EFFECTIVE BALANCED LITERACY PROGRAMS FOR ELLS
Balanced literacy is a model designed to assist all pupils learn to read and compose efficaciously. Teachers no longer hold to utilize either whole – linguistic communication programming instructional schemes based preponderantly on phonics. Alternatively, balanced literacy involves non merely whole – linguistic communication and phonics, but several different positions and attacks ( Tompkins, 2003 p.
15 ) . The plan stands steadfastly on the premiss that all pupils can larn to read and compose. This balance between reading and composing allows pupils to have the instruction needed in order to make grade degree position, while leting pupils to work at an instructional degree that is non thwarting for them.
Balanced Literacy is a theoretical account for learning kids in a child-centered schoolroom, supplying many chances for existent life reading and composing experiences. It is originally based on the New Zealand Model for Literacy and Reading Recovery literacy theoretical accounts authored Marie Clay ( 1885 ) , studied and broadened by Irene Fountas, and Gay Su Pennell ( 1999 ) . Children read and write each twenty-four hours independently and in group scenes ( both big and little ) . Balanced Literacy schoolrooms focus on four different types of reading experiences: a ) reading aloud, B ) shared reading – whole category, degree Celsius ) guided reading – little group, and vitamin D ) independent reading. Students besides participate in day-to-day authorship activities that coincide with their reading experiences. The four types of authorship experiences are: a ) shared composing – whole category, B ) interactive composing – whole category or little group, degree Celsius ) composing workshop – little or single, and vitamin D ) independent composing. Additionally, during many day-to-day reading and composing experiences, kids are taught about letters, sounds, words and how they work. Listening and talking are besides emphasized in this incorporate linguistic communication attack. All literacy direction and assignments are prepared utilizing appropriate methodological analysiss that allow instructors to guarantee fidelity of academic content criterions every bit good as linguistic communication aims for Language Arts Instruction. Surveies agree that balanced literacy should besides embrace phonics, including complete phonemic consciousness, along with vocabulary acquisition, reading eloquence and comprehension.
Harmonizing to Froehlich ( 2009 ) , instructors implementing Balanced Literacy use an incorporate attack to learning linguistic communication humanistic disciplines. Balanced Literacy consists of a figure of elements that provide an copiousness of reading and composing on a day-to-day footing and are frequently implemented utilizing cross-curricular methodological analysis. These reliable chances for reading and composing are arranged on a continuum based on more or less teacher support. Some reading and authorship undertakings are modeled by the instructors and others are accomplished with the support of the instructor, taking to a few that are done independently by the kid. Not merely does balanced literacy encourage and increase kids ‘s reading and composing accomplishments, nevertheless, the primary aim is that pupils will larn to bask reading and authorship, therefore cultivating a deeper sense of the value of literacy.
Harmonizing to Pressley ( 2001 ) , and was commissioned by the National Reading Conference, most reading plans in simple schools countrywide use a balanced attack to literacy, although due to be limitations, some instructors in smaller communities may hold small or no entree to published literacy scheduling.
Reading Recovery/ Descubriendo La Lectura
Harmonizing to Clay ( 1993 ) , Reading Recovery is an early intercession plan for first twelvemonth reading direction that focuses on tutoring the lowest 20 per centum of fighting
readers. Reading Recovery is comprised of phonemic consciousness, phonics, vocabulary, eloquence, comprehension, composing, unwritten linguistic communication, motive, and independency instructional constituents. Phonicss, phonemic consciousness, vocabulary, eloquence, comprehension, authorship, and unwritten linguistic communication are indispensable for favourable literacy results. The Reading Recovery plan consists of day-to-day 30 minute lessons by a instructor trained in the technique. The plan includes reading known narratives, reading a narrative that was read the twenty-four hours before, composing a narrative, reading with sentence strips, reading new narratives, and appraisal. Assessment is an of import characteristic of this plan. Ashdown and Simic ( 2007 ) found assorted consequences when analyzing limited English proficient pupils utilizing Reading Recovery plan as a intercession. Ashdown and Simic ( 2007 ) found that pupils with limited English proficiency that used Reading Recovery for over six months did score higher on achievement appraisals. Descubriendo La Lectura ( DLL ) is merely the Spanish version of Reading Recovery and consists of the same instructional constituents and day-to-day lessons ( Chueng and Slavin, 2005 ) . Merely one survey Descubriendo la Lectura of was conclusive for effectual literacy patterns. Other surveies reviewed by Chueng and Slavin ( 2005 ) did non ensue in positive literacy consequences for pupils whose L1 was Spanish. Overall, as a consequence of these surveies, one can infer that Reading Recovery and Descubriendo la Lectura ( DLL ) may non be effectual balanced literacy plans for English linguistic communication scholars if merely implemented over a short sum of clip. Those pupils that used Reading Recovery and Descubriendo la Lectura ( DLL ) as an intercession for over several months had positive discernible results.
Success for All
Slavin and Madden ( 1999 ) studied the comprehensive reading plan
Success for All and found it to be a structured and effectual course of study theoretical account for Kindergarten and First grade pupils. Success for All provides early literacy using direct reading comprehension direction, methodical phonics direction, concerted acquisition schemes every bit good as full support for instructors including considerable professional development. Success for All besides incorporates one-to-one tutoring for fighting pupils every bit good frequent pupil appraisals and grouping and regrouping by ability degree. Reading is specifically taught in one 90 minute block ( Slavin and Madden, 1999 ; Chueng and Slavin 2005 ) .
