History To 1877 Tia Edwards 5 October 2012 Native and European Relationships “Why must you take by force what you could obtain by love? ” (Chief Powhatan) This was a famous quote said by Pocahontas’ Father to early English settler John Smith. The quote helps illustrate the brutality that settlers used to obtain land and goods during early colonization.
The articles “Your People Live Only Upon Cod” and “The Print of My Ancestors’ Houses are Every Where to be Seen” help show, through the perspective of the Natives, that the nature of relationships of Natives and Non-natives in early America was at first beneficial, but over time the relationships became corrupted and would slowly deteriorate due to Europeans belief of supremacy over Natives, Europeans forced conversion of Natives’ lifestyle to Europeans’ beliefs, and Europeans hostile take over of Native land. The act of gift giving created a kinship between Natives and Europeans and eventually a very lucrative trading market was formed.
Even though the kinship between Natives and Europeans was a booming economic opportunity the incoming settlers always looked down upon the Native people, seeing them only as savages who had no morals or religious guidance. “In the document “Your People Live Only Upon Cod” the French view the Mimacs’ lifestyle as horrible and unbearable due to the fact they didn’t display manners, social order or vast quantities of material possessions like the French. The French are even amazed at the Mimacs outdated mobile housing and try to persuade them to settle down and live in stationary houses instead of wigwams. The English also see themselves as a superior race and would discriminate against the Natives by refusing to trade with or engage in kinship rituals unless the Natives become reformed and lived a more English lifestyle. Thus, Colonialism became not only an economic move, but it also became a “civilizing mission” in order to bring social, political and religious change among the Natives. Europeans were aggressively pushing conversion on the Natives and it would lead to violence and war. All European settlers tried to reform Natives to a more civilized lifestyle by trying to convert Natives to believe in Christianity. In “Your People Only Live Upon Cod” the document states that European missionaries would actively interact with Natives to persuade them to take on a sophisticated European lifestyle with Christian beliefs. Occasionally Natives who were so overcome with grief, over the constant warfare with colonists and new diseases that devastated their tribes, they would succumb and take on a more reformed lifestyle. ” Thus, Conversion became a crucial key point in Colonialism. The single most controversial issue that Natives and Europeans faced was land.
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The Natives believed that the land was nobodies to own, and that everyone should be able to share its resources. The European colonist believed in ownership of property just like owning possessions, and believed that the resources should be possessed and sold. In “The Print of My Ancestors’ House are Every Where to be Seen. ” Little Turtle, who is chief of Miami Tribe, believes that the land in the Ohio Valley solely belongs to the Natives and the land should not be able to be sold or settled by white colonists. Little Turtle’s ancestors settled there many years ago and The Great Spirit told his ancestor to preserve the land.
General Wayne, however, believes that since Britain gave that land to the Americas it should be their land and although Little Turtle’s ancestors may have settled there, they had no proven ownership or entitle to the land. Also, many British colonies were settled there as well and they are the ones that were in possession of it and gave it to America without acknowledging the Natives feelings. This testimony from General Wayne shows that the Colonists were more interested in gaining land and building settlements then keeping a peaceful; alliance with the Natives.
The Natives and Europeans tried to engage in a friendly complimentary relationship where the two groups could help enrich and protect one another, however due to Europeans belief of over all superiority to the Natives, the European colonist’s authoritative conversion of Native life, and Europeans never ending conquest for Native land, the two groups couldn’t stay in a compatible alliance for long and then war would soon arise. The Natives and Europeans were in constant turmoil with each other and that turmoil only stopped once the
Natives were irradiated and the America colonist could capture the rest of there land. King Philip’s Herd of Problems Livestock became the most popular and essential life resource for early colonists’ survival. Livestock not only helped maintain a food source to be easily available to the colonists, but the animals also provided several other products like hides and lard. Although livestock made colonists’ lives easier, the destructive costs of maintaining the animals would lead to much controversy with the local Natives.
The scholar article “King Philip’s Herds: Indians, Colonists, and the Problem of Livestock in Early New England” describes the tension that arose from the colonists’ livestock, hogs specifically, and the events that would lead up to war. Primarily, the reasons livestock caused conflict between Natives and Colonists was because hogs were causing disruption in local Natives’ land, Colonists’ continuous development on Native land and the injustices Natives faced in the English government. Eventually Natives would take up animal husbandry, but it would not be enough to settle the uprising unrest that livestock damages caused.
As tension began to build up between the English colonists and Natives, one person became the mediator of the conflict. This man was Metacom, Chief of the Wampanoag tribe; also know as King Philip by the English. King Philip was constantly going to English courts trying to resolve the problems Natives faced with English hogs disturbing Native land. In King Philip’s article it states that Native lands and English settlements were usually in close proximity of each other and on countless occasions English hogs would wander unto Native cornfields, and would begin feasting upon their crops.
