Computer Assisted Language Learning
Introduction Computers can be tremendously useful tools for English language instruction. They process data quickly and integrate voice, music, videos, pictures and text into lessons. They can be programmed to tailor instruction and test for each individual learner. They can even used to make students feel more comfortable and willing to take risks, because of their “untiring, unjudgmental nature” (Butler-Pascoe 1997:20). While there are many potential benefits to be derived from these “machines”, the issue now is not whether but how computers should be used for language instruction.
Regardless of the speculated disadvantages of using computers for language instruction, advance by some individual or groups, computers and CALL materials are already being used for English language instruction and will continue to be used. It can be used as a modern approach towards language teaching and learning in which the computer is utilized as an aid to the presentation, and as reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned by usually including substantial interactive materials.
or any similar topic only for you
Over the years with the emergence of the World Wide Web or the Internet, CALL widened its scope.
It has become communicative, interactive and explorative such that audio and video exercises or activities can easily be integrated. The role of language teaching has grown as years have gone by. As observed, interactivity in learning becomes “a necessary and fundamental mechanism for knowledge acquisition and the development of both cognitive and physical skills” (Barker, 1994:1). Today, computer technology can help advocate the communicative approach to learning because it, too, is concerned with the interaction between the teacher and the learner, and the students’ learning needs and learning styles.
Due to the significant changes in second language teaching and learning (e. g. the role of the teacher, the role of the learner, the role of multimedia, and the way the learning process is conducted in the classroom settings), interaction has become an increasingly important and relevant area of study in the field of second language acquisition since it reflects what goes on in learning and teaching processes. Communication is intrinsic to success, effective instructional practice as well as individual discovery.
The implementation of interactivity can be perceived as an art (Sims 1997) because it requires a comprehensive range of skills, including an understanding of the learner, an appreciation of software application capabilities, the importance of rigorous instructional design and the application of appropriate learning materials. The value of the multimedia and the Internet in the enhancement of interaction for language learning can not be disregarded. Warschauer, M. , & Healy, D. 1998) stated that the type of software and the task teachers set for the students have a large effect on the type and quality of students interaction with each other when working in pairs or small groups. With the continuing development of technological advances in the areas of communication and multimedia, the challenge for English (foreign language) classrooms goes far beyond current knowledge about the effective use of technology. The CALL is a milestone as far as language teaching is concerned.
And with that realization in mind, this study, “Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL): Interactive Teaching in English Using Different Websites in San Pablo Elementary School is presented. Statement of the Problem The general objective of this study is to help improve the English capability and competency of the students in Grade I of San Pablo Elementary School making it interactive and communicative using the Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) materials imparted through the use of Different English Websites. Specifically, it tried to answer the following questions: 1.
How will the CALL technology provide interactive English comprehension, vocabulary, and writing exercises? 2. How will the CALL create interaction among the student and teacher? 3. How will the lessons be made interactive and communicative? 4. Will this approach be found satisfactory through test result? And 5. Will this approach be found satisfactory by its users? Significance of the Study English learning has become the most important task for students. At very young age parents send their children to private training or classes to enhance their English learning and to provide their children a strong foundation in English.
However, there are still some problems and dilemmas for students in language learning. Most students still could not have effective communication after years of English language learning. Some students have difficulty in their expression in an English presentation, although they have higher scores in English tests. Computer has been considered as an important learning tool in the modern second language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) has provided amazing opportunities for improving second language learning such as it can motivate students’ interesting or improve learners’ varied linguistic skills (AbuSeileek 2007).
Nowadays, San Pablo Elementary has 6 computers (2 are originally school property, 4 are personal property of the teachers) placed in a laboratory room equipped with new hardware and software but it’s not fully explored and utilized in English language teaching. The study is important due to the following reasons: 1. To help improve the English capability and competency of the students in Grade I of San Pablo Elementary School. 2. To help students learn to interpret new information and experiences on their own terms. 3. With the use of CALL more shy students can feel free in their own students’-centered environment.
This will raise their self-esteem and their knowledge will be improving. 4. Through the use of different English Educational Websites students will perform collaborative project where in they will do their best to perform it within set time limits. 5. To make the class more interesting and to increase students’ interest and motivation. 6. To provide information’s regarding Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). METHODOLOGY There are various concerns considered in this action research. There is no simple finite number of these concerns, nor is there a simple dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative approaches.
