. income taxes (benefit) - current| 3,239,000| 3,127,000| 3. 03%| 3. 13%| Non-U. S. income taxes (benefit) - deferred| 222,000| 69,000| 0. 21%| 0. 07%| Total non-U. S. ncome taxes (benefit)| 3,461,000| 3,196,000| 3. 24%| 3. 20%| Provision for income taxes| 5,148,000| 4,890,000| 4. 81%| 4. 90%| Net income (loss)| 15,855,000| 14,833,000| 14. 83%| 14. 85%| Weighted average shares outstanding-basic| 1,196,951. 006| 1,268,789. 388| 1. 12%| 1. 27%| Weighted average shares outstanding-diluted| 1,213,767. 985| 1,287,355. 388| 1. 14%| 1. 29%| Year end shares outstanding| 1,163,182. 564| 1,227,993. 544| 1. 09%| 1. 23%| Net earnings (loss) per share-basic| 13. 25| 11. 69| 0. 00%| 0. 00%| Net earnings (loss) per share-diluted| 13. 06| 11. 52| 0. 00%| 0. 00%| Dividends per share of common stock| 2. | 2. 5| 0. 00%| 0. 00%| Total number of employees| 433,362| 426,751| 0. 41%| 0. 43%| Number of common stockholders| 504,093| 523,553| 0. 47%| 0. 52%| Appendix 3 | | | Common-size Percent| Report Date| 12/31/2011| 12/31/2010| 12/31/2011| 12/31/2010| Net income (loss)| 15,855,000| 14,833,000| 79. 89%| 75. 88%| Depreciation| 3,589,000| 3,657,000| 18. 08%| 18. 71%| Amortization of intangibles| 1,226,000| 1,174,000| 6. 18%| 6. 01%| Stock-based compensation| 697,000| 629,000| 3. 51%| 3. 22%| Deferred taxes| 1,212,000| 1,294,000| 6. 11%| 6. 62%| Net loss (gain) on asset sales & other| (342,000)| (801,000)| -1. 2%| -4. 10%| Receivables (including financing receivables)| (1,279,000)| (489,000)| -6. 44%| -2. 50%| Retirement related| (1,371,000)| (1,963,000)| -6. 91%| -10. 04%| Inventories| (163,000)| 92,000| -0. 82%| 0. 47%| Other assets/other liabilities| (28,000)| 949,000| -0. 14%| 4. 85%| Accounts payable| 451,000| 174,000| 2. 27%| 0. 89%| Net cash flows from operating activities| 19,846,000| 19,549,000| 100. 00%| 100. 00%| Payments for plant, rental machines & other property| (4,108,000)| (4,185,000)| -20. 70%| -21. 41%| Proc from disp of plant, rental machines & oth prop| 608,000| 770,000| 3. 06%| 3. 4%| Investment in software| (559,000)| (569,000)| -2. 82%| -2. 91%| Purchases of marketable securities & other investments| (1,594,000)| (6,129,000)| -8. 03%| -31. 35%| Proceeds from disposition of marketable securities & other investments| 3,345,000| 7,877,000| 16. 85%| 40. 29%| Non-operating finance receivables - net| (291,000)| (405,000)| -1. 47%| -2. 07%| Acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired| (1,811,000)| (5,922,000)| -9. 13%| -30. 29%| Divestiture of businesses, net of cash transferred| 14,000| 55,000| 0. 07%| 0. 28%| Net cash flows from investing activities| (4,396,000)| (8,507,000)| -22. 5%| -43. 52%| Proceeds from new debt| 9,996,000| 8,055,000| 50. 37%| 41. 20%| Payments to settle debt| (8,947,000)| (6,522,000)| -45. 08%| -33. 36%| Sht-tm borrows (repays)-less than 90 days-net| 1,321,000| 817,000| 6. 66%| 4. 18%| Common stock repurchases| (15,046,000)| (15,375,000)| -75. 81%| -78. 