Art Megaliths are large stones that are surrounded by a circular ditch. The monument is presumably the marking of graveyard and once was accompanied by other monuments. The Neolithic era is known for the uses of new tools and constructive materials such as hardening clays using a flame. Pottery was used to create bowls, food Jars, cups, and a variance of other objects. Each culture characterizes art in its own way. Artists perform tasks such as create places for some human purpose, create extraordinary versions of ordinary objects, record and commemorate, give tangible form to the unknown. Eves tangible form to feelings and Ideas. And refreshes our vision and help us see the world in new ways. Vincent Van Gogh was a "painfully disturbed, tormented man who, in spite of his anguish, managed to create extraordinary art. " He was born In Grotto Sunders, Holland. By the time he became intense into art he only had ten years left to live. Creativity is the ability to create something that is "innovative and useful". Researchers say that creativity can definitely be Improved.
Selective perception Is the focusing on the visual Information needed for the task at hand and being able to zone out that of the background. The nature of perception suggests that one of the most important aspects is to notice details and visual relationships, recognize associations and emotions they inspire. Chapter 2 What is Art? Art museums are a source of civic pride. Many artists left behind extravagant examples of just how much they too valued art. Vincent Van Gogh painted Wheat Held and Cypress Trees which demonstrated his genius. Art and beauty art greatly linked.
In the 1 8th century when art became a widely approved category, art and beauty were used together to describe a feeling of pleasure. Philosophers hardhearted this pleasure as an "intellectual pleasure/we perceive through a special kind of attention called disinterested contemplation. " Beauty is linked to qualities such as symmetry, simple geometrical shapes, and pure colors. Compelling visual power and urgent messages are used to recognize art. Art can Invoke great pleasure as well as Inspiring sadness, horror, pity, awe, and other emotions.
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Representational includes a broad range of approaches as naturalistic and abstract. A personage is a fictional character. Stylized defines representational art that imitates to a preset style. Nonobjective is a descriptive of art that does not represent or otherwise refer to the visible world itself. What is art? Art is always about something, embodies meaning. Form is the way a work looks. Content is what a work of art is about. Subject matter Is the content the objects or events the work depicts. Iconography Involves Identifying, describing, and Interpreting subject matter In art.
Chapters 3 and 4 Notes Chapter 3 Themes of Art word count: 202 All works of art are about something no matter what form whether it is a painting, textile, building, or ceramics. The areas of "beauteous" are considered themes. A many themes. Art throughout history has played a role in people's relationships with the sacred. Art described politics, social orders, and stories and histories. There are many works depicting deeds of heroes, lives of saints, and folktales. Most of which were passed down from generation to generation. Sometimes it is enough Just to look around ourselves and notice what our life is like here, now, in this place, at this time. " The earliest images of daily life that survived were in tombs of Egypt. Many rituals have been developed to honor ancestors and appease their spirits. However, here is really no ritual that would ever compare to the deep seated feelings with a human. During the renaissance, theorists linked art with poetry. They created images through their descriptive words. They weren't literally painting a picture. Some actual paintings were created to go along with poems.
Nature and the human relationship to it have greatly been themes of art works. Chapter 4 The Visual Elements Word Count: 210 The first element of art is line. Line is plainly defined as a path traced by a moving point. An outline defines a two dimensional shape. Contour lines are the lines used o draw or record boundaries of three dimensional forms. Lines are also used to direct movement within a piece. When you look at a piece your eyes tend to follow the lines. Shape is a two dimensional form. Mass is a three dimensional form that occupies a volume of space.
A figure is a shape we detach and focus on. The ground is the surrounding visual information the figure stands out from. Figures are considered as positive shapes, and the ground is considered negative shapes. Values are shades of light and dark. Chiaroscuro is an Italian style from the Renaissance period. Hatching involves closely spaced parallel lines. Cross hatching is used to show darker values with an extra set of parallel lines going in the opposite direction. Stippling is also used to suggest values by condensing areas using dots.
Simultaneous contrast is used to make complementary colors appear more intense when placed side by side. Texture describes surface quality, smooth or rough. A vanishing point is where forms seem to diminish in size as they recede from us. Chapters 5 and 6 Notes Chapter 5 Principles of Design Word Count: 206 In two dimensional art the organization odd line, shape, mass, light, value, color, texture, space, and motion is called composition. Unity is the sense of oneness, of things belonging together and making up a coherent whole. Variety is the difference which provides interest.
