Question 1 1. 1.
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Effective communication between the educator and the learners Inhis/her class is essential in order to create and maintain a positiveatmosphere in the classroom. 1. 2. Write a paragraph in which you discuss the importance of establishingpositive educator-learner relationships in the creation of a sustainablepositive atmosphere in your classroom. A positive educator-learner relationship is important as it enablesboth the educator and the learners to risk being honest with eachother, care about each other, it promotes interdependence, ensuresmutual needs are met and allows each individual to develop their own individuality.
The creation of the above leads to trust between the educator andlearners and as such will result in a positive classroom atmosphere. Creating a good educator-learner relationship involves the following(Coetzee 2010:87): ? Creating open, professionally appropriate dialogue with learners. ? Systematically building better relationships with learners. ? Maintaining a high rate of positive to negative statements. ? Communicating high expectations. ? Creating opportunities for personal discussion.
Guidelines that can be used to avoid the negative effects of educator expectations are as follows (Coetzee 2010:87): • Use sensitive information on learners carefully. • Be flexible in your use of group strategies. Be careful how you respond to low-achieving learners duringclass discussions. ? Use materials that show a wide range of ethnic groups. Be fair inyour evaluation and disciplinary procedures. ? Communicate to all learners that you believe that they can learn. ? Involve all learners in learning tasks and privileges. ? Monitor your non-verbal communication. . 3. Discuss how you would promote learner participation in a multiculturalclassroom by creating a learning environment that supports socialising andintercultural interaction . ? I would first read through all the learning materials for that givensubject in order to determine if there is any aspect of the work or activities which may be culturally insensitive to any of thelearners in the class. ? I am aware that cognitive learning styles are culturally dependentand therefore will use a variety of teaching styles, methods andstrategies in my teaching of the class. ?
In order for the learners to participate and actively cooperate witheach other it is necessary to be aware of any instances of cultural insensitivity immediately and take action, a way to avoidthese situations, I could allow those members of differentcultures to explain about certain aspects of their culture to theother members of the class. This way I as the educator and theclass will learn about other cultures. ? I expect all the learners in my class to achieve to the best of their ability as all people are able to learn provided they put in the timeand effort to do so.
I am also aware that the academic andlearning ability of learners differ, so they at the beginning of theacademic year are required to set their own personal goals whichthey then work towards. These goals set are at levels slightlyabove what each learner believes they can achieve in order tochallenge them. When checking work done in activities the class needs to assistthe learner who is answering the specific question if they makean error in order to correct it, if they are unable to detect or correct the error, I as the educator assist in guiding them to thecorrect answer. Question 2 2. 1.
Name five ways in which educators can improve learner motivation in theclassroom . a) Make the learning task more challenging. b) Place less emphasis on teaching and grades. c) Move from extrinsic to intrinsic motivation. d) Have high expectations of each learner. e) Increase the learners¶ perception that they control the learningsituation. 2. 2. Draw up the following of a classroom policy: 2. 2. 1. Aims and objectives of our class . Class Aims: To achieve our academic and intellectual potential through hardwork as a cooperative group, while promoting the acceptance of others and respect for others.
Individual Objectives: Each individual sets their own goals to achieve at the end of theyear (long-term) in order to contribute to the overall class aim. In order to achieve their own end of year goals the learners setshorter term goals in order to assist them in achieving their long-term goals. 2. 2. 2. Rules for our classroom . 1) We must respect ourselves, others and the educator. 2) We must be on time. 3) We must enter the class quietly, and get ready to work. 4) We need to bring all our stationary and books to class. 5) We must raise our hands to ask questions in class. ) We must not eat nor drink in class7) We must never disrupt another learner¶s work. 8) We don¶t leave litter on the floor, we put it in the bin. 2. 2. 3. Task division . Educator: ? Always prepared and punctual. ? Provide assistance to learners. ? Manage the classroom appropriately. ? Discipline learners fairlyLearners: ? Ensure all work is completed on time. ? Maintain a clean learning environment. ? Respect one another. ? Make sure all learning materials are brought to class. 2. 3. Define the following concepts: 2. 3. 1. L eadership The ability of an individual to influence other individuals or a groupto achieve goals. 2. 3. 2. C ntrol Assessment of work done and where necessary to realign andcorrect work done which is incorrect or not up to standard. 2. 3. 3. I ntrinsic motivation An inner desire to be successful at a certain task (self-motivation) 2. 3. 4 . C ommunication The transmission of an idea by someone, the sender, and theunderstanding thereof by another. Communication can be verbal or non-verbal. 2. 3. 5 . Co-operative learning A team approach to learning where each member of the group isdependent on the other members to accomplish a specific learningtask on an assignment. 2. 4 . Describe the autocratic and democratic styles of classroom management .
