The beginning at the Atlantic coast of Northern America was necessary to English possession in 1607. v When first of colonies – Virginia has been based. Its founders were merchants from the London trading company. On the courts the company transported in a colony of poor men, sold itself is temporary in debt servitude and worked in a colony under supervision of inspectors of the company. For ocean from England the puritans oppressed by government Stewart directed, the poor men who are looked for in New World of improvement of the fate.
In colonies they got in servitude to merchants and the large land owners who have received the letters from king on the grounds in America. One step at a time at the Atlantic coast from the grounds grasped at Indians 13 colonies were formed. In the south – in South Carolina and Georgia the slaveholding facilities has developed. On plantations cultivated tobacco, a sugar cane, indigo. Characteristic feature grower facilities was injurious use of the grounds quickly lost the fertility then plantations were transferred on other seats.
This feature of a slaveholding facilities and pursuit of a profit pushed planters to continuous expansion of territory of colonies. Import of Negros – slaves in a colony has begun quickly increased. In the middle Atlantic colonies – Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey – wheat was cultivated. The part of the ground belonged to large proprietors – to the aristocrats leased it to small farmers, paid for it the rent. Here was also independent farmers much. In seaside cities crafts, shipbuilding developed.
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In the North – in New England covered colonies New- Hampshire Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island, handicraftsmen and manufactories was even more. The Major part of the population was engaged in fishing and navigation. England and its possession used a monopoly of commerce with colonies. Turns of this commerce quickly increased. From colonies the furs, tobacco were taken out to England, indigo, a fish, a wood and iron. Manufacture of iron was officially forbidden by the English government, but colonies did not reckon with these interdictions.
To West Indies were taken out bread, a fish and other goods. Despite of distinction in social attitudes between separate colonies, their general characteristic feature there was a fast progress of initial capitalist accumulation and the bourgeois attitudes interwined with slaveholding in the south. Progress of colonies at all was not peace idyll. In a basis of territorial expansion of colonies in the West capture of the American Indian grounds, destruction and replacement of Indians in the remote areas laid. Wars with Indians differed cruelty and barbarity.
Colonists seats exterminated all American Indian population, tortured and burnt captives. Merchants for nothing exchanged at Indians dear beaver skins and other furs, accustomed to drinking vodka and set American Indian tribes against each other. In the favourable way of initial accumulation served slave trading. Merchants of New England conducted so-called " triangular commerce " – bought treacle in West Indies, processed it in rum and for rum, cheap fabrics and knickknacks exchanged slaves – Negros at slave-traders, engaged the armed robbery and capture of Negros at coast of Africa.
Usually not less than thirds of Negros perished from illnesses during transportation through ocean, and the others were exposed to brutal operation on plantations. Sharp social contradictions developed and among the white population of colonies. The major part of white immigrants many years was in debt slavery at merchants and large agrarian proprietors, the agrarian aristocracy aspired to spread in colonies feudal attitudes, inalienability and transfer to an indivisible condition of manors by right of succession to the senior son, nobiliary titles and privileges.
Large land owners raised the rent from the tenant, rigidly maintained small farmers, is frequent raising on revolts. In seaside cities there were many the hired working and poor handicraftsmen tested greater deprivations. City poor and tenants aspired to leave on the West and to become independent farmers. Chains of the armed immigrants – "squatters" – with families and house belongings moved west, based settlements and grasped the grounds of Indians. Management of colonies was in hands of English authorities.
King appointed governors of the majority of colonies, and in three of them, private persons considered by possession, - in Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland– king only approved the governors appointed by owners. At governors there was advice appointed by them and the lower chambers which members were selected rich proprietors on the basis of a high property qualification. In English parliament of a colony had no representation. The English government considered itself in right to publish the laws, concerning colonies, without their agreement.
An arbitrariness of governors and English agrarian aristocracy caused numerous revolts of farmers and the handicraftsmen required the political rights, expansions of self-management of colonies and restrictions of authority of governors. Economic growth of colonies wakened at the population aspiration to independence. Between colonies mutual economic relations one step at a time amplified. The generality of territory, economic life and language at remoteness from England assisted folding.
Conditions of a life in colonies, despite of distinctions between the North and the South and on class contradictions, generated known features of a mental constitution at the population. Formation of the North American bourgeois nation was accelerated as a result of an aggravation of contradictions between colonies and England, led liberation war. In the 60s of the XVIII century colonial oppression of England increased. Seven Years' War 1756 – 1763 GG exhausted its financial resources. Britain's public debt grew from 53 thousand to 140 thousand pounds.
The king and the ministers wanted to improve their financial position through the colonies. The capture of Canada by England, Florida and the land west of Allegan facilitated the holding of new coercive measures in the 13 colonies. In 1765 the British Parliament imposed a colony of so-called stamp duty on each trade transaction documents, newspapers, and ads. Resistance of the population forced the British government to abolish stamp duty, but the policy taxing the colonies without their consent continued.