Visual weight refers to the heaviness of lightness of the forms arranged in a composition, as gauged by how insistently they draw our eyes. In symmetrical balance, the forms of a composition mirror each other across a central axis. Asymmetrical composition has two sides that do not match. Emphasis means that our attention is drawn more to certain parts of composition than to others. If the means that certain area of composition are purposefully made less visually interesting so that the areas of emphasis stand out. Scale is the size in relation to a standard or normal size.
Proportion refers to the size relationships between parts of a whole or between two or more perceived as a unit. The use of a scale to indicate relative importance is the hierarchical scale. Rhythm is based in repetition and it is a basic part of the world we find ourselves in. Chapter 6 Drawing Word Count: 233 The drawings we have been looking at are all on paper, a material we associate closely with drawing. Many other surfaces have been used to draw on. The oldest are eve drawings, caves carved with a hard stone, and using charcoal.
Pigment is a coloring material, and binder is a substance that allows it to be shaped into sticks. Graphite is a soft crystalline form of carbon. It is a naturally occurring drawing medium. Metal-point is the ancestor of the graphite pencil. It is an old technique that was especially popular during the Renaissance. A ground is a base coating of paint. Charcoal is charred wood. Pastel consists of pigment bond with non-greasy binder. Drawing inks generally consisted of ultramarine particles of pigment suspended in water. Wash is ink diluted with water and applied with a brush.
A rapid-graph is a metal-tipped instrument that channels a reservoir of in into a fine line. The soft and supple brushes used for watercolors can also be used with ink. The concept of using a brush for drawing shows how difficult it can be to define where drawing leaves off and painting begins. Rectangular shapes sliced from newspaper and from a roll of imitation wood grain wallpaper have been incorporated into a charcoal drawing of a cafe© table set with wine glass and a bottle. This was the new age of more literal art through representation.
Chapter 7 and 8 Notes Chapter 7 Painting word count: 215 Pigment is powdered color, compounded with a medium or vehicle, a liquid that holds the particles of pigment together without dissolving them. The vehicle generally acts as or includes a binder, an ingredient that ensures that the paint even when diluted and spread thinly. Without a binder pigments would simply powder off as the paint dried. Paints are applied to a support, which is the surface in which the artist works. This may be canvas, paper, wood panel, or a wall. Tempera shares qualities with both watercolors and oil paint.
Geese is a mixture of white pigment and glue that sealed the wood and could be sanded and rubbed to a smooth, berrylike finish. Oil paints consists of pigment compounded with oil, usually linseed oil. The oil acts as a binder, creating as it dries a transparent film in which the pigment is suspended. Glazes are thin veils of translucent color applied over a layer of opaque paint. All prima is the name of the technique of opaque colors on the white ground. Water color consists of pigment in a vehicle of water and gum Arabic, a sticky paint substance that acts as the binder.
Gouache is watercolors with inert white pigment Chapter 8 Prints Word Count: 244 A matrix is a surface in which a design is prepared before being transferred through pressure to a receiving surface such as paper. The term relief describes any printing method in which the image to be printed is raised from the background. Wood engraving uses a block of wood as a matrix. In this case the surface is cut along the grain. A linoleum cut, or linocuts, is very similar to a woodcut. Linoleum is much softer than wood, making it easier to cut, while limiting the number of crisp impressions.
Engraving is the oldest of the intaglio techniques, engraving developed room the medieval practice of incising linear designs in armor and other metal surfaces. Dropping is similar to engraving, except that the cutting instrument used is a dropping needle. Mezzanine is a reverse process, in which the artist works from dark to light. Etching is done with acids, which "eat" the lines and depressions into a metal plate much as sharp tools cut into those depressions in other methods. Aquatint is a way of achieving flat areas of tone-gray values or intermediate values of color.