Autocratic leadership style: Autocratic leadership is an educator-centred approach to theclassroom which is characterised by the strong leadership role of theeducator. The main focus of this type of leadership is on thecompletion of tasks and the learners¶ ability to listen, work and do. Theadvantages of this type of leadership include the promotion of goodorder and an established routine in which some learners feel moresecure. The drawbacks of this type of leadership include one-waycommunication, rigid discipline, passive learner participation, a morereserved and unapproachable educator and little room for creativethinking.
Democratic leadership style: This leadership style is characterised by educators that have goodsubject knowledge, who are good natured, helpful, fair, and warm. Educators who practice this management style encourage learner participation. The advantages of this type of leadership include learner confidence to participate in classroom activities, a relaxed positiveatmosphere and learners constantly being involved in learningactivities. 2. 5 . Explain how a message is conveyed by referring to the communication processmodel . In order for there to be communication there first needs to be apurpose for communication or a message to be conveyed.
Thismessage is then encoded by the sender and passed onto the receiver via a communication medium. The message is then decoded by thereceiver. This results in a transfer of meaning from the sender to thereceiver, who then may give feedback back to the sender. Question 3 µ A delict is an unlawful, culpable (intentional or negligent) act (or omission)committed by a person, which infringes the rights of another or causes himor her harm. ¶ (Coetzee 2010:188) ? To constitute delict, one person must have caused harm or damage to another byhis or her action or conduct .
The conduct must be voluntary human action and maybe either a positive action or an omission . µ In terms of this element of delictual liability the school can be held liable asthey failed to remove the piece of steel or at least clearly demarcate thearea around the piece of steel, in order to make people aware of it. Thecoach, knowing that there is a possibility that players could fall during thewarm up due to the nature of the sport, could also be held responsible asthe teams were responsible for choosing a warm up area and the coachshould as such have checked the area for any objects that could causeharm to team members. The act which causes harm must be wrongful, that is, it must be legallyreprehensible or unreasonable in terms of the legal convictions of the community . To test for unlawfulness, the boni mores principle is applied . The question here iswhether the harm caused was unjustified in the circumstances . I n the absence of wrongfulness a defendant may not be held liable . µ The school can be held liable as they should have taken all precautions tohelp to prevent an injury of this nature to any person on their schoolgrounds.
Knowing that they were hosting a basketball tournament theyshould have removed any objects that could cause injuries to any playersor clearly demarcate the areas where there could be concerns over theplayer¶s safety. The coach in being responsible for the safety of his teamshould have thoroughly inspected the area chosen for the warm up for anydangerous objects. ? The act must be the result of fault in the form of intent (d olus) or negligence(culpa) . Fault refers to blameworthy attitude or conduct of someone who has actedwrongfully . µ
The coach of the team was negligent as he should have inspected thearea for any danger to the players, if he had done so he would have seenthe piece of steel and then either have chosen a different warm up area or at least warn the players to either avoid that area or be careful around it. The school could be seen to be negligent for failure to remove the piece of steel or clearly demarcate the area around the piece of school. ? There is a casual relationship between the conduct of the perpetrator and the harmsuffered by the victim . I general, it should be shown that the person·s injury didresult from the actions of the person charged with negligence . I n other words, theremust be a clear casual relationship between the act and the injury . A person cannotbe held liable if he or she has not caused any damage . µ The school¶s negligence in not removing the piece of steel or demarcatingthe area around it resulted in the injury to the player, as such they can beheld liable. The coach for not thoroughly inspecting the area in which theplayers would warm up could also be held liable. ?
A delict is a wrongful and culpable act which has harmful consequences . Damagesin the form of patrimonial loss or non-patrimonial loss must be present . There mustbe a connection between the negligent conduct and the injury (physical or mental ) . To receive an award for damages, a plaintiff must have suffered an injury as a resultof the defendant·s negligent conduct . The plaintiff must prove that some damageoccurred . Although the injury or damage does not need to be substantial for anaward to be ordered, the injury must be real rather than be imagined .
The courts aregenerally reluctant to award damages where there is not some form of injury . µ Damages are present which are due to the negligent conduct on the partof the school, not removing the piece of steel or demarcating the areasurrounding the piece of steel, and coach, for not thoroughly inspectingthe area on which his players will be using to warm up. Contributory fault is where a learner does not show the degree of carenormally expected form someone of his or her age, knowledge andexperience.
If this is present the educator will not be solely liable for anydamages resulting from an injury by his or her act. In the case in question,if the basketball tournament is for a junior age group (ie. under 15¶s) or asenior age group (ie. under 18¶s) will determine if there is contributory faulton the part of the learner¶s. Under 18 learners¶ can reasonably beexpected to be responsible enough to check themselves for any danger onthe warm up area chosen
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