Valenzuela City Science High School A. Marcelo St. , Dalandanan, Valenzuela City The Use of Coconut Shells (Cocos Nucifera mesocarp) As Green Activated Carbon Fiber For Muffler Air Filter Group Members: De Leon, Glenn Patrick C. Enmil Jr. , Rolando Manuel P. Santos-Diaz, Zoe Marie C. Suyat, Pauline Jirah A. Submitted to: Mr. Albert Tolentino Date Submitted: Aug. 10, 2011 Chapter 1: Introduction Statement of the Problem A. General problem: 1. How could we use coconut shells to come up to an activated carbon fiber? B. Specific problem: 1.
What would be the duration of transforming the coconut shells to be activated carbon? 2. How can activated carbon fiber help to filter air in vehicle muffler? 3. What are the benefits and uses of the possible outcome of the research? Hypothesis A. Alternative Hypothesis: Coconut shells are able to produce activated carbon fiber for muffler air filter. B. Null Hypothesis: Coconut shells cannot produce activated carbon fiber for muffler air filter. Scope and Limitations The study will determine the feasibility of coconut shells in making activated carbon fiber for muffler air filter.
This research includes the materials and methods that will be used. It also contains the significance of the study and the possible uses of the outcome or result to help our environment. This study has also its own limitations, such that the materials are within the community and the processes will be conducted under the supervision of the research team and the investigatory project adviser. Significance of the Study This study is mainly composed of natural materials like the coconut shells used to make activated carbon fiber.
Green activated carbon is very helpful and environment friendly because it can help to cleanse and reduce the pollution in the air produced by vehicle muffler. The product of the study will also use less expensive materials so that it will be cheaper than other muffler air filter. This study will also help the community to lessen the air pollution and provide a cleaner air to sustain life. The possible outcome will be assured to be eco-friendly and able to help nature. Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature The coconut palm (Cocos Nucifera) is a member of the family Arecacae (palm family).
This are commonly found on tropics and it is known for its great versatility as seen in the many domestic, commercial and industrial uses of its different parts. Its endosperm is known as the edible “flesh” of the coconut, when dried it is called copra and its mesocarp is known as the coconut shell. The coconut thrives on sandy soils and is highly tolerant of salinity. It prefers areas with abundant sunlight and regular rainfall (150 cm-250 cm annually). Coconut also need high humidity (70%-80%) for optimum growth. Optimum growth is with a mean annual temperate of 27?
C (81? F) and growth is reduced below 21? C (70? F). Coconut shells is an appropriate substitute in making an activated carbon because of its absorbent properties. Activated carbon, or activated charcoal, that has been processed to make extremely porous and thus to have s very large surface area for absorption. The process of activated carbon generation begins with the selection of a raw carbon source. These sources are selected based on design specifications since different raw sources will produce activated carbon with different properties.
Some of the more common raw sources include wood, sawdust, lignite, peat, coal, coconut shells, and petroleum residues. Related Studies The research team primarily choose the topic because of the abundant resources within the community, and resources are one of the most important factors to consider before conducting a research or study. The proponents
Before starting the procedure, strip off coconut shells, wash thoroughly with clean water and allow them to dry completely. If drying is not done properly, they may be difficult to burn. Add the dried coconut shells in the burning sink by adjusting the temperature to about 600 – 900 degrees Fahrenheit. Maintain the recommended temperature range and burn continuously for about 4 ? hours or until the coconut shells turn into ash. For safe handling, leave the ash until it cools down. After the ash has cooled down, carefully take out the ash from the sink and transfer it into a clean plastic pail.
Then, pour the 25 percent concentrated solution of calcium chloride or zinc chloride into the plastic pail. The amount of calcium chloride or zinc chloride solution should be such that the ash is soaked completely into the solution. Cover the pail with a lid and leave for 20 – 24 hours. During this process, the chemicals are impregnated into the ash, after which further treatment will transform the ash into activated charcoal. The next step is removing the charcoal from the chemical solution and transferring it into a draining tray. Allow solution to drain for about 1 hour.
For removal of any trace chemicals from the charcoal, wash and rinse repeatedly with sterilized water. Thorough washing is essential in order to get rid of the chemical solution, which is one of the most common problems in the making of activated charcoal by chemical activation procedure. After washing, keep the charcoal in the tray for draining water. Following this, transfer the charcoal into an oven, setting the temperature to about 215 – 230 degrees Fahrenheit and bake for about 3 hours. After baking, remove the activated charcoal from the oven and crush it with the help of a blender.