Photographer can print continuous tones, tones that shade evenly from light to dark. To achieve this, a fulfills positive transparency of the photographic image is placed over a sheet of light-sensitive gelatin tissue and exposed to ultraviolet light. Lithography is a bibliographic process. The printing surface is flat not raised as in relief or depressed as in intaglio. Chapter 9 and 10 Notes Chapter 9 Camera and Computer Arts Word Count: 221 Camera and computer technologies are essential to business, advertising, education, government, mass media, and entertainment.
ABA All Has Bin al- Haitian, or otherwise known in the west as Alkaline, conducted an experiment in which he concluded correctly that light travels in straight lines. He also theorized that the human eye worked on this same principle: light reflected from objects passes through the narrow opening of the iris, projecting an image of the outside world onto the surface of the dark interior. Dagger's light sensitive surface was a copper plate coated with silver iodide, and he named his invention the daguerreotype.
Photographs bearing witness to events appear in newspapers and magazines all over the world. Dada was formed in 1916 as a reaction to the unprecedented slaughter of World War l. The word dada itself has no meaning, it refers to the art movement that Hoc belonged to. An auteur is a director whose films are marked by a consistent, individual style, Just as a traditional artist's painting or sculptures are. Just as radio had been invented to allow sound captured by a microphone to be transmitted over the air, so video was invented to do the same for moving images captured by a camera.
Art that uses the Internet as a medium is known as Internet art, or more casually, net art. Chapter 10 Graphic Design Word Count: 201 On the most basic level, we communicate through symbols. Visual communication is also symbolic. Letters are symbols that represent sounds; the lines that we use to draw representational images are symbols for perception. A word mark or logotype is granted the status of art, letters for public architectural inscriptions have been carefully designed since the time of ancient Romans, whose alphabet we have inherited. A typeface is a style of type.
Among the services offered by early printers in the 1 5th century was the design and printing of single sheets called broadsides. Handed out to town dwellers and posted in public spaces, broadsides argued lattice or religious causes, told of recent events, advertised upcoming festivals and fairs, or circulated woodcut portraits of civic and religious leaders. With the development of film and television, graphic design was set in motion. Words and images worked together in film titles, television program titles, and advertisements, all of which needed to be designed.
Many art museums maintain collections of graphic designs, which overlaps with art in interesting ways. Many artists have worked a graphic designers, and many graphic designers also make art. Chapter 11 and 12 Notes Chapter 11 Sculpture and Installation Word Count: 211 Amman is a sculpture in the round, a freestanding work that can be viewed from any angle, for it is finished on all sides. A low relief, also otherwise known as a bas-relief, is a technique in which the figures project only slightly from the background. A sculpture that forms project more boldly from their background are called high relief.
Modeling and assembling are considered additive processes. Carving is a subtractive process I which one starts with a mass of material larger than the planned sculpture and subtracts material until only the desired forms remain. Casting involves a mold of some kind, into which liquid or similitude material is poured and allowed to harden. Modeling is familiar to us in forms such as play dough. Fired clay is also known as terra cotta. Casting is a more indirect method of creating a sculpture. In casting, smother more rounded shapes can be achieved, and also be very shiny.
Ceramic is cast in a liquid form called slip, made by mixing powdered clay with water and a defalcation. Assembling is a process by which individual pieces or segments or objects are brought together to form a sculpture. The human figure is one of the widely basis for sculptures of many times and cultures. Chapter 12 Art of Ritual and Daily Life Word Count: 206 Ceramics, from the ancient Greek word kormas, meaning "of pottery', is the art of making objects from clay, a naturally occurring earth substance. When dry clay has a powdery consistency; mixed with water, it becomes plastic, that is, moldable and cohesive.
The vase is made of porcelain, a ceramic made by mixing kaolin, a fine white clay, with finely ground Petersen, also known as porcelain stone. If clay is one of the most versatile of materials, glass is perhaps the most fascinating. The most familiar way of shaping a hollow glass vessel such as a bottle is by blowing. The glass artist dips up a mass of molten glass at the end of a long metal tube and, by blowing into the other end of the tube, produces a glass bubble that can be shaped or cut technique used for windows, lampshades, and similar structures that permit light to pass through.
Stained glass is made by cutting sheets of glass in various colors into small pieces, then fitting the pieces together to form a pattern. Forging is an ancient metal working technique using a hammer to shape the metal. Notes Chapters 13 and 21 Chapter 13 Architecture rod count: 200 Tensile strength refers to the amount of tensile or stretching stress a material can withstand before it bends or breaks. It especially concerns the ability of a material t p horizontal distances without continuous support from below.