Indeed, there is an off-cited division in the second language acquisition (SLA) field between those researchers who favor qualitative methodologies and those who prefer quantitative ones. Research Design: This study is an action research. This study was conducted for the purpose of solving a problem or obtaining information in order to solve some kind of day to day immediate concern such as how to figure out ways to use technology to improve the teaching of grammar in the classroom. To dealt with are the needs and concerns of the students.
Data concerning the problem (both qualitative and quantitative) were collected and interpreted. Qualitative- the data collected include a pre-survey and a post-survey. Quantitative- a test (post-test) administered. Research Procedure: The Profile of the students’ background, experience and future needs are obtained. The purpose of the needs analysis was to find out whether they agree or disagree on the use of the CALL technology in language learning and to find out their familiarity with the CALL materials and the Internet in teaching the English language. The following are stages conducted in this study: Stage 1: Survey by Interview
To help determine the age, gender, needs and experience of the students using a computer, a structured interview were prepared and administered. Stage 2: Utilization of the Different English Websites in the Classroom The primary audience for the websites are the Grade I students of San Pablo Elementary school with a particular teacher, the audience used worldwide ESL sites exist which are designed for a certain English language level. It is important to consider a site’s purpose, since meaningful comparisons of evaluations can be made among sites with the same or at least similar intended goals, uses and audiences.
In this study English websites can be directly used by the Grade I students of San Pablo Elementary School. Stage 3: The Post Test To help determine the progress of the students in San Pablo Elementary School after taking the lesson using CALL materials. Stage 4: The Post Survey Administered and answered by the students after the “test-run”. Research Setting and Participants This action research was conducted at San Pablo Elementary located at Block. 14 San Pablo, Tarlac City. The school is categorized as a complete, non-central school, mono-grade having 2 sections each grade level.
Computer laboratory provided by the teachers in the school was used. This study used 35 students in Grade I section Daisy. The section is heterogeneous. The data collected for this study will come from the observations and tests taken by the students. An in depth analysis of the collected data was carried out. PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA A survey interview has been developed in participants’ home language for the purpose of collecting background information. Based on the pre-survey interview, the researcher collected this data. Table 1: Students Profile No.
NameAgeGenderComputer at HomeWith / without Experience in computer 1Banag, Jonie D. 7MNoneWithout 2Bermudo, Mark Anthony D. C. 6M1With 3Boehn, Adrian M. 6M1With 4Butchayo, John Carlo G. 7MNoneWithout 5Fallorina, Jerry M. 8MNoneWithout 6Gaupo, Gerald7MNoneWithout 7Lacanlale, Christian G. 7MNoneWithout 8Luna, Alexander N. 6MNoneWithout 9Manalili, John Lloyd C. 6M1With 10Maninang, Emer6MNoneWithout 11Manlapas,Randy A. 6MNoneWithout 12Martinez, Clive Xavier M. 5MNoneWithout 13Morales, Aiveen Nash M. 6MNoneWithout 14Pilariza, Hans Russell L. 7M1With 15Puno, Jerome M. 6MNoneWithout 16Roldan, Rainier T. 6MNoneWithout 7Tolentino, John Michael E. 7M1With 18Uring, Justine H. 6MNoneWithout 19Bautista, Marichell D. C. 6FNoneWith 20Botio, Renalyn M. 7F1With 21Casem, Allyana N. 6F6With 22Castaneda, Rey-ann 7FNoneWithout 23Dizon, Clarisse Joy R. 6F1With 24Lacanlale, Clarissa G. 6FNoneWith 25Manlapas, Adrian Mae 6FNoneWithout 25Nucup, Lyka M. 6FNoneWithout 27Obenario, Angelina D. C. 6FNoneWithout 28Padua, Maricar 7FNoneWithout 29Panag, Maiel T. 6F1With 30Pangan, Cristina C. 7FNoneWithout 31Pangilinan, Gloria8FNoneWithout 32Quintos, Jennalyn Y. 6FNoneWithout 33Sabat, Maadrian E. 6FNoneWithout 34Sagadraca, Angelika Joy M. 6 FNoneWithout 35Salas, Jomae V. FNoneWithout There were 35 participants that took part in study. The table shows that the students consist of 19 male and 16 female. One of them is 5 years old, 21 are 6 years old, 11 are 7 years old, and 2 are 8 years old. Out of 35 students, only 6 have their own computer at home and 10 have experience in operating a computer. The second quarter test result serves as point of reference in this study. The test is composed of 30 items consisting questions about listening skills, vocabulary, grammar, reading and comprehension. The table below shows the scores of the students and the calculated mean. Table 2: Second Quarter Test Result