Dissatisfaction with stamp duty has given strong impetus to the broad democratic movement against the British colonialists in New York and New England. In many towns and villages there were rallies, people smashed home a new tax collector. Began a boycott of British goods. In the years in colony 17773-1774 revolutionary situation. The masses of the people no longer willing to endure the situation. Conflicts with the British colonialists sharpened. For communication between the individual colonies were established correspondent committees.
In Virginia, the leaders of this committee were supporters of the revolutionary actions of Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry, Massachusetts - Samuel Adams. The movement for the boycott of British goods was expanding. The British government cut duties on tea imported to the colonies of the East India Company, in the hope that increased sales of tea and the colonies reconciled to the payment of at least a little of the tea duty. But this led only to new countermeasures.
At the end of 1773 there was an event known as the Boston Tea Party: the inhabitants of Boston, disguised as Indians, entered the ship with a cargo of tea waiting in the harbor, and threw him into the sea. In response, the British authorities have moved to new repressions and decided to July 1774 to close the Boston port, the city had entered a state of siege. The king has deprived the inhabitants of New England, the right to engage in fishing in Newfoundland. Local government in Massachusetts was abolished. All these measures meant that the British colonialists have not been able to maintain its power over the colonies previous methods.
The armed struggle began in the spring of 1775 April 19. In May, 1775 in Philadelphia, opened the Second Continental Congress. The participants were representatives of the planters and the big bourgeoisie. But under the influence of the revolutionary upsurge of the people most inclined Congress to break with England. Congress recognized his army, arose early in the war of guerrilla groups, appointed commander of a wealthy Virginia planter George Washington (1732-17. Washington participated in hostilities against the French and Indians, and gained a reputation as capable military leader.
July 4, 1776 Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. The declaration announced that the colonial oppression against "inalienable rights" to liberty, life and the pursuit of happiness, and that the rebellious colonies, united in the United States of America are "free and independent states. "The main author was Thomas Dzhefferson. Congress it has made up his draft Declaration of Independence, after making any editorial changes specifically chosen for this commission. Item, who condemned slavery was excluded. The proclamation of the Declaration raised he authority of Congress to the people and the bourgeoisie, and enabled planters to retain the leadership in North America during the Revolution. Congress sought to bring to an alliance with the rebellious colonies, France and Spain, and sent for this purpose in Europe, Benjamin Franklin. The government of Louis XVI and the Spanish court willing to take advantage of falling away from the American colonies of England, to bring England to settle old scores and bring back some lost possessions in America. Entry into the war of France and Spain dramatically worsened the situation in England at sea. 782 the British government decided to stop fighting and start peace talks. United States joined with Britain in a preliminary conspiracy to restrict colonial ambitions of its allies - France and Spain. These states would again extend their possessions in America, not in the interests of neither the U. S. nor Britain. September 3, 1783 in Versailles, signed peace treaties. United States recognized the independent state. Each of the 13 states had its own trade laws and regulations. There was no single monetary system and paid a lot of different currency.
The bourgeoisie tried to overcome these obstacles to the development of the national market. In May 1787, in Philadelphia, opened the Constitutional Convention convened to revise the "Articles of Confederation" in 1781 and develop a new Constitution. The social composition of the members of the Convention clearly testified, whose interests are served his activities. Of the 55 members turned 20 planters, 23 - bankers, merchants and manufacturers, 10 lawyers. Two seats occupied by a physician and teacher, but there was no farmer, artisan or a worker.
Meetings of the Convention took place in strict secrecy, disclosure of the debate is strictly forbidden. In September, the Convent finished his work. The Constitution created a Federal 1787 or the federal government, although the states retain broad autonomy and their individual constitutions. Legislative power is transmitted to the Congress, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The executive power constitution passed on to the president, elected by the two degree of choice, and gives him enormous powers. The President appoints ministers (secretaries) who are responsible only to him, and is the chief of the rmed forces. If the law does not receive the approval of two thirds of all members of Congress, the President may impose on him veto. The Constitution establishes the Supreme Court of irremovable and for life appointed judges. The Supreme Court can overturn laws if found unconstitutional, and is one of the most reactionary institutions in the U. S. , which provide solutions aimed against the interests of workpeople In comparison with the feudal monarchy bourgeois constitution in 1787 was progressive, but it was Not democratic. In the States rose a broad movement for the democratization of the constitution.
With great difficulty the planters and the bourgeoisie have to ratify the Constitution by a majority of states with the condition of amending it, but in some states, the fight against its ratification lasted until 1790s. In 1789 he was elected to Congress. Became the first U. S. president George Washington. Congress was forced in 1791 to include in the constitution of 10 amendments, proclaimed freedom of speech, press, right of assembly and petition, the inviolability of their persons, houses, the introduction of trial by jury in criminal cases to the civilian population.
Despite the reservations and omissions made in 1791, 10 amendments to the Constitution were very progressive and marked an important achievement of the American people. In U. S. history the amendments entered under the name "Bill of Rights. ""The Bill of Rights" did not change the essence of bourgeois slavery and the Constitution, but he made it difficult to arbitrary repression against the people and facilitate the struggle of workers for their rights.
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