Unsustainable of Earth 's resources and environmental jobs are major current jobs that occurred by over ingestion and inefficient manner of utilizing. Climate alteration, resource depletion, loss of biodiversity, and air pollution has a major impact on many citizens and the Earth which require people change their current behaviour. Climate alteration and planetary heating are portion of serious issues these yearss and are besides portion of the most of import planetary environmental challenges, with deductions for nutrient production, H2O supply, wellness, energy and so on. Addressing clime alteration requires a good scientific apprehension every bit good as coordinated action at national and planetary degree from.
PTT is the largest energy company in Thailand which the group 's chief activity is the operation of crude oil concern. The Group besides engages in the geographic expedition and production of crude oil, operation of natural gas, international trading of rough oil, condensate, crude oil and petrochemical merchandises and investing in domestic refinement and petrochemical industries. Its vision and mission are to be the preeminent Thai energy corporation, runing to the full integrated oil and gas concern, and entire energy services. PTT has a clear end over Quality, Safety, Health and Environment ( QSHE ) . Regarded as the nucleus constituent of sustainable development, QSHE has been analyzed and assessed with the demands of the stakeholders in head. In carry oning energy concerns, it is inevitable for operators to confront hazards refering Quality, Safety, Health, and Environment ( QSHE ) . Refering this, PTT has invariably paid full attending to the control, bar, and minimisation of these hazards faced by stakeholders ; clients, providers, contractors, stockholders, communities, staff, and the environment as a whole. The company has applied productiveness tools and QSHE direction systems in all its units to better its efficiency and the quality of life of staff and communities, and to steadily advance image in the company 's societal and environmental duties. These steps have successfully instilled greater assurance in investors and favored PTT 's international concern project. However, sustainable edifice of concern besides covers the merchandise which its belongings and production procedure is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a edifice 's life-cycle. All of these elements have to concern of economic system, public-service corporation, lastingness, and comfort. Biomass briquette is an ideal biomass fuel which can heighten the PTT 's environmental public presentation more effectual and ocular because this the merchandise including natural stuff, production procedure and new engineerings are developed to make greener activities to cut down the overall impact of the built environment on human wellness and the natural environment by:
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Efficiently utilizing energy, H2O, and other resources
Protecting occupant wellness and bettering employee productiveness
Recycling waste, cut downing pollution and environmental debasement.
Biomass briquettes are an low-cost alternate fuel to coal and other solid combustible fuels which are produced by change overing low majority denseness biomass into high denseness solid fuels ( Werther et al. 2000 ) . Biomass briquetting workss are consisted of assorted types of machines to back up different natural stuffs ( KriA?an et al. 2009 ) . Biomass briquettes are non-conventional beginning of energy, renewable in nature, eco friendly, non-polluting and economical ( Wilaipon 2007 ) . In add-on, it has been claimed thataˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦.the procedure of change overing biomass to solid fuel is besides non-polluting ; therefore the procedure and merchandise are 100 % natural. Briquette is an ideal Bio-fuel because of the undermentioned grounds:
Eco friendly & A ; renewable energy fuel.
Economic and cheaper than other solid fuels.
Thermal calorific value about 4000 Kcal/Kg.
Pollution free & amp ; non-hazardous.
Lower ash content 4 % - 8 % . There is no fly ash when burnt.
Consistent high combustion efficiency.
Easy for transit, eating, and burning.
Combustion is more unvarying.
Biomass briquettes are an alternate green energy to char, and are normally used to fire industrial boilers that produce steam including concern which requires burn.
Production procedure 400
Every twelvemonth Thailand has 1000000s of dozenss of agricultural wastes are generated. These agricultural wastes are treated a waste with no economic value and either none used or burned inefficiently in their loose signifier doing air pollution. However, this 'waste ' can be turned into a wholly environment-friendly beginning of energy through briquetting ( Biomass briquettes Replacing coal and LPG.article ) .
( Sugarcane waste )
Wood french friess
Other agro wastes
Table1. Kinds of natural stuff ( based on Werther et Al. 2000 )
Biomass briquettes are manufactured by the procedure of recycling agricultural wastes and forestry wastes. The machinery used is compatible with multiple agricultural wastes. The agro waste is first pulverized, sieved and so dried to necessitate wet content. This is so fed into the hopper of fuel briquette machine, which uses high compaction between dice and clout ensuing into cylindrical briquettes. Cylindrical briquettes are therefore formed due to carbonisation, achieved by heating of surface.