No. NameScore 1Banag, Jonie D. 15 2Bermudo, Mark Anthony D. C. 12 3Boehn, Adrian M. 16 4Butchayo, John Carlo G. 20 5Fallorina, Jerry M. 17 6Gaupo, Gerald15 7Lacanlale, Christian G. 16 8Luna, Alexander N. 12 9Manalili, John Lloyd C. 17 10Maninang, Emer13 11Manlapas,Randy A. 18 12Martinez, Clive Xavier M. 18 13Morales, Aiveen Nash M. 19 14Pilariza, Hans Russell L. 19 15Puno, Jerome M. 22 16Roldan, Rainier T. 14 17Tolentino, John Michael E. 22 18Uring, Justine H. 18 19Bautista, Marichell D. C. 14 20Botio, Renalyn M. 21 21Casem, Allyana N. 20 22Castaneda, Rey-ann 12 23Dizon, Clarisse Joy R. 14 24Lacanlale, Clarissa G. 21 5Manlapas, Adrian Mae 24 25Nucup, Lyka M. 16 27Obenario, Angelina D. C. 23 28Padua, Maricar 16 29Panag, Maiel T. 21 30Pangan, Cristina C. 15 31Pangilinan, Gloria12 32Quintos, Jennalyn Y. 22 33Sabat, Maadrian E. 16 34Sagadraca, Angelika Joy M. 18 35Salas, Jomae V. 14 Formula of Mean: The mean may often be confused with the median, mode or range. The mean is the arithmetic average of a set of values, or distribution; however, for skewed distributions, the mean is not necessarily the same as the middle value (median), or the most likely (mode). The arithmetic mean is the “standard” average, often simply called the “mean”.
Total scores602 . Mean= Number of cases M= 35 Mean= 17. 2 November 3, 2010 marks the first day for Third Quarter period and ended January 20, 2011. In this period of time the Grade I students of San Pablo Elementary School had undergone the said study. The children were exposed to different English websites that cater different reading, speaking, listening, grammar, and vocabulary exercises. The teacher serves as the moderator that helps and guides the students on operating the computers and explaining further instructions and directions.
The researcher focuses on three English websites and these are the following: 1. Agenda Web – Hundreds of Free English Exercises (http://www. agendaweb. org/) 2. English Interactive – (http://www. englishinteractive. net) 3. Calluni. net – (http://www. calluni. net) The said websites have different activities that are suitable for primary grade level taking up English lessons. CALL Programs designed for teaching grammar include drill and practice on a single topic (Irregular Verbs, Definite and Indefinite Articles), drills on a variety of topics (Advanced Grammar Series, English Grammar Computerized I and II), games (Code Breaker, Jr.
High Grade Builder), and different programs which are specifically designed to promote second-language listening (Listen! ), multimedia programs for second language learners (Accelerated English, Rosetta Stone), and multimedia programs for children or the general public (Aesop’s Fables, The Animals). Pronunciation programs (Sounds American, Conversations) generally allow students to record and playback their own voice and compare it to a model. Several comprehensive multimedia programs (Firsthand Access, The Lost Secret) include similar features.
Reading programs designed for ESL (English Second Language learners and tutorials designed for children or the general public (MacReader, Reading Critically, Steps to Comprehension). and games (HangWord). Also included are more general educational programs which can assist reading (Navajo Vacation, The Night Before Christmas) Text reconstruction programs allow students to manipulate letters, words, sentences, or paragraphs in order to put texts together. They are usually inexpensive and can be used to support reading, writing, or discussion activities.
Popular examples include Eclipse, Gapmaster, Super Cloze, Text Tanglers, and Double Up. Vocabulary activities includes drill and practice programs (Synonyms), multimedia tutorials (English Vocabulary), and games (Hangman, Scrabble). Teacher and learner roles The distinct roles in the laboratory are compared and differentiated from the roles assumed in the traditional classroom. The researcher noticed a big difference between a traditional classroom setting and a laboratory setting using the CALL technology. Various factors influenced the way students and the teacher interacts.
The teacher and the computers interact and interpret their roles in the laboratory. Warschauer, 1998 says that when multimedia is used the role of the teacher as authority source and expert changes. Hence, the teacher does not dominate the floor and does not do most of the talking. Besides, he or she does not direct and redirect the development of the topic, pose display questions, nominate students as next speakers, or evaluate individual student’s contributions, all of which is the norm in traditional teacher-fronted EFL (English Foreign Language) classrooms.
There are several aspects that determine the role of the students in the laboratory setting. The researcher noted that the setting, the tools (the computers), the personality of the students, and the way in which the teacher establishes the teaching learning activities as well as the way that he or she interacts with them plays an important role in the laboratory classroom setting. These aspects are interrelated each other and in the next section they are expanded. In the traditional classroom students are more willing to pay attention to the teacher lecture.
In contrast, at the laboratory, according with Huang 2000 the student-teacher communication seemed to be blocked to some extent by the layout of the computer lab. Physically, the computer laboratory is larger than the traditional classroom. The physical distance enlarged the psychological distance. It has the tendency that the two-way communication between the teacher and the students turned to be the one-way teacher to student communication. During the development if this research and from time to time the researcher ncouraged her students to interact with each other. She constantly asks herself the way to combine more interaction into the laboratory learning activities more often than she does. To enrich the interaction, she tried and determined what strategies will work and how to do it. Therefore, using the instructional guides that she has designed, she made suggestions and she frequently encouraged her students to employ new strategies to promote multiple-level interaction in the lab.
She has moved toward interaction taking place between the learner and the content, the learner and the instructor, and between learners. Traditional classroom roles are considerably changed. There are two main types of roles that appear at the lab. On the one hand, by the nature of the setting there are a number of roles which emerge and come into sight. On the other hand there are also a number of roles that learners begin to have. In the computerized classroom there are some roles that emerge which are very different from the traditional classroom.
For instance, high interactive computer programs have the power to catch student attentions; sometimes, this power that multimedia technology induces over learners is so high till the point that at times students got so concentrated in the computer proposed activities that they ignore the teacher’s instructions. The role of the teacher changes from source of knowledge to instigator, promoter, coach, helper, model, and guide of knowledge construction. It is not easy to change the teacher traditional role of simply showing students how to do things and providing then with the answers they seek.
It would be much better to require students to engage in activities that make them be critical thinkers using computers as a learner partner. After three months of the intervention using the Computer Assisted Language Learning Technology the children took up their Third Quarter Test that serves as the Post Test for this study and employed post survey interview which was intended to collect data on participants’ attitudes toward learning English with CALL technology, and their perception of CALL technology.
The table below shows the result of the Third Quarter Test taken up by the students in Grade I students together with the previous scores taken on the First Quarter Test. Table 3: Test result From First to Second Quarter No. NameScores Second QuarterThird Quarter 1Banag, Jonie D. 1520 2Bermudo, Mark Anthony D. C. 1221 3Boehn, Adrian M. 1628 4Butchayo, John Carlo G. 2023 5Fallorina, Jerry M. 1722 6Gaupo, Gerald1525 7Lacanlale, Christian G. 1627 8Luna, Alexander N. 1225 9Manalili, John Lloyd C. 1726 10Maninang, Emer1326 11Manlapas,Randy A. 1827 12Martinez, Clive Xavier M. 825 13Morales, Aiveen Nash M. 1924 14Pilariza, Hans Russell L. 1923 15Puno, Jerome M. 2220 16Roldan, Rainier T. 1419 17Tolentino, John Michael E. 2226 18Uring, Justine H. 1825 19Bautista, Marichell D. C. 1422 20Botio, Renalyn M. 2129 21Casem, Allyana N. 2030 22Castaneda, Rey-ann 1221 23Dizon, Clarisse Joy R. 1419 24Lacanlale, Clarissa G. 2118 25Manlapas, Adrian Mae 2430 25Nucup, Lyka M. 1627 27Obenario, Angelina D. C. 2329 28Padua, Maricar 1620 29Panag, Maiel T. 2126 30Pangan, Cristina C. 1521 31Pangilinan, Gloria1218 32Quintos, Jennalyn Y. 2221 33Sabat, Maadrian E. 1618 4Sagadraca, Angelika Joy M. 1819 35Salas, Jomae V. 1424 The above table shows the satisfying result of the Third Quarter Test. Table 4: Test Result (Second – Third Quarter) Quarter TestNumber of Cases Number of ItemsHighest ScoreLowest ScoreTotal Number of scoresMean Second3530221260217. 2 Third3530301882423. 54 The table number four shows the big difference between the scores of First to Second Quarter Test. After conducting the test run students were asked if they find the program satisfying. 33 of the students answered “yes” and still hoping for some more lessons using CALL technology. of the students answered “no” because for them CALL is a much complicated way in studying the English subject. Summary of Findings Based on the data gathered in this research CALL technology in the classroom provided a context in which opportunities for English development are enhanced, since students are motivated to extend their efforts and resources in order to meet the demands of real communication in a social context. It also entails meaningful use of the target language and demands teachers and students to treat language as a medium of communication.
