In older grownups, physical activity is necessary to supply and keep wellness. ( 1 ) Physical environment, a construct of environment which includes both natural characteristics and human concepts, ( 2,3 ) is significantly associated with physical activity engagement within older people. ( 4-8 ) While the significance of physical environment is good recognized, an accurate step to place the specific features of the physical environment in relationship to one 's physical activity, with regard to older Thai people ( aged 60 old ages and older ) , presently non good established.
Most of the physical environment questionnaires presently being used have been developed in Western states and most of these graduated tables used within all ages. ( 9-12 ) Furthermore, different dependability among urban and rural respondents have been noticed. ( 14 ) Some questionnaires are designed utilizing either neighborhood-focused graduated tables or community-focused graduated table to measure the physical environment ( 5,12,14 ) , whereas others uses both. ( 8,15 ) Prior research has found that facets of physical environment, i.e. safety, traffic volume, street lighting, unattended Canis familiariss, pavements and accessible public diversion installations, influence one 's physical activity, ( 5-8 ) whereas other groundss suggest ambiguous consequences. ( 12,14,16 ) These incompatibilities may be related, peculiarly in older grownups, to the type of measuring used to measure the physical environment.
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The Environmental Supports for Physical Activity Questionnaire ( ESPA ) is a measuring designed to capture and measure the back uping societal and physical environment for physical activity typically performed by all ages. ( 4,17 ) While non all ESPA attributes apply to the aged Thai who live in either urban or rural countries, most properties are closely congruous with this population. In add-on, the coefficient differences between urban and rural respondents of the ESPA were little when compared with other questionnaires. ( 13 ) As a consequence, ESPA was chosen for physical environment appraisal in senior Thai individuals.
The differences in geographic characteristics, civilization and forms of life of aged Thais, may be influenced non merely by their vicinity and community environments but besides place environment. Merely over three-quarterss of senior Thais resided in their ain places. ( 18 ) Most spend the bulk of their twenty-four hours in family jobs, household attention activities, horticulture, every bit good as take parting in community groups activities. ( 5-6 ) With progressing age, the place environment and close milieus become the major life infinite where senior citizens perform their mundane activities and spend most of their clip. ( 19 ) Harmonizing to the findings of the preliminary survey in 10 older Thais, place was most often mentioned as a favourite topographic point for prosecuting in physical activity because of safety concerns and convenience. Even though ESPA focuses chiefly on vicinity and community environmental properties, the relationship of place environment and physical activity of older people is still unknown.
After obtaining written consent from the writer, the ESPA was translated into Thai by the translation-back interlingual rendition method. ( 20 ) Some points of the ESPA questionnaire were deleted and the questionnaire format reviewed. Deleted points reflected physical activities and topographic points that are unfound in the Thai context. Five pages of the graduated table and assorted types of picks that was thought by the research worker to be hard to reply were besides removed from the questionnaire. Furthermore, a demand exists to measure home-focused graduated table as an facet of the physical environment of aged Thais. The modified ESPA was conceptualized to include three subscales, with the six points functioning as supportive vicinity and community environments, and four new points as supportive of place environment. The new one page questionnaire was named `` Thai Environment Support for Physical Activity in older Tai people ( TESPA ) '' . However, if there is low mistake in the appraisal, the account of the relationship between physical environment and physical activity will be raised. For these grounds, the TESPA needs to be validated for the older Thai population.
The intent of this survey was to measure TESPA among Thai seniors for dependability and cogency.
Four instruments were used to roll up informations. They included: demographic informations questionnaire ; the Chula Mental Test ( CMT ) ; the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Long signifier ( IPAQ-L ) ; and the TESPA
Demographics: The research worker designed a demographic information questionnaire which was used to obtain demographic and socioeconomic informations about each topic.
