First chapter of this book covering page no 1-20 entitled as “Measurement, Assessment and Evaluation” , where test has discussed about measurement as a process connected with daily life and from birth to till the death. It is defined as quantification of data by author with certain definitions such as- encyclopedia of educational research, C.V. Good, Gronlund and Linn and so on. After the definition he has explained the pick point of definitions also. In addition to those he has discussed about types of measurement such as- physical and educational measurement and also makes a comparison between them in order to make it clearer with which he also told about the nature of educational measurement point wise with clear clarification.
In order to discuss about Assessment he has explained the meaning of educational assessment by taking it as a process covers activities including grading, examining, certifying and so on. He has mentioned three definitions of educational assessment such as- International dictionary of education, University of Oregon and Linn and Gronlund and derived certain characteristics of educational assessment. He has also explained about the principles of assessment. He has also explained about the principles of assessment point wise. Evaluation has described by writer by taking into consideration to its meaning, collections of some definitions as given by encyclopedia of educational research, James M. Bradfield, Thorndike and Hagen with its principles, functions and types as-placement, summative, formative and diagnostic in a clear and precise manner. Before all these explanation the conceptual clearance and uses of test are also explained by the writer as prerequisites to these processes.
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The strength of this chapter is here the writer has discussed all the concepts with appropriate examples and at last all the concepts are present in a concise and comparative way to make the reader more clear by the writer but the loophole of this chapter is the writer has ignored certain necessary and required information relating to these concepts such as- types of test, scale of measurement etc in addition to that he has not cleared the reader about the attractive introductory knowledge which may create unsatisfactory attitude in reader.
In the second chapter of this book the writer covering page no 21- 38 for describing “Instructional goal and objectives”. Bloom taxonomy as an attempt to structural classification of educational objectives. He has discussed the three phases/domains of educational objectives as cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain. Furthermore discussion different aspects of cognitive domain as knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and application of evaluation by dividing all these objectives into general and specific categories as well as examples of questions coming under all these aspects.
He also explained the revised Bloom taxonomy which was only based on cognitive domain. He has divided the knowledge dimension as concrete knowledge and abstract knowledge and divided concrete knowledge as factual and conceptual as well as abstract knowledge as procedural and Meta cognitive. He has also presented a table mentioning alternative names of cognitive process. For defining affective domain which is concerned with feeling, emotions and behaviour has classified it into receiving, responding, valuing etc. According to the writer the psychomotor domain objectives are specific to physical functions, reflection and interpretational movements. He divided the psychomotor objectives into perception, set, guided response, mechanism, complex overt response, adaption and organization.
One of the impressing aspect of this chapter is each dimensions of educational objectives has described by writer with their specific categories and all categories has both general and specific objectives and both part of instructional objectives has defined through comparative way with satisfactory examples. The most considerable failure point of this chapter is that the author has not clearly stated the knowledge of instructional objectives which is pillar to this chapter.
Chapter 3rd deals with the topic “Steps of text constructions” consisting page no 39-63. Here the writer has told about the four steps used for test construction such as- planning, preparation, trying out and evaluation. Before explaining all these steps he has given a precise idea about importance of test. According to the writer planning is the important steps of the test construction, which gives valid, reliable and useful data about the learners to which, test maker should kept in mind considering two sub steps such as- determining the objectives of testing and preparing test specification. Here, he has explained about preparation of table of specification by taking into consideration4 steps such as determining weighteg to different content area, instructional objectives types of items to be included and preparation of three way tables. In the second steps of test construction i. e preparation of test he has emphasized on three sub steps such as – preparing test items, preparing instruction of test and preparing the scoring key. For preparing test items he has given certain principles point wise with sufficient explanation.
Likewise for the preparing instructions for the test also certain principles to which the writer has explained in a systematic and clear manner and at the last steps i. e preparing the scoring key the writer has given some idea which also described by the writer in a clear manner. The writer has explained about trying out of the test as confirming the team worthiness, validity, reliability, objectivity, and usability of the test. According to the writer it involves two important functions such as administration of the test and scoring of the test. Here the word of Gronlund and Linn i. e “opportunities of students to demonstrate their achievement level” also defined by the writer, Here the writer has told about the cognitive, physical and psychological environment in which students will demonstrate their achievement level. At the second step that is scoring of test the writer has explained his ideas in a comprehensible manner with example and formula. In order to discuss about the last step – evaluation of the test the writer has taken four sub steps in mind as- item analysis, determining validity, reliability determination and usability testing.
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Assessment and Evaluation Techniques. (2023, Feb 15). Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/assessment-and-evaluation-techniques/
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