The following concepts are explained by definition and I have provided examples of each as they apply to the developmental behavioral approach. The first one I will discuss Is Negative Reinforcement, This Is the strengthening of a behavior by the removal of an unpleasant consequence. An example of this might be a toddler having a tantrum every time you take his pacifier away, but then as soon as he gets it jack the tantrum stops.
So by giving It back to him the behavior was negatively reinforced by the tantrum stopping and us, giving it back to him every time he cries. There are several other concepts that will be discussed next. Intrinsic Reinforcement: Feelings of pleasure and personal satisfaction derived from working on accomplishing a task, discovering something new, or seeing a problem. An example of this is, a child learning to write may get frustrated if they can't get it down Immediately. With a little encouragement and praising the child will continue to try ND not give up.
Positive Reinforcement: Something that follows a response and results in the increase of that particular response. A pleasant consequence. Examples are, helping a child achieve balance when learning to ride a bike, sitting next to the child when they are working hard on an art project, asking questions, nodding and thumbs up on a good Job. Natural and Logical Consequence: Natural consequence would occur without a parent's or teacher's intervention. Logical consequence is determined by an adult that is related to the child's original inappropriate behavior.
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Examples of these are, a child refusing to take a nap so that they can stay up late to watch their favorite show, consequence Is they child falls asleep early and misses their show. Another example is a child purposely coloring on the table when told not to do that the consequence might be that the child will have to clean that table as well as the other tables. Withdrawing or Withholding Reinforcement: Taking away something special. A child being told several times to share the blocks or they may not play with them.
The child continues to be mean so he consequence Is that the blocks get taken away. Incompatible Behavior: an inappropriate and an appropriate behavior can't take place at the same time. A child listening to a story and another child shouts out. The two things can not be done at the same time by the same child t n the Child being Good' Respond positively and reinforce the good behavior. If a child is playing in housekeeping and they are sharing nicely when they normally would not. The child should be praised for doing such a good Job sharing.
Reminders, Redirection, Reprimands: A gentle reminder o not do something usually works if it doesn't then a very stern "NO" at eye level may be needed, followed by a brief explanation. If the child still insists on doing it then they may need to be removed from the situation briefly. The sand box is a good example. The child throwing sand after being reminded not to several times might need to sit briefly why throwing sand is not the right thing to do. This brings me to my last few examples. Sit and Watch and Time Out: Sit and watch is a mild time out for children who have a hard time understanding expectations.
It meaner the child sits out for a min or two to watch the other children playing appropriately. Time out is an extreme reinforcement it includes removing the teachers attention, other children, materials and equipment. It should be used as a last resort. An example of this is children spitting or biting, they are told that their teeth are not for biting, if they do it again they need to be removed to think about it. They should sit for no more then 1 min for every year of age. If it continues a one on one might be needed to help the child lean about his behavior.
Remember. This is just a sample.
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