The Chula Mental Test ( CMT ) : The CMT is a 13 points, interview manner, used to mensurate cognitive map of older Tai who have trouble reading and authorship. ( 21 ) Entire tonss indicate cognitive map and scope from 0-19. The cogency and dependability of the CMT was acceptable. ( 21 )
The IPAQ-L: The IPAQ-L assesses the frequence, strength and continuance of all day-to-day physical activity undertaken by five spheres including: work-related activities ; transport-related activities ; domestic jobs ; leisure clip related activities and clip exhausted sitting during the old 7 yearss. ( 22 ) The entire physical activity equals the MET ( metabolic equivalents ) mark, which is the amount of proceedingss spent in each sphere multiplied by the MET value. ( 23 ) Threshold values for the IPAQ-L in this survey included the undermentioned classs: insufficiently active ( & lt ; 600 MET-min/week ) , and sufficient active ( & gt ; 600 Met-min-week ) . ( 24 ) After obtaining written consent from the writer, the IPAQ-L was translated into Thai by the translation-back interlingual rendition method. ( 20 ) The content was validated by three experts in gerontologies and a content cogency index ( CVI ) of 0.96 obtained. The stableness by test-retest over two hebdomads utilizing the Spearman correlativity coefficient of the IPAQ-L was reported to be 0.77 in the pilot survey.
The TESPA: the TESPA is composed of 10 points: three vicinity points, three community points, and four place points ( see Table 1 ) . Neighborhood environment is referred to older people 's perceptual experiences of support including: features, entree, and barriers to physical activity in an country within a 10-minutes walk from their place. ( 17 ) Community environment support refers to older people 's perceptual experiences of convenience and the safe behavior of physical activity in their community within a 20-minutes thrust from their place. ( 17 ) Home environment support is defined as participants ' perceptual experiences of convenience and safety, both in and around their place, in relation to their physical activity battle. The Likert graduated table was used to measure physical environment for physical activity. Possible responses were 1 ( strongly disagree ) , 2 ( disagree ) , 3 ( neither agree nor disagree ) , 4 ( agree ) , and 5 ( strongly agree ) . The possible tonss ranged from 10 to 50. Higher tonss indicated a higher degree of sensed physical environment support towards physical activity.
The cross-sectional design was conducted in two stages. Phase I involved quantifying the TESPA that had been implemented during the pilot survey. Phase II included using TESPA to the current survey ; concept cogency was accomplished through usage of confirmatory factor analysis and the known-group method.
Phase 1: Quantification of the TESPA
Validation and finding of the dependability of TESPA 's psychometric belongingss was accomplished. Three geriatric experts determined the content cogency of the TESPA graduated table. When the CVI reached an acceptable value, the pilot survey was conducted.
Prior to garnering informations, two research helpers, nursing alumnuss with maestro 's grades who had old research experience, were trained to interview participants who met the standards. The research helpers were instructed and tested to corroborate their apprehension of sample standards, definitions, and base constructs of each questionnaire until a satisfactory degree had been reached at the discretion of the research worker. Each research helper and the research worker interviewed 5 samples and inter-rater dependability was assessed. Agreement between the research helpers and the research worker ranged from 78-92 % , with an mean understanding of 87 % .
The pilot survey was carried out on October 2008. The purposes were to measure the feasibleness, and to measure psychometric belongingss utilizing TESPA. After obtaining moralss blessing from the IRB, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, consent was obtained from the managers of two Primary Care Units ( PCU ) , in two small towns ( one located in an urban environment and the other in a rural country ) , in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. Participants were older Thai people who met the undermentioned inclusion standards ; 60 old ages of age and over, nomadic and cognitively capable of replying inquiries accurately. No wellness jobs or ongoing interventions that would disrupt engagement in physical activity such as holding suffered a recent cardiovascular event ( anterior 6 months ) , nephritic failure, liver cirrhosis, human immunodeficiency virus, major surgery in the last 6 hebdomads, or a history of medicine usage for the bosom or blood vass during the last three months. Fifteen older people from each puting were recruited utilizing purposive sampling. Each possible participant was given an informed consent signifier that explained the intents of the survey, undertakings to be completed and the length of clip needed to finish the interview, every bit good as its benefits, hazards, types of questionnaires they would be asked to reply, and that they could retreat at anytime without reverberations. The participants were interviewed at their places or at a local temple, whichever suited them. A codification figure was assigned to each participant to maintain confidentiality. Furthermore, stableness of dependability of the TESPA was obtained in two hebdomads, whereas internal consistence was assessed at baseline.
