World CIv

Inca Empire
Largest Empire ever built in South America; territory extended 25,000 miles from north to south and embraced almost all of modern Peru, most of Ecuador, much of Bolivia, and parts of Chile and Argentina; maintained effective control from the early 15th century until the coming of Europeans in the early 16th century. As the most powerful people of Andean America, the Inca dominated Andean society until the coming of Europeans; spoke Quechua language.
Three Inca classes
The Sun, the royal family (the inca), the people
mita
in the Incan empire, the requirement that all able-bodied subjects work for the state a certain number of days each year. Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
Road system
25,000 miles….runners…not open to the people
Cuzco
The capital city of the Incan Empire, Located in present-day Peru
Machu Picchu
An ancient Inca fortress city in the Andes northwest of Cuzco, Peru, discovered in 1911
Colombian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and Europe (Old and New World, Eastern and Western Hemispheres) following the discovery of the Americas.
Introduced to Americas
Disease (Smallpox, Influenza, Typhus, Measles, Whooping Cough, Malaria), sugar, banana, olive, honeybee, coffee
Introduced to Europe
Vanilla, Beans, Corn, Tomato, Peanut, peppers, tobacco, quinine, avocado, sweet potato, chocolate (cacao bean).
conquistadores
Spanish for conquerors. Men who traveled extensively through the Americas, leading small armies of men, and who established themselves as imperial rulers
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
Cajamarca conflict
-mainly about Pizarro capturing Atahualpa and holding him for a ransom of $20,000,000
Spanish won over natives
-they had rattles on horses, cannons, weapons, and most importantly, MILITARY KNOWLEDGE!!
Atahualpa agreed to meet Pizarro in provincial town of Cajamarca
mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation’s wealth by government regulation of all of the nation’s commercial interests., An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought. According to this system, money was regarded as a store of wealth, and the goal of a state was the accumulation of precious metals (silver and gold), by exporting the largest possible quantity of its products and importing (buying, purchasing) as little as possible, thus establishing a favorable balance of trade.
quinto
the Spanish crown was to receive one fifth of all precious metals mined in the Americas.
encomienda
a grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it, A grant of authority over a population of natives in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with cheap labor.
Potosi
huge silver deposits discovered. Shipped back to Sp. – financed expeditions of Philip II. Indian labor and Spanish management ., Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America.
Viceroyalties
Major divisions of Spanish New World colonies headed by direct representatives of the king; one major was based in Lima, the other in Mexico City.the territory or jurisdiction of a viceroy
Viceroy
governor or official who runs a country, colony, or city province of a country or province who rules as the representative of his or her king or sovereignr
audiencia
Royal court of appeals established in Spanish colonies of New World; there were ten in each viceroyalty; part of colonial administrative system; staffed by professional magistrates., Within each territory the viceroy, or imperial governor, exercised broad military and civil authority as the direct representative of the sovereign. The viceroy presided over the audiencia, a board of twelve to fifteen judges, which served as his advisory council and the highest judicial body.
corregidores
royal officials of Spain who governed towns and set up law courts. LOCAL administrative and judicial positionthe institution was definitively abolished in 1833. They were the representatives of the royal jurisdiction over a town and its district.
peninsulares
in Spanish colonial society, colonists who were born in Spain, People living in the New World Spanish colonies but born in Spain. Members of highest social class.
creoles
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent but born in the New World.
mestizos
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory
indios
Natives–bottom of the pole
Virgen de la Guadalupe
-indigenous Mary, color of natives
-“appeared” in 1531 to Juan Diego
-patron saint of New Spain
**2nd most visited Catholic shrine in the world
Used cloak and flowers to prove her presence
Mexico
Bartolomé de las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor
José Gabriel Condorcanqui
Was mixed-blood and well educated. He claimed directly descended from the Incas kings. In 1780, he captured a Spanish aristocrat and had him killed for abusing the native people. Renamed himself Tupas Amaru II and announced that he was going to revive the Incan Empire and keep the Catholic Church is place.
Order of Cultivation
must help injured and sick before youre own needs.
Security of workers/individual progress
Security of workers: cant lose youre land, only gain if you have children (twice as much for males
What tupac amuru wanted
tupac wanted the mita system banned, a council for inca rulers, and inca representation on the councils
tupac amaru II
Member of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was captured and executed with his wife and other members of his family., (1738-1781) Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution. a hundred thousand (100,000 lives lost)
José Gabriel Túpac Amaru