Ways of Forming Words
WAYS OF FORMING WORDS Compounding is the word formation process in which two or more words combine into a single new word. Compound words may be written as one word or as two words joined with a hyphen. Shortening is the word formation process in which a word is reduced or shortened without changing the meaning of the word.
Blending is the word formation process in which parts of two or more words combine to create a new word whose meaning is often a combination of the original words. Affixing is the word formation process in which a prefix, suffix or infix attaches to the base form of a word to create a new word.
Back-formation is the word formation process in which an actual or supposed derivational affix detaches from the base form of a word to create a new word. (SIMPSONS EXAMPLE: BILLBOARD FOR ‘TONIGHT – WRITERS ON WRITING, TOMORROW – JANITORS ON JANITING’) Conversion is the word formation process in which a word of one grammatical form becomes a word of another grammatical form without any changes to spelling or pronunciation. Abbreviation is the word formation process in which a word or phrase is shortened.
Intialisms are a type of abbreviation formed by the initial letters of a word or phrase. Acronyms are words formed by the word formation process in which an initialism is pronounced as a word. Eponyms are words formed from the name of a real of fictitious person. Coinage is the word formation process in which a new word is created either deliberately or accidentally without using the other word formation processes and often from seemingly nothing. Borrowing is the word formation process in which a word from one language is borrowed directly into another language.
Calquing is the word formation process in which a borrowed word or phrase is literally translated from one language to another. Commonisation is the process of a product’s brand-name becoming the generic term for that product. Here are some examples of each of these ways of forming words. Next to each one write the method that has been used. There is one example for each method. Word Method 1. AIDSAcronym (Since the initialism is pronounced like a actual word already. *other examples, scuba, laser 2. AlgebraBorrowing (from Greek) 3.
Band-aidCommonisation for a stick-on gauze pad or strip 4. Break-upCompounding 5. DisappearAffixing 6. ExamShortening 7. Flea market -Calquing since it’s translated literally from marche aux puces in Paris, so-called “because there are so many second-hand articles sold of all kinds that they are believed to gather fleas. 8. Microwave (noun) – Microwave (verb)-Conversion (from the grammatical form of a noun to a verb) 9. MotelBlending (motor + hotel) 10. NylonCoining 11. RSVPAbbreviation 12. SandwichEponym (from Earl Sandwich) 13. TeleviseBackformation from television