The participants were preponderantly older ( average age = 70+ 4.19 old ages ) , lived with partner ( 53.3 % ) , employed ( 62.6 % ) , females ( 76.7 % ) , who had an simple instruction ( 80 % ) and a household income of less than 5,000 Baht ( USD 147 ) per month ( 76.7 % ) . A significant proportion ( 63.3 % ) of them had lived in a municipal country for an norm of 44.6 old ages in their ain abode. Although 50 % ( n=15 ) of the participants felt they had a sufficient degree of physical activity, 20 % ( n=6 ) said their physical activity degree was low. Merely 23.3 % ( n=7 ) reported holding no current wellness jobs, and 16.7 % of them were hypertensive. Their most frequent type of physical activity was household-related activities, followed by leisure clip, transportation-related and occupational activities.
Phase 2: Measuring the Instrument
Phase II involved finding of the concept cogency of the TESPA. A sample of 320 aged was obtained via multi-stage random trying from 12 small towns in six states of Thailand. One individual from each household was selected utilizing a systematic random trying technique from a list of household names provided by the PCU unit of each small town. None of the selected names were involved in any of anterior pilot surveies.
Datas were collected between November 2008 and April 2009. Prior to the interview, the research worker introduced herself, established resonance, explained the intent of the survey, the parts the participants would do, the choice standards and emphasized the confidentiality or namelessness of the information being collected. Potential participants were eligible if they scored & gt ; 15 on the CMT, were able to ambulate without assistive devices and were willing to take part. The interview procedure took about 15-20 proceedingss. A 5 minute remainder was given after completion of each questionnaire. Participants were ab initio asked to finish the questionnaire on personal informations, and the TESPA, followed by the IPAQ-L questionnaires. Each participant were given a hankie for their clip take parting in the interview.
Descriptive informations are presented as average + SD. The internal dependability of the graduated table was based on an alpha coefficient greater than or equal to 0.70 ; ( 25 ) stableness of the graduated table was analyzed by merchandise correlativity coefficient. Reliability of each point, overall dependability, and concept cogency of the graduated table were determined utilizing structural equation mold ( SEM ) . ( 26 )
The known-group technique was conducted utilizing the multivariate analysis of discrepancy, to compare the physical environment of those who reported sufficient physical activity and those who did non. Statistical significance for analyses except SEM was defined as P & lt ; 0.05. SPSS version 17.0 was used.
Table 1 depicts participants ' age, which ranged from 60 to 94 old ages old. One-half of the participants ( 50.0 % ) age ranged in between 60-69 old ages. The participants were preponderantly females ( 55 % , n=176 ) , and married ( 64.4 % , n=206 ) who had an simple instruction ( 75.6 % , n=242 ) .In add-on, family activities had the highest degree of engagement, followed by transit related activities, leisure, and business, severally.
Insert table 1 here
Phase 1: Quantification of TESPA
The CVI of the TESPA questionnaire was 0.92. The dependability coefficients and the test-retest dependability of the graduated table were 0.73 and 0.76 severally. Besides, the alpha coefficient of place had the highest value, followed by vicinity and community, severally ( i??= 0.83,0.66, and 0.06 ) . The TESPA was culturally appropriate for aged Thais and the processs were followed without any trouble.
Phase 2: Measuring the Instrument
The entire amount tonss of the TESPA ranged from 19.00 to 50.00, with a mean of 34.87 ( SD=6.47 ) . Based on collateral factor analysis, the findings demonstrated that the concept of TESPA was composed of place, vicinity, and community environment subscales. The correlativity among points ranged from 0.02 to 0.77 and the entire graduated table could explicate 61.01 % of the discrepancy of physical environment. The place, vicinity, and community subscale could account for 29.4 % , 19.7 % , and 12.0 % of the discrepancy, severally. The measurement theoretical account testing was designed to gauge which ten points were used as indexs for the theoretical account. Although the original theoretical account was statistically important, the theoretical account was non consistent with the informations /df= 4.59 and a RMSEA value greater than 0.05 ( = 151.54, df= 33 ; P & lt ; 0.0001 GFI= 0.91 ; RMSEA= 0.06 ; NFI= 0.88 ; CFI= 0.91 ) . Based on alteration indices, mistake covariances were allowed to correlate. The revised measuring theoretical account ( see Figure 1 ) was re-assessed and findings indicated that overall fit indices had improved. The revised theoretical account was fit with the following data/df= 1.33 ( =33.27, df= 25, p=0.13, GFI= 0.98, RMSEA= 0.03, NFI= 0.98, CFI= 0.99 ) . Furthermore, the correlativities between subscales presented significantly low to chair values ( Home-Neighborhood, r=0.51, P & lt ; 0.01 ; Home-Community, r=0.29, P & lt ; 0.01 ; Neighborhood-Community, r=0.38. P & lt ; 0.01 ) .
