The Peace of Augsburg
The Peace of Augsburg was signed in 1555, ending the wars of religion in the Holy Roman Empire. It stated that the leaders of the many provinces in the Empire can decide what religion they wanted their people to follow. This treaty recognized Lutheran Protestants and Catholics, but not Calvinism. This essentially was the first time in the Holy Roman Empire that another religion was allowed, besides Catholicism.
Treaty of Westphalia
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Signed in 1648, the Treaty of Westphalia once again ended a religious war, the Thirty Years’ War. It was the treaty that recognized Calvinism, finally, along with Lutheranism and Catholicism. It used the same policy as the treaty before, The Peace of Augsburg. The Holy Roman Empire had effectively become a collection of different states and provinces with differing religious views ruled by mainly Hapsburgs.
Peace of Paris
The Peace of Paris was signed in 1763. It was signed in a peace agreement to end the Seven Years’ War. Britain obtained much of French lands in the Americas, beginning their extensive dominance outside of continental Europe. However, the French obtained the West Indies, which was also a treasure for them. Prussia and Austria were not included in the treaty, instead signing a different treaty, the Treaty of Hubertusburg.
Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna was a meeting of the leaders of many countries from Europe to decide what to do after the Napoleonic Wars. The “Final Act” of the treaty was signed just days after his final defeat at Waterloo. The Bourbons of France were restored as the monarchs and Napoleon was exiled once again. The balance of power in Europe had been restored. It was signed in 1814.
The Frankfurt Assembly
This was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany. After long discussion and debates in 1849, a new constitution was drawn up. It outlined the entire German Empire’s government, including the hereditary emperor, the Kaiser. This constitution was then later used as the basis for the constitution of the Weimar Republic and for the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. Overall, the Frankfurt Assembly had a huge impact on the future of Germany.
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