Soon, Natives had to use more extreme measures to protect their food sources like building fences around crops and moving trees in from of underground food storages. These constant problems with livestock lead to tensions to rise. Furthermore, Natives would cause accidental damages to the livestock unknowingly aware of their presence, which Natives were required to pay for. These unfair laws that were required by the English government lead to a fast growing concern.
John Winthrop argued that the Natives had no actually entitlement or possession of the land, so all land should be available to be settled on or bought by the Colonists (King Philip’s Herds, 604). As land stated to decrease so did the dear population. Since hunting populations were beginning to decrease drastically, some Natives had to find alternative food sources. Wampanoag began actively engaging in rising of livestock, also known as animal husbandry, even though the integration of owning animals as property did not fit well with Native customs (King Philip’s Herd, 606).
The Natives at first despised the animals for their savage like nature. Eventually Natives were able to domesticate hogs and be trained to be more efficient. Although some natives had to abandon hunting altogether, the use of hogs became an even more important commodity to the Wampanoag (King Philip’s Herd, 613). This progressively intrusions on Wampanoag land lead King Philip to fight for his people by turning to local governments for help. However, the law favored towards the English colonists more then Native concerns.
King Philip’s article describes how Natives were soon required to fence off their crops in order to stop hogs from damaging their food. If the Natives refused to construct a fence to guard their crops, the government would deny any legal action to be persuaded on colonists if crops were damaged by livestock. King Philip even went to court himself to resolve the conflicts, and although the courts passed many laws to protect the natives, colonists ignored the ruling and continued to take advance on Wampanoag territory (King Philip’s Herd, 619).
Finally conflicts passed the tipping point when good land for livestock became more limited, English colonies and Wampanoag land were approaching each other more rapidly and soon livestock causing damages to both Wampanoag and Colonists became so common that colonial government decided to instate a hands-off policy on trespassing. Trespassing was a violating on the Wampanoags’ rights and felt that their land should be treated with respect (King Philip’s Herd, 622). This caused an up roar of anger on both sides and eventually King Philip declared war on the English settlers.
The Wampanoag people not only attacked colonists but they primarily attacked livestock as a metaphoric gesture for all the trouble the animals had caused them. And although King Philip had died in the war on August 1676, the Wampanoag people had caused massive amounts of damage to colonists and their settlements, plus casualties of livestock reached about 8,000, although this amount of death was not enough to destroy the colonists food source (King Philip’s Herd, 623).
King Philip had tried diplomacy time and time again in order to prevent the uprising, but due to the livestock’s destructive nature, settlers invading of Wampanoag land, and the government’s helplessness to stop the constant incoming of livestock caused problems, war was all but inevitable. Although livestock was an essential to helping colonists survive in the new world, it was the catalyst for many problems and conflicts that ended with the death of many English, Wampanoag, and Livestock lives.
Had all three groups learned to live harmoniously with one another, war could have been avoided and peace could have been restored. Colonization in the New World Colonization and Colonialism are the most important principles for any developing country. Colonization helps to create new settlements on which citizens can live on and make earnings. Colonialism is when a greater power uses a lesser power in order to gain control over their resources to enrich the greater power. Both of these principles were key elements for the Spanish, French and British in establishing territories to make profits and expand trade.
Each empire experienced change in their colonization strategies however by the Spanish starting with a violent military conquest and altering to a more peaceful kinship resolution, French started as a small peaceful colony with no desire to colonize to maintaining control over most of the North American region, and the British colonized to gain land and gain new economic developments for poorer citizens which turned to citizens rebellion and claiming their independence from the British empire. Every empire’s tactics helped shape North America into a new colony for early English settlers to search for independence.
The Spanish where the first to arrive in North America near the Caribbean, and begin creating foundations for the first colony. Christopher Columbus was the first settler in the new world and when he arrived in 1492 he was immediately intrigued by the local Native tribe. He saw the Natives as potential slaves and servants to help achieve the goals of power and wealth. Even in the beginning the Spanish saw natives only as tools to be used, not allies to be coexisted with. The Spanish discovered gold and started to capture the local natives and enforce them to serve in the mines.
Soon the Spanish started to explore and establish colonies on local islands such as Puerto Rica, Jamaica, and Cuba (Boyer, The Enduring Vision, p. 35-36). The Spanish mainly focused on colonizing highly populous areas, which cause a back lash of new diseases to effect the inhabitants, due to lack of resistance, and caused many deaths. The Spanish were even able to overtake many powerful empires, such as the Aztecs, due to the immense death toll from disease and the Spanish’s overwhelming technologically advanced army (Boyer, The Enduring Vision, p. 40).