65%| Common stock transactions, other| 2,453,000| 3,774,000| 12. 36%| 19. 31%| Cash dividends paid| (3,473,000)| (3,177,000)| -17. 50%| -16. 25%| Net cash flows from financing activities| (13,696,000)| (12,429,000)| -69. 01%| -63. 58%| Eff of exch rate chngs on cash & cash equivs| (493,000)| (135,000)| -2. 8%| -0. 69%| Net change in cash & cash equivalents| 1,262,000| (1,522,000)| 6. 36%| -7. 79%| Cash & cash equivalents, beginning of year| 10,661,000| 12,183,000| 53. 72%| 62. 32%| Cash & cash equivalents, end of year| 11,922,000| 10,661,000| 60. 07%| 54. 53%| Cash paid during the year for income taxes| 4,168,000| 3,238,000| 21. 00%| 16. 56%| Cash paid during the year for interest| 956,000| 951,000| 4. 82%| 4. 86%| Appendix 4 | Trend Percent| Report Date| 12/31/2011| 12/31/2010| 12/31/2009| Services revenue| 110. 15%| 103. 16%| 100. 00%| Sales| 115. 05%| 106. 36%| 100. 00%| Financing revenue| 91. 46%| 97. 5%| 100. 00%| Total revenue| 111. 65%| 104. 29%| 100. 00%| Cost of services| 109. 68%| 103. 33%| 100. 00%| Cost of sales| 110. 05%| 105. 64%| 100. 00%| Cost of financing| 87. 30%| 90. 16%| 100. 00%| Total cost| 109. 25%| 103. 62%| 100. 00%| Gross profit| 114. 51%| 105. 09%| 100. 00%| Selling, general & administrative - base expense| 112. 36%| 102. 93%| 100. 00%| Advertising & promotional expense| 109. 66%| 106. 79%| 100. 00%| Workforce reductions - ongoing expense| 92. 83%| 135. 23%| 100. 00%| Retirement-related expense| 187. 27%| 153. 42%| 100. 00%| Amortization expense-acquired intangibles| 101. 40%| 88. 7%| 100. 00%| Stock-based compensation| 123. 26%| 117. 03%| 100. 00%| Bad debt expense| 59. 86%| 27. 21%| 100. 00%| Total selling, general & administrative exps| 112. 61%| 104. 22%| 100. 00%| Research, development & engineering expenses| 107. 53%| 103. 54%| 100. 00%| Intellectual property & custom development income| 94. 14%| 98. 05%| 100. 00%| Foreign currency transaction gains (losses)| -51300. 00%| -30300. 00%| 100. 00%| Gains (losses) on derivative instruments| 941. 67%| 1991. 67%| 100. 00%| Interest income| 144. 68%| 97. 87%| 100. 00%| Net gains from securities & investments assets| -202. 8%| 27. 68%| 100. 00%| Net real gains (losses) from real est activs| -| -| 100. 00%| Other income & (expense)| 16. 48%| 224. 43%| 100. 00%| Total other income (expense)| 5. 70%| 224. 22%| 100. 00%| Interest expense| 102. 24%| 91. 54%| 100. 00%| Total expense & other income| 113. 60%| 102. 51%| 100. 00%| Income (loss) bef income taxes - U. S. opers| 102. 02%| 95. 97%| 100. 00%| Income (loss) bef inc taxes - Non-U. S. opers| 131. 03%| 122. 86%| 100. 00%| Income (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes| 115. 80%| 108. 74%| 100. 00%| U. S federal income taxes (benefit) - current| 56. 6%| 40. 17%| 100. 00%| U. S. federal income taxes (benef) - deferred| 67. 79%| 75. 69%| 100. 00%| Total U. S. federal income taxes (benefit)| 64. 88%| 66. 43%| 100. 00%| U. S. state & local inc tax (benef) - current| 357. 50%| 232. 50%| 100. 