The second quarter result shows a great improvement compared to the result taken last quarter. The program works best with individual users, but pair work would also be possible. Use in the classroom situation would be dependent upon the availability of computers. CALL technology proved an effective tool for language learning and teaching. Although Internet is more affordable and available today than ever before, unfortunately and despite the incredible advances and advantages, not very many English as a foreign language students and teachers benefit from its potential. Computers have a eaningful application in the area of foreign language teaching and learning. The incorporation of CALL into the curriculum and language programs is important but there is a need to integrate it into the course goals, based on research practices. In addition, this may provide opportunities for authentic language practice. Almost all the student who undergone the program find the program very satisfying and keep on asking for more lessons with the same strategy of teaching. Conclusion: Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) for Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYL). The computer is a child’s wonderland.
The use of CALL software such as Windows Messenger, E-mail, the Internet, and other specific and non specific software can be integrated using effective pedagogy to create a powerful language learning program. Computer Technology offers a certain degree of independent and structured learning. It easily assists and even stimulates young second language learners in all four skills of listening, speaking, writing, reading and also critical thinking (Cobb & Stevens, 1996). Technology has the potential to play a major role in English or foreign language learning and instruction.
The history of CALL suggests that the computer can serve a variety of uses for language teaching. It can be a tutor which offers language drills or skill practice; a stimulus for discussion and interaction; or a tool for writing and research. With the advent of the Internet, it can also be a medium of global communication and a source of limitless authentic materials. But as pointed out by Garrett (1991), “the use of the computer does not constitute a method”. Rather, it is a “medium in which a variety of methods, approaches, and pedagogical philosophies may be implemented” (p. 5). The effectiveness of CALL cannot reside in the medium itself but only in how it is put to use. Recommendation: In the contemporary educational environments, it is a pity, that there are some schools that despite the fact of having a computer room which is privilege, there is not a full possible exploitation of that source of knowledge. Many people and some teachers feel uncomfortable with technology even there are times when they get scare of it; in that case, the best way to overcome this fear is facing it by solving as many computer exercises as possible.
An important implication of this study is to foster the use of computer assisted learning without neglecting the mystery that covers up the uses of new technologies. Teachers especially from government owned schools should have opportunities such as trainings and seminars about the use of computer and how it would be used in teaching Teacher’s computer literacy is important. A feeling of satisfaction is received and accomplished when teachers and students discover that computer provides another way to acquire knowledge. It enhances motivation and promotes interaction.
In traditional classrooms, interaction has been limited because of minimal physical possibilities or because of teachers’ lack of training in using technology.. Working with computers is a joint of motivational elements that makes the students’ participation more free and spontaneous. It is frequent that students bring English music compact discs to the laboratory. Those elements also promote interaction and new roles for both students and teachers. Therefore, students have more responsibility, risk taking, interaction and self-evaluation criteria towards the autonomous learning.
The teacher should take individual differences in preferences, and ability into account. For example, interactivity is limited when there is only one way of navigating the internet, and the materials are presented in a rigid manner. There are more ways of navigating the internet and many different possible topics to explore. Students can select different activities to read and study. Different aspects of every day life and people work are listed to account for individual differences in ability, and preferences.
The Department of Education should help in improving the computer laboratories of each government school and for those who has no computer at all. They should also consider applying an Internet connection for each school that can not only be used in teaching but also in easy communication of the school to the main office or division. It can also serve as an easy way of submitting reports and help decrease the paper works for the teachers and principals. Teachers should also take a rigid guidance on the students on how they will use the computer and the internet in searching for knowledge.