Figure1. The Biomass briquette 's production procedure ( based on Callejon Ferre and Lopez Martinez 2009 )
Procedure of Briquetting:
First, oppressing machine prepares suited size natural stuff for biomass briquetting works by tear uping the natural stuff after it is fed into the machine. After that a tiled metal screen will vibrate chopped remains until it separates from dirt. Then, the remains works stuffs were passed into a armored combat vehicle of uninterrupted rinsing consists of a pivot membranophone made of screen. After rinsing the works stuff, H2O is contaminated and low quality, it is brought to sublimate by water-purification system which is contained in the lowest of the armored combat vehicle. This system allows reused H2O for briquetting procedure. Second, drying machine prepare suited wet natural stuff for biomass briquette imperativeness. For briquetting imperativeness, it is merely to command the wet of natural stuff at a sensible scope that can do good consequence of biomass briquettes. Or the briquettes will be broken because of excessively loose or excessively dry. Third, briquetting imperativeness machine makes the biomass stuff into briquettes. After the well readying of natural metarial, briquetting is easy at right operation of biomass briquette imperativeness. When machine rise to over 300 centigrade, the stuff can be feeding continuously into briquetting imperativeness. First, the colour of briquettes may be a small dark even black, but after a piece, the colour will be light to normal degree coming out of biomass briquette machine. Finally, wadding is the last procedure of briquetting procedure which the wadding machine will lade concluding biomass briquettes and so wrap with a thermic psychiatrist wrap by thermic psychiatrist wrapper machine
Finished Product Briquettes
Briquettes are ready replacement of brown coal, coal and wood in industrial boiler and brick kiln for thermic application including families ' day-to-day life. Biomass briquettes are non-conventional beginning of energy, eco-friendly, renewable in nature, non fouling and economical. It 's made through binder less technique without usage of any type of chemical so it is 100 % natural. Compared to fire wood or loose biomass, briquettes give much higher boiler efficiency because of low wet and higher denseness.
Marketing 200 Explain how it could be marketed ( academic resources )
Harmonizing to ( Suksumek 2007 ) pollution job by utilizing brown coal at Mae Moh Power works in Thailand in 1992 and doing bad consequence to villagers, power works employees and harvest of local communities, it creates negative image of utilizing lignite and coal which Thai authorities solves the job by import coal from oversea. Therefore, it is a good chance to market biomass briquette merchandise in Thailand. The fabrication, located in Thailand, provides a geographical advantage to Tesco because it is populatedaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ ... Furthermore, demand ingestion of coal is high while low competition in clean fuel merchandise as biomass briquette.
Unit of measurement: Ktoe
Table1. Forecast on Primary Energy Demand ( based on Suksumek 2007 )
The multiple use of the terminal merchandise enables us to work the chances in both
commercial and industrial markets. Our works will provide to the SA and UK industrial and domestic commercial market such as steel fabrication workss or electrical plants.There are plentifulness of possible markets for fuel briquettes in the metropoliss and in the rural countries.
The possible clients for the briquettes:
Furnace lining Industries
Gasifies System App
Dying Unit of measurements
Brick Making Unit of measurements
Sponsorship: The program recommends actuating client 's perceptual experience and besides improves client relationships in term of green company and green merchandise by incorporating green enterprises into every facet of the organisation which links the association of the company and briquette merchandise with an person, event or organisation to expose in societal duty.
Using eco-labels and eco-logos on merchandises or selling stuffs: The program aims to stress in term of green merchandise by seting eco-label and eco-logos on briquette 's packaging to increase client 's consciousness.
Prosecuting clients in green selling: The selling program will actuate consumers by promoting them to take part and prosecute in the run or straight with the merchandise through green clubcard.
E-marketing: In term of viral selling, the program will aim on-line resources like Tesco 's web site chat room, article media, electronic mails online events and will sell the merchandise through Tesco 's ain web site.
Personal Selling: Due to briquette is low-value merchandise and it is required to utilize in many industries ; hence face-to-face contact provides better chance to sell briquette for big measure to industries.
45 % of the merchandise is exported to the UK retaining 55 % of it for the Thailand market.
Distribution in Thailand will be done straight to clients upon puting an order or known as Just-In-Time because the briquette merchandise 's lead clip is short. Furthermore, it is available in every subdivisions of Tesco shop in Thailand while it is available in Tesco supernumerary in UK. However, there is some sum of merchandise storaged in warehouse to back up an exigency.
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Due to belongings of merchandise and distance of transit, the biomass briquette merchandise would necessitate strong and rainproof packaging. For this grounds, Thermal Shrink wrapping which is cheap and environmentally friendly is used as packaging of merchandise. This elastic plastic wrap can besides used to protect merchandise when it is non in usage. Furthermore, it can be used for large and little points ; therefore it provides an advantage to merchandise and company for future development. In this procedure, briquettes are fed into the wadding machine, heat is used to distill the sheets of packing stuff to model, or shrivel to the signifier of the content it will protect.
Briquettes have high specific denseness ; therefore it can defy the stocks of long distance conveyance, lading and droping. Furthermore, transit costs are much less and storage demand is drastically reduced. For bringing both in instance of cargo and transit, this program concerns about clime alteration and environment friendly, and intents to better C footmark. The merchandise will be delivered with sharing lorry by working in partnership with other companies and providers in domestic and international.A For our ain transit, we will utilize more and more double-decker dawdlers, which carry 55 per centum more merchandises per journey ( individual deck: 45, dual deck: 75 coops per trip ) . In add-on, battery-powered new waves are doing bringings for our online shop, Tesco.com which will salvage around 180 metric tons of CO2 each twelvemonth. From these effectual bringings, Tesco can cut down CO2 emanation, save cost and addition higher net income.
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