00%| U. S. state & local inc tax (benef) - deferred| 43. 78%| 113. 51%| 100. 00%| Total U. S. state & local income taxes (benef)| 167. 21%| 160. 33%| 100. 00%| Non-U. S. income taxes (benefit) - current| 138. 01%| 133. 23%| 100. 00%| Non-U. S. income taxes (benefit) - deferred| 89. 88%| 27. 94%| 100. 00%| Total non-U. S. income taxes (benefit)| 133. 2%| 123. 21%| 100. 00%| Provision for income taxes| 109. 23%| 103. 76%| 100. 00%| Income (loss) from continuing operations| -| -| 100. 00%| Net income (loss)| 118. 10%| 110. 49%| 100. 00%| Weighted average shares outstanding-basic| 90. 19%| 95. 60%| 100. 00%| Weighted average shares outstanding-diluted| 90. 49%| 95. 97%| 100. 00%| Year end shares outstanding| 89. 11%| 94. 07%| 100. 00%| Earnings (loss) per share from continuing operations-basic| -| -| 100. 00%| Net earnings (loss) per share-basic| 130. 93%| 115. 51%| 100. 00%| Earnings (loss) per share from continuing operations-diluted| -| -| 100. 0%| Net earnings (loss) per share-diluted| 130. 47%| 115. 08%| 100. 00%| Dividends per share of common stock| 134. 88%| 116. 28%| 100. 00%| Total number of employees| 98. 99%| 97. 48%| 100. 00%| Number of common stockholders| 92. 70%| 96. 28%| 100. 00%| Appendix 5 | Trend percent| Report Date| 12/31/2011| 12/31/2010| 12/31/2009| Cash & cash equivalents| 97. 86%| 87. 51%| 100. 00%| Marketable securities| 0. 00%| 55. 28%| 100. 00%| Notes & accounts receivable - trade, net| 104. 13%| 100. 91%| 100. 00%| Short-term financing receivables| 113. 32%| 109. 00%| 100. 00%| Other accounts receivable| 129. 7%| 99. 21%| 100. 00%| Finished goods| 110. 51%| 81. 05%| 100. 00%| Work in process & raw materials| 102. 40%| 102. 96%| 100. 00%| Inventories| 104. 05%| 98. 24%| 100. 00%| Deferred taxes| 92. 54%| 90. 40%| 100. 00%| Prepaid expenses & other current assets| 133. 02%| 107. 10%| 100. 00%| Total current assets| 104. 07%| 98. 33%| 100. 00%| Land & land improvements| 106. 65%| 105. 43%| 100. 00%| Buildings & building improvements| 102. 33%| 101. 07%| 100. 00%| Plant, laboratory & office equipment| 103. 69%| 103. 04%| 100. 00%| Plant & other property, gross| 103. 39%| 102. 58%| 100. 0%| Less: accumulated depreciation| 105. 19%| 104. 05%| 100. 00%| Plant & other property, net| 100. 02%| 99. 82%| 100. 00%| Rental machines, gross| 81. 07%| 93. 60%| 100. 00%| Less: Accumulated depreciation| 79. 03%| 90. 34%| 100. 00%| Rental machines, net| 83. 39%| 97. 37%| 100. 00%| Plant, rental machines & oth property, gross| 101. 33%| 101. 75%| 100. 00%| Less: Accumulated depreciation| 103. 19%| 103. 00%| 100. 00%| Plant, rental machines & other property, net| 98. 01%| 99. 51%| 100. 00%| Long-term financing receivables| 101. 24%| 99. 10%| 100. 00%| Prepaid pension assets| 94. 4%| 102. 23%| 100. 00%| Deferred taxes| 83. 50%| 76. 76%| 100. 00%| Goodwill| 129. 83%| 124. 50%| 100. 00%| Intangible assets, net| 134. 98%| 138. 80%| 100. 00%| Deferred transition & set-up costs & other deferred arrangements| 100. 68%| 104. 57%| 100. 00%| Derivatives, non-current| 133. 27%| 104. 07%| 100. 00%| Alliance investments - equity method| 113. 91%| 106. 09%| 100. 00%| Alliance investments - non-equity method| 26. 62%| 111. 32%| 100. 00%| Prepaid software| 74. 68%| 85. 90%| 100. 00%| Long-term deposits| 99. 03%| 112. 90%| 100. 00%| Other receivables| 33. 71%| 90. 76%| 100. 00%|