For English linguistic communication scholars ( ELLs ) , Success or All has two instructional plans. Exito Para Todas is the Spanish bilingual theoretical account. This plan teaches reading to pupils in Spanish for classs one and two and in 3rd grade passages pupils to English-only direction ( Chueng and Slavin, 2005 ) . The other plan is an English linguistic communication development ( ELD ) method, which teaches pupils in English with a focal point on linked vocabulary from reading texts and extra supports ( Chueng and Slavin, 2005 ) .
Harmonizing to Chueng and Slavin, ( 2005 ) surveies in California and Texas utilizing Exito Para Todas demonstrated important trial mark differences on the Spanish Woodcock Assessments for Word Attack, Word Identification, and Passage Reading Comprehension for indiscriminately selected pupils utilizing the bilingual plan compared to pupils from schools that used other reading instructional methods. The overall average reading degree addition was.41 of one class degree for those kids utilizing Exito Para Todas. the Success for All plans were positive.
Arizona, California, Pennsylvania, and Texas conducted similar surveies with Success for All ELD reading plan and harmonizing to Livingston and Flaherty ( 1997 ) the average reading degree increased by 0.37 of a grade degree. Cheung and Slavin ( 2005 ) further province that other researcher findings did non show pupil accomplishment as systematically for English linguistic communication scholars, nevertheless, most of the reappraisals rated both reading plans as effectual and positive. Educators are aware of the fact non every literacy plan will be successful for every pupil. Therefore, it is indispensable that instructors entree balanced literacy plans that engage pupil acquisition by implementing diverse methods that address larning manner penchants ( Thompkins, 2003 ) .
Cheung and Slaving ( 2005 ) every bit good as Dahl and Freppon ( 1998 ) evaluated Direct Instruction ( DI ) with respect to effectual literacy direction for English linguistic communication scholars. Direct Instruction ( DI ) has been around for many old ages and is by and large implemented by the instructor for all pupils in the schoolroom and non purely limited specifically to English linguistic communication scholars. Direct Instruction ( DI ) provides extended phonics, paced reading direction, and frequent pupil appraisal. It was originally designed for fighting readers. Direct Instruction ( DI ) is a systematic attack and as with a comprehensive plan provides teacher support and preparation. It often used with pupils whose primary linguistic communication ( L1 ) is non English and is frequently incorporated into reading plans by big companies such as Harcort School Publishers. Studies show that it is non a balanced literacy plan as DI overemphasizes phonics direction and frequently this can be hard English linguistic communication scholars. However, Direct Direction can be a successful attack when several other reading methods and schemes are used in concurrence with it and it is used for over a two twelvemonth period ( Abott, Greenwood, and Kamps, 2007 ; Chueng and Slavin, 2005 ; Slavin and Madden, 1999 ) .
Reasonably Phonics uses phonics as its cardinal reading foundation. Reasonably Phonics intercession dressed ores on pupils larning missive formation, missive sounds, blending, placing sounds in words, and spelling words. This plan did non show effectual and balanced literacy for English linguistic communication scholars and it is non extremely recommended for pupils with limited English proficiency.
Libros is another literacy intercession plan developed for usage kindergarten categories. Teachers would direct place narratives in Spanish after they previewed and discussed the narrative exhaustively with their category. Parents were besides shown a picture of to promote parents to read with their kids every bit good as discuss the narrative with them. Students would have books in Spanish to take place and read with their parents. Results for pupils utilizing Libros for the full school twelvemonth, scored higher on missive and word idenfication, nevertheless, reading comprehension tonss were non as positive ( Chueng and Slavin ; 2005 ; Slavin and Madden, 1999 ) .
One can reason that Libros focuses on phonics direction because the reading comprehension tonss did non demo a pronounced addition among English linguistic communication scholars. Besides, this plan appears to be slightly limited, because the cardinal thought is the books the pupils take place to read and pattern. This seems like a slightly auxiliary reading plan, alternatively of complete balanced literacy for English linguistic communication scholars.
After analyzing all of the research about the aforesaid reading plans for English linguistic communication scholars, I conclude that balanced literacy plans are reading intercession plans that resulted in more positive information among several different research workers. Obviously, Clay, Fountas, Pennell, and Slavin are some of most good known literacy research workers in the field. Besides, Slavin has updated his original reappraisal of effectual literacy plans from his first in 1999 to the most recent and comprehensive reappraisal of literacy plans in 2005.
One concluding idea about balanced literacy plans, is teacher entree. I think it is It is critical that instructors have every bit much information about effectual balanced literacy plans for English linguistic communication scholars. Previously, I had entree to the literacy plan Success for All and I truly saw mensurable betterment among the pupils who were English linguistic communication scholars. Unfortunately, we do non utilize Success for All at the school where I presently teach. I do believe it is indispensable for instructors and decision makers to retrieve that while one plan may work for a specific pupil, it will non needfully increase literacy accomplishments for another. Educators need to be aware to integrate as many reading schemes as possible in their direction. I besides believe that concerted acquisition schemes will heighten any literacy plan and by utilizing concerted acquisition with reading plans, balance and success will better and bring forth favourable literacy accomplishments. Another indispensable scheme for learning English linguistic communication scholars is seeking on Internet web sites such as Frohlich ‘s ( updated 2009 ) that has so many different balanced literacy learning AIDSs that can be downloaded and printed for instructors to use.