Military conquest and war would continue until in 1598 priests and colonists arrive in a colony in which the Spanish called “New Mexico”. The Spanish viewed New Mexico as a possible agricultural colony which would supply food to the Spanish Empire. The Catholic priests were at first greeted and rejoiced because heavy rain fall had started soon after their arrival. The priests even tried to convert the Pueblos to Catholic beliefs to save their souls but once a severe drought and small pox epidemic broke, the Pueblos decided to deny Christianity and revolt.
The Pueblos drove away the Spanish forces, even with their diminished numbers, and became a free colony again. In order to for the Spanish empire to regain control over the land, the Spanish sent Diego de Vargas who used a more peaceful approach with the Pueblo people, hoping to rely more on kinship ceremonies and think less like a military force. Diego de Vargas even went to the Pueblo colony himself in order gain kinship and began trade with the Pueblos. The Spanish even helped protect the Pueblos from their enemies in order to solidify a more peaceful treaty between the two groups.
Even though the New Mexico colony eventually became self sustaining the tension between the two groups still existed due to the Spanish’s originally military conquest of the land. Coexistence and cooperation was finally achieved but only after the Spanish changed from their warfare, violence and forced conversion of native lifestyles ideals. When the French began their colonization of the new world they had no desire to colonize in North America, they simply wanted to gain profits and receive new items through trade.
The most successful and profitable colony called New France, around present day Quebec, was established in 1608 (Boyer, The Enduring Vision, p. 45). Unlike the Spanish and British, The French had considerably small group of colonists. Instead of actively engaging in warfare and acquiring land and diminishing the remainder of their population. The French took up kinship and fur trading as opposed to violence. This act of non-violence caused very few occasions of warfare to occur, and thus natives were more open to helping and trading with the French.
In the document “Your People Live Only Upon Cod”: An Algonquian Response to European Claims of Cultural Superiority” it states how the French were so unable to fend for themselves that the local Algonquian tribe had to help them survive. They would fish out cod for them and helped them develop ways to make food. Even though the French always thought they were better then the Natives, the kinship that the French shared with Natives helped them survive. With the help of the Natives, the French became more profitable in trading then any other empire.
In order to gain a more concrete kinship with the Natives, French started interbreeding with the Natives. This created a new group called Metis, who were children that would be ingrained with both French and Native culture. The French also had Catholic Jesuits who tried to convert the Natives but they were more open to native religion then any other empire. Instead of forcing Catholicism on the natives and having coercion occur. The Jesuits used peaceful integration like Diego de Vargas used on the Pueblos. This created less resistance and more accepting by the Natives.
In the document “Your People Live Only on Cod” The French also helped protect their native allies against enemies. In the document “The Iroquois were much astonished that two men should have been killed so quickly” Samuel de Champlain and a few of his men help aid the Montagnais, Algonquian, and Herons in a battle with the Iroquois. During the battle Samuel takes out a gun and shoots at the three head chiefs, which his allies requested he kill. After one shoot two of the chiefs were instantly dead with one was so injured he died soon after. The enemy soon fled in fear of the weapon.
With the French having a technological advantage over the enemy, many of their allies would trade to have possession of these new and powerful guns, making their allies more powerful. Soon the French stated to maintain huge portions of land due to the protection that was aided by their allied Natives. The natives would help fight for the French in many battles including the Seven Years’ war with Britain. Also, in the same document, Samuel and his men take about a dozen Iroquois men as prisoners. This became a common practice in warfare for enemy men to be captured after a war.
Captives began being traded for kinship and became very popular among the French. Captive taking was used more to embarrass the enemy, but it soon became more profitable to trade them to the French. Consequently, as demand for more captives, to be used as slaves, increased the allied Natives would engage in more warfare causing a massive increase in violence to occur between Natives. Although the French started small and never intention to massively colonize, over time became the largest and most profitable empire to settle in North America.
The British Empire’s goal for colonizing was to gain land. Britain had a huge increase in population and a vast decrease in economic growth in the 15th century. This caused a lot of hostility to build with lower class citizens and it lead to crime and poverty starting to occur more frequently in British cities. In order to ease the tension, the Virginia Company is created to start colonization in the North America with the first colony of Virginia. It was used as a scapegoat to transport poorer citizens away from the cities to decrease risk of revolution.
Once they arrived, a town called Jamestown is built in 1607. This was the first commercial colony with tobacco being its main cash crop. War between Natives and British only worsened as more colonies began to be developed. The warfare hit an all time high after the death of the Powhatan Chief’s daughter Pocahontas, after she was taken to be civilized in Britain. This was the start of the first Anglo-Powhatan war and it ended after the Powhatan Chief died (Boyer, The Enduring Vision, p. 48). Like the Spanish, Britain used warfare and military conquest in order to gain land.
In order to provide food for all the new growing population in the colonies, livestock and animal husbandry became very important. In the scholar article “King Philip’s Herd, it showed how dependent colonists were on livestock, and how it helped develop the economy caused many issues with the neighboring natives. Although livestock became popular among the natives, the disregard colonists showed toward the natives and their land lead to King Philip’s War. In order for Britain to gain more land to colonize, they would constantly be at war with natives.
Britain would primarily use violence to gain control of land. As land increased, more workers would be needed to work. At first Britain used captured natives like the French. The British demand for slaves became so high that colonists began stealing Yamasee men away from their villages; this caused another war between Britain and Natives. Britain begins alliance with Cherokee in order to stop warfare. After the war ends, the South Carolina colony promises to stop using native slaves, and begins a massive switch to Africa slaves.
After 1680 there are fewer indentured servants and almost all labor is done by slaves. The process of forced labor moves from Natives to Africans, coercion continues in British colonizes. As colonization continues, British decide they want land in the Ohio Valley because of its fertile farmland. However, the French had already occupied that in their colony New France. Soon a war breaks out between the French and British with the French being allied with Natives and the British using their colonists. Eventually Britain wins the war and is able to take control over the land.
Soon, Britain decides to decrease all kinship relations with native and focus more on establishing new settlements and fort building. This angers local natives so the Ottawa tribe unify with the Ojibwa, Delaware, Shawnee, Mongo, Potawatomie in Pontiac’s Rebellion. The fighting ends in a stalemate and in order to appease the Natives the Proclamation Line of 1763 is created in order to stop colonists settling in the Ohio Valley, and leave it all to Natives. T he British Empire saw that in order to stop another Native uprising, they most stop invading on their land and coexist.
However, when Britain decides to forbid any colonization on the Ohio Valley many English colonists become outraged. More Conflicts would soon unfold with Britain and the colonists, especially with the fear of taxation. The idea of taxation and the denial of the Ohio River Valley begin a united revolt against the British in order to gain independence. English colonists want to govern themselves and control the land the Britain Empire controls to colonize. The Colonists soon revolt by declaring the Revolutionary War.
With the help of both French and Spanish empires the colonists win the way. At the end of the Revolutionary War Britain gives all the land they gained through colonization to the Colonists. The original British goal of colonization was gaining land. After the war however they lose all the land they had originally gained, and must return home empty handed. Once the colonists are free and have their own independent government, U. S. colonization begins. The U. S. colonization was exactly like the British Empire’s original goal, gaining land by any means necessary.
Once the colonists take control over British lands, they start rapid expansion of land possession. George Washington believed in “Expansion with Honor” The idea was that colonists would purchase land through treaties. However Washington wanted to conquer natives and remove them similar to what the Spanish empire wished to due. Washington sends armies to defeat the Native Confederacy and without the British Empire supporting them the Native Confederacy and is defeated. Anthony Wayne becomes big part in helping to achieve Washington’s goal.
In the document “The Print of My Ancestors’ Houses are Every Where” The article shows how Washington and Wayne didn’t care about the fact they were invading on the Natives spiritual land and found it more important that they obtain the land in order to colonize more. Wayne even uses alcohol as bribery to agree to the treaty of Greenville. Although this method worked, many people viewed it as an authoritative method to colonize. Thomas Jefferson was a big supporter of this fact. Jefferson claimed he would do things more respectively and honestly if he was elected president.
Once elected, his policy was called the “Civilization Program”. This plan was to force natives to take on a more American lifestyle. Natives would be forced to change religions and adapt to more customary American culture. Jefferson’s hopeful goal was if Natives were Americans they would sell their land for profit. This will open native land to American expansion. However, just like Washington, Jefferson used any method necessary to gain native lands. Jefferson believes Louisiana Purchase could be where all where Natives could go to be civilized in American culture.
Jefferson even abandons his beliefs in strict constitutional interpretation and uses implied power in order to justify the Louisiana Purchase. When it came to U. S. Colonization the colonists believed they were more democratic and fair then during European empires. In actuality colonists used the same tactics of violence and coercion in order to get rid of Natives and take control of their land. Colonization and Colonialism helped build empires up while it tore other ones down. While these two methods it enriched the empires while made other countries suffer.
Through the course of time the empires changed their tactics in order to better coexist and survive like the Spanish switching form a military campaign to using more peaceful alternatives, The French starting small and through trading and kinship with natives becoming the dominant power, The British who cared only about gaining land, gave it back to avoid tensions with natives. The three major empires learned to coexist and adapt to Natives; however U. S. colonization was all about warfare and forcibly taking land away from natives. The U. S. was all about expansion and it didn’t matter who they hurt in order to achieve their goals.
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