Employee benefit related| 115. 46%| 95. 78%| 100. 00%| Prepaid income taxes| -| -| -| Other assets| 76. 37%| 84. 67%| 100. 00%| Total investments & sundry assets| 91. 00%| 107. 42%| 100. 00%| Total assets| 106. 80%| 104. 06%| 100. 00%| Taxes| 86. 59%| 110. 19%| 100. 00%| Commercial paper| 978. 72%| 486. 81%| 100. 00%| Short-term loans| 108. 65%| 94. 51%| 100. 00%| Long-term debt - current maturities| 193. 79%| 180. 78%| 100. 00%| Short-term debt| 203. 05%| 162. 62%| 100. 00%| Accounts payable| 114. 54%| 104. 95%| 100. 00%| Compensation & benefits| 113. 19%| 111. 61%| 100. 00%| Deferred income| 112. 7%| 106. 78%| 100. 00%| Other accrued expenses & liabilities| 86. 83%| 98. 72%| 100. 00%| Total current liabilities| 117. 00%| 112. 67%| 100. 00%| U. S dollar notes & debentures| 132. 58%| 119. 29%| 100. 00%| Other debt in Euros| 30. 26%| 55. 35%| 100. 00%| Other debt in Japanese yen| 71. 76%| 74. 25%| 100. 00%| Other debt in Swiss francs| 35. 74%| 111. 57%| 100. 00%| Other currencies debt| 62. 11%| 84. 21%| 100. 00%| Long-term debt| 111. 22%| 106. 66%| 100. 00%| Less: net unamortized premium (discount)| 101. 14%| 100. 76%| 100. 00%| Add: SFAS No. 133 fair value adjustment| 147. 70%| 117. 9%| 100. 00%| Long-term debt before current maturities| 112. 45%| 107. 08%| 100. 00%| Less: Current maturities| 193. 79%| 180. 78%| 100. 00%| Long-term debt| 104. 22%| 99. 61%| 100. 00%| Retire & nonpension postretire benef obligs| 115. 18%| 100. 16%| 100. 00%| Deferred income| 108. 00%| 102. 92%| 100. 00%| Income tax reserves| 109. 98%| 96. 11%| 100. 00%| Executive compensation accruals| 119. 66%| 112. 24%| 100. 00%| Disability benefits| 105. 03%| 92. 96%| 100. 00%| Derivatives liabilities| 25. 58%| 20. 80%| 100. 00%| Restructuring actions| 78. 68%| 90. 48%| 100. 00%| Workforce reductions| 89. 9%| 99. 27%| 100. 00%| Deferred taxes| 116. 81%| 80. 43%| 100. 00%| Enviromental accruals| 101. 63%| 101. 63%| 100. 00%| Non-current warranty accruals| 129. 37%| 103. 17%| 100. 00%| Asset retirement obligations| 143. 10%| 138. 79%| 100. 00%| Other liabilities| 99. 49%| 107. 68%| 100. 00%| Total other liabilities| 102. 01%| 93. 28%| 100. 00%| Total liabilities| 111. 51%| 104. 65%| 100. 00%| Common stock| 115. 11%| 108. 63%| 100. 00%| Retained earnings| 129. 61%| 114. 38%| 100. 00%| Treasury stock, at cost| 136. 58%| 118. 36%| 100. 00%| Net unreal gains (losses) on cash flow hedge derivatives| -14. 6%| 19. 96%| 100. 00%| Foreign currency translation adjustments| 96. 24%| 134. 97%| 100. 00%| Net change retirement-related

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