Insert figure 1 here
Table 2 illustrates the burdens with t-values and squared multiple correlativity coefficients among each ascertained variables for the TESPA graduated table. The squared multiple correlativities for ascertained variables of the latent variables ranged from 0.02 to 0.92. The R2 of points 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were acceptable indexs, but points 1, 7, 8, 9, and 10 which were less than 0.40.
Insert Table 2 here
Table 3 shows differences in the TESPA subscale between the two physical activity degree ( P & lt ; 0.05 ) .
Insert Table 3 here
Testing of the TESPA measuring provided extra grounds for the cogency and dependability. The findings are discussed in the undermentioned subdivision.
The content cogency and concept cogency of the TESPA graduated table were acceptable. Continued support for the concept cogency of the graduated table was besides provided through collateral factor analysis ( LISREL 8.80 pupil edition ) and the known-group method. The TESPA measuring theoretical account demonstrated that all measured sub-scales had important low to high parametric quantity estimations, which were related to their specific concepts and validated the relationships among ascertained variables and their concepts. The known-group technique is an scrutiny of relationships based on theoretical anticipation. ( 27 ) Within the known-group method, the findings demonstrated that all three physical environment all three subscales and entire tonss were significantly correlated with physical activity. This determination indicated that older people who had sufficient degree of physical activity scored significantly higher in each of three factors - supportive place, vicinity, and community environment - than those who did non. The bulk of the seniors sampled have lived in their place for a average 30 old ages ; accordingly, they were familiar with the physical features of their environment in and outside the place. In add-on, engagement in family activities had the highest degree of engagement, followed by transit related activities, leisure, and business, severally. As a ground, senior citizens determine the facets of their physical environment to which they are exposed, and in bend, that physical environment modifies their behaviour. It is possible that the friendly environment contributed to physical activity battle, while unfriendly environments discouraged activity. Therefore, although place environment is restricted by country and instruments, the determination demonstrates that it can be included as an extra facet for supplying physical activity battle.
Sing dependability, the TESPA exceeded the coveted standard of 0.70 for new graduated tables, peculiarly ; place subscale had the highest value. However, the dependability for vicinity and community subscale were depicted less than the old survey. ( 13 ) Although the R2 for points 1, 7, 8, 9 and 10 indicated that they were irrelevant for the TESPA graduated table, the measuring theoretical account had a good tantrum with the empirical information. It is the first clip this graduated table has been validated in aged Thais, moreover this survey produced normative informations for comparing in the aged, which were non found in other surveies. Approximately 61 % of the discrepancy in the TESPA graduated table was explained by the 10 points, whereas 39 % of the discrepancy in this graduated table remains unexplained. Matching with the SCT attack, Bandura argues that about all facets of the physical environment can act upon one 's determination about physical activity battle. ( 3 ) Owing to the fact that the TESPA measuring includes merely safety, convenience, and handiness ; it is possible that other facets such as policy ( 28 ) may farther lend to physical activity. Extra work is needed to place these yet unidentified facets.
Restrictions and recommendations:
This survey was limited by homogeneousness of the sample. The bulks of participants were female, married, with low socioeconomic position, and lived in their place. Continued rating of the psychometric belongingss both in other samples and extra new points are recommended. Additionally, the usage of an utilizing nonsubjective measuring should be considered, to further add to the cogency of the findings and confirm the subjective study.
However, based on three subscales of the TESPA, use of these factors with cognitive behavioural and policy schemes may promote the aged to increase their physical activity battle. This consequence can widen cognition of the physical environment for physical activity measuring.
The TESPA was developed from the modified ESPA and the findings of a qualitative survey of older Thai people. Psychometric rating of the TESPA graduated table, including cogency and dependability, were chiefly satisfactory. Although the testing of the TESPA graduated table represents an initial effort, the consequences of the current survey suggest that the definition of the physical environment should include the place environment, every bit good as vicinity and community environment as these besides contains both incentives and obstructions for older Thai people set abouting physical activity.
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