Another term for load bearing construction is "stacking and piling". This is the simplest method of making a building, and it is suitable for brick, stone, adobe, ice blocks, and certain modern material. Load bearing structures tend to have few and small openings, if any, in the walls, because the method does not readily allow for support of material above a void, such as a window opening. Post and lintel construction is the most elementary structural method, based on two uprights, the posts, supporting a horizontal crosspiece, the lintel or beam.
Hypotheses halls comes from the Greek word for "beneath columns. " A dome is an architectural structure generally I the shape of a hemisphere or half globe. I f a ceiling is coffer, it is ornamented with recessed rectangles, coffers, which lessen its weight. Concrete is an old material that was known and used by the Romans. Like all area of human creativity, architecture has been affected by the evolution of digital technologies. Chapter 21 The Modern World word count: 206 Romanticism was not a style so much as a set of attitudes an characteristic subjects.
The 18th century is sometimes known as the Age of Reason, for its leading thinkers placed their faith in rationally, septic questioning, and scientific inquiry. The first art movement to be born in the 19th century was Realism, which arose as a reaction against both Neoclassicism and Romanticism. Realist artists sought to depict the everyday and the ordinary rather than the historic, the heroic, or the exotic. Artists admired many aspects of Impressionism, especially its brightened palette and erect painting technique. But they reacted in various ways to what they perceived as its shortcomings.
Their styles are so highly personal that we commonly group them together under the neutral term Post-Impressionists, meaning simply the artists that came after Impressionism. Europe remained America's artistic touchstone during the 19th century, for America viewed itself then as a continuation of European culture. American artists often went to Europe for part of their training, not only to study with European teachers, but also to see the collections of the great museums. Broadly peaking, expressionism describes ant style where the artist's subjective feelings take precedence over objective observation.
Cubism poured all its energy into formal Notes Chapter 22 and 23 Chapter 22 From Modern to Postmodern Word Count: 210 Painters associated with the first major postwar art movement are commonly referred to as the New York School. The New York School was a convenient label under which to lump together a group of painters also known as the Abstract Expressionists. A critic of the time coined the term action painting to describe the work of Pollock and others, for their paintings are not images in the traditional sense UT traces of an act, the painter's dance of creation.
The variety of Abstract Expressionism is sometimes known as color field painting. By the middle of the asses, Abstract Expressionism had been the "new' style or fifteen years. Many artists felt that it was time to move on. While the artist of Pop turned their attention to imagery, other artists continued to explore the possibilities of nonrepresentational art. One direction that attracted many painters was hard-edge painting. Pop art's focus on imagery in the mass media inspired artists to look more closely at photographs. In a rend called Photorealism, they began to paint what they saw there.
In a variety of interrelated trends, artists variously reacted against aspects of developed possibilities that it suggested. Collectively, these trends are known as Factionalism, which unfolded from the mid asses through the mid asses. Chapter 23 Opening Up to the World Word Count: 233 Beginning in the 19th century, transportation and communications technologies made possible by science and industry opened up new possibilities for human interaction, compressing our experience of distance and quickening the pace of daily fife. Born in Egypt, she moved to France with her family at the age of eleven.
Since 1996 she has been based in New York. Aimer has created installations an performance pieces, but she is best known for paintings such as The Black Bang. We stumble on a secret world within the world we thought we knew. When we step back, the painting comes back into focus, but we can never quite see it in the same way again. Aimer cautions against interpreting her work too narrowly, either as a feminist statement or as a critique of Islam. Recently Murrain generally has broadened his object matter to embrace traditional Buddhist imagery, folding screen motifs, and abstraction.
Murrain generally does not execute his own works. They are usually realized to his exacting designs, every outline drawn, every color specified, by employees of Kaki Kaki, Ltd. , a company he founded. In contrast to Murrain's international enterprise, Mexican artist Gabriel Rocco does not have a studio at all. A global wanderer with apartments in Mexico City, Paris, and New York, he prefers instead to work in temporary spaces or in the confines of an apartment amid the furnishings and accumulations of everyday life.
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