Students should always be properly guided while surfing the internet for them to be protected about the negative influences of the internet. Bibliography: • ^ a b Levy M. (1997) CALL: context and conceptualisation, Oxford: Oxford University Press. • ^ a b Schmid Euline Cutrim (2009) Interactive whiteboard technology in the language classroom: exploring new pedagogical opportunities, Saarbrucken, Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller. • ^ a b Lamy M. -N. & Hampel R. (2007) Online communication in language learning and teaching, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan. • ^ Shield L. & Kukulska-Hulme A. (eds. (2008) Special edition of ReCALL (20, 3) on Mobile Assisted Language Learning. • ^ Davies G. & Higgins J. (1982) Computers, language and language learning, London: CILT. • ^ Bush M. & Terry R. (1997) (eds. ) Technology-enhanced language learning, Lincolnwood, Illinois: National Textbook Company. • ^ a b c Davies G. , Walker R. , Rendall H. & Hewer S. (2011) Introduction to Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Module 1. 4 in Davies G. (ed. ) Information and Communications Technology for Language Teachers (ICT4LT), Slough, Thames Valley University [Online]: http://www. ict4lt. org/en/en_mod1-4. htm • ^ Levy M. & Hubbard P. 2005) Why call CALL “CALL”? Computer Assisted Language Learning 18, 3: 143-149. • ^ Marty F. (1981) “Reflections on the use of computers in second language acquisition”, System 9, 2: 85-98. • ^ Sanders R. (ed. ) (1995) Thirty years of computer-assisted language instruction, Festschrift for John R. Russell, CALICO Journal Special Issue, 12, 4. • ^ Delcloque P. (2000) History of CALL [Online]: http://www. ict4lt. org/en/History_of_CALL. pdf • ^ Davies G. (2005) Computer Assisted Language Learning: Where are we now and where are we going? [ Online]: http://www. camsoftpartners. co. uk/docs/UCALL_Keynote. htm • ^ Hubbard P. 2009) (ed. ) Computer-assisted language learning, Volumes I-IV, Routledge: London and New York: http://www. stanford. edu/~efs/callcc/ • ^ Language Learning & Technology (2010) 14, 3, pp. 14-18 [Online]: http://llt. msu. edu/issues/october2010/index. html • ^ Butler-Pascoe M. E. (2011) “The history of CALL: the intertwining paths of technology and second/foreign language teaching”, International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching (IJCALLT) 1, 1: 16-32: http://www. igi-global. com/ijcallt • ^ Davies G. & Higgins J. (1985) Using computers in language learning: a teacher’s guide, London: CILT. ^ Jones C. & Fortescue S. (1987) Using computers in the language classroom, Harlow: Longman. • ^ Hardisty D. & Windeatt S. (1989) CALL, Oxford: Oxford University Press. • ^ a b Warschauer M. (1996) “Computer-assisted language learning: an introduction”. In Fotos S. (ed. ) Multimedia language teaching, Tokyo: Logos International [Online]: http://www. ict4lt. org/en/warschauer. htm • ^ Warschauer M. & Healey D. (1998) “Computers and language learning: an overview”, Language Teaching 31: 57-71. • ^ Underwood J. (1984) Linguistics, computers and the language teacher: a communicative approach, Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House. ^ Schneider E. W. & Bennion J. L. (1984) “Veni, vidi, vici, via videodisc: a simulator for instructional courseware”. In Wyatt D. H. (ed. ) Computer-assisted language instruction, Oxford: Pergamon. • ^ Fuerstenberg G. (1993) A la rencontre de Philippe: Videodisc, Software, Teacher’s Manual and Student Activities Workbook: Yale University Press [Online]: http://web. mit. edu/fll/www/projects/Philippe. html • ^ Warschauer M. (2000) ‘”CALL for the 21st Century”, IATEFL and ESADE Conference, 2 July 2000, Barcelona, Spain. • ^ Bax S. (2003) “CALL – past, present and future”, System 31, 1: 13-28. • ^ Bax S. Chambers A. (2006) “Making CALL work: towards normalisation”, System 34, 4: 465-479. • ^ Bax S. (2011) “Normalisation revisited: the effective use of technology in language education”, International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching (IJCALLT) 1, 2: 1-15: http://www. igi-global. com/ijcallt • ^ Mounteney M. Spaced repetition learning systems (SRS): http://www. omniglot. com/language/srs. php. Accessed 14 July 2011. • ^ Decoo W. (2001) On the mortality of language learning methods. Paper given as the James L. Barker lecture on 8 November 2001 at Brigham Young University [Online]: