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Conceptual framework

Put together all the materials that deal with similar topics. This way, you can relate the studies with one another. 3.

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From the card catalogue in a library, you will be able to identify a book that is closely related to your study. Go to the shelf and pick out the book you have identified. The materials in this book will have supporting materials in other books on the same shelf. Look at other books located above, below, to the right, and to the left of the book you have picked out. They may contain relevant materials. 4. Refer to the list of references at the end of the book or journal you have found. Those references will give you the needed relevant materials. How do you organize your RL?

Cute concept(s) and variables can serve as your heading and subheadings Chitin the write up, you can further organize based on: – chronology – themes Writing skills required n building up the RL C Paraphrasing C Summarizing њ Managing quotations CA Synthesizing C Citing or documenting sources What is a paraphrase? – restating an authors idea in your own words and style (Plat et al. , 2007) – putting a passage from an author into “your own words (The Writers Handbook, online) ; restating in your own words the statement of others; a Techniques in paraphrasing 1. Imagine as if you were explaining the original text to someone who doesn’t share the same background with that of the author of the original material. 2. Write the paraphrase the way you loud give that explanation. 3.

Simplify the material, but keep its original ideas intact. Sample paraphrase . PDF Summary or précis – a condensed version of a longer text that represents the original ideas of the writer’s but written in the words of the one writing the summary (Plat et al. , 2007) – a condensation of the original usually one fourth to one third of the length (Tellurium, 2003 in Gonzales et al, no date) How to produce a summary: 1. Read the article to be summarized and be sure you understand it. 2. Outline the article. Note the major points. 4. Always use paraphrase when rating a summary. If you do copy a phrase from the original be sure it is a very important phrase that is necessary and cannot be paraphrased.

In this case put “quotation marks” around the phrase. The features of a 1. Start your summary with a clear identification of the type of work, title, author, and main point in the present tense. Example: In the feature article “Four Kinds of Reading,” the author, Donald Hall, explains his opinion about different types of reading. 2. Check with your outline and your 3. Never put any of your own ideas, opinions, or interpretations into the marry. This means you have to be very careful of your word choice. 4. Write using “summarizing language. ” Periodically remind your reader that this is a summary by using phrases such as the article sample summary. UDF Quotation – a reproduction of the author’s exact words, spelling and grammar Reminder: Make sure you do not overuse quotations in your paper. Otherwise, your paper is simply a representation of other people’s work. (Plat et al. , 2007) Rules for placing quotations 1. Put quotation marks around the quotation. 2. Introduce the quotation or place It in proper context. . Copy quotations exactly as they are written. Synthesizing “to combine the ideas of more than one source with your own” Synthesis ; Report information from the sources using different phrases and sentences. ; Organize so that readers can immediately see where information from the sources overlap. ; Make sense of the sources and help the reader understand them in greater depth.