The word counseling can be defined as the process of helping persons who are fundamentally psychologically healthy or otherwise resolve developmental and situational issues. Supervisory techniques are essential and incorporate some advances that may not be themselves referred as counseling such as creative problem solving but have similar aim.
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The scope of counseling covers a wide and diversified field of study as it includes what one would imagine far and beyond these identified topics;- Abortion counseling, Brief therapy, Career Counseling, Christian counseling, Counseling psychology, Credit counseling, Cross-cultural counseling, Disaster counseling, Disciplinary counseling, Ecological counseling, Family & marriage counseling, Genetic counseling, Grief & trauma counseling, Marriage counseling, Pastoral counseling, Relationship counseling , Rehabilitation counseling, Sexual trauma counseling, Suicide intervention etc. 1.
0) Pregnancy Options and Abortion counseling This provides information and support for a pregnant woman who is considering between the choices regarding the continuation of the pregnancy. The choices include continuing the pregnancy for parenting or adoption and pregnancy termination. In reality, qualified advisors take the information with certainty and encouragingly that helps each woman make the best decision for her. Counselors require up-to-date knowledge of local and national laws governing women's pregnancy choices, especially concerning adolescents and their rights to make such decisions.
The tie between forced abortion and mental health is no more associated with psychological danger than carrying an unwanted pregnancy to term. Psychological effects of abortion It was noted that adverse emotional reactions to the abortion are influenced by pre-existing psychological conditions and other negative factors and, furthermore, that well-being was separately and positively related to employment, income, and education, but negatively related to total number of children. The kind of stress and the amount of stress women experience varies from culture to culture.
Emotional distress may occur in a majority of women who are contemplating or have had an abortion due to a number of factors, including pre-existing mental health problems, the status of the woman's relationship with her partner, poor economic status, poor social network, or conservative views held on abortion. The term "post-abortion syndrome" was used as it was stated that it had been observed post-traumatic stress disorder which developed in response to the stress of abortion.
While some studies have shown a correlation between abortion and clinical depression, anxiety, suicidal behaviors, or adverse effects on women's sexual functions for a small number of women, these correlations may be explained by pre-existing social circumstances and emotional health and various factors, such as emotional attachment to the pregnancy, lack of support, and conservative views on abortion, may increase the likelihood of experiencing negative reactions. Abortion might mean a selection of women at higher risk for suicide because of reasons like depression.
The study concluded that compared to other women in the group those who had an abortion were subsequently more likely to have "mental health problems including depression, anxiety, suicidal behaviors and substance use disorders. 1. 1) Career Counseling Career choices are based on matching personal traits (aptitude, abilities, resources, personality) with job factors (wages and environment for success. This framework contains three sections: a) Acquaintance with the necessary requirements and conditions of achievement, positive and negative effects, returns, opportunities, and prospects in different area’s of work.
b) A true reasoning of the relations of these two groups of facts 1. 2) Christian counseling Christian counseling is carried out by a qualified counselor who upholds Christian ethics values, beliefs and philosophy. The uniting element is the therapist, who has integrated a combination of Christianity, psychology, and psychotherapy into the applied program. Counselees look at Biblical guidance and counseling as a perfect relationship with a caring counselor directed toward increased awareness of themselves, others, the societies and cultures in which they live, and their understanding of the Christian God.
The therapy may take an ad-hoc approach, focusing simply on the therapy session itself. Clients may be more comfortable with a Christian counselor, and they may feel such a person's advice is more sensitive to their personal or religious needs. Some clients also wish to use the Christian Bible as a reference for their counseling sessions and therapy. 1. 3) Disciplinary counseling A disciplinary counseling is a session or a meeting between an employer and an employee or a supervisor and his/her junior employee.
It may focus and put more emphasis on a specific work place scenario or in carrying out a performance appraisal. The counseling process may be scheduled, initiated and executed by the supervisor and is not considered disciplinary. It is conducted in ultimate privacy, and is intended to have a constructive goal of providing feedback to the employee to correct the problem. 1. 4) Pastoral counseling Pastoral or Biblical counseling is a branch of therapy in which ordained ministers, rabbis, priests and others provide therapy services.
These include Marriage and Family Counselors. Pastoral counseling is essentially a non-licensure. Counselees often will not pay for pastoral counseling of counselors without state licensing which is often synonymous with pastoral care that include Christian Counselors, Clinical pastoral education.. 1. 5) Rehabilitation counseling This type of counseling takes interest on assisting those with disabilities to achieve their personal, career, and independent living goals through a counseling process.
Though educational programs have began to appear, it is not until the availability of adequate funding for rehabilitation counseling programs that the profession begun to grow and establish its own identity. 1. 6) Suicide intervention Counseling Suicide intervention is an effort to stop or prevent persons attempting or contemplating suicide from killing themselves. Individuals who utter the intention cause harm to self are routinely determined to lack the present mental capacity to refuse treatment, and can be transported to an emergency department against their will.
Medical advice pertaining people who attempt or consider suicide is that they should immediately go or be taken to the nearest emergency room, or emergency services should be called immediately by them or anyone aware of the problem. Modern medicine treats suicide as a mental health issue. According to medical practice, severe suicidal ideation, that is, serious contemplation or planning of suicide is a medical emergency and that the condition requires immediate emergency medical treatment. Those suffering from depression are considered as high-risk group for suicidal behavior.
When depression is a major factor, successful treatment of the depression usually leads to the disappearance of suicidal thoughts. However, medical treatment of depression is not always successful, and lifelong depression can contribute to recurring suicide attempts. 1. 7) Career Counseling A career was initially taken as a course of successive situations that make up a person's work life. One can have a sporting, musical or any other without being a real professional athlete or musician, but most frequently "career" in the 20th century referenced the series of jobs or positions by which one earned one's money.
Career Assessments are tests that come in a variety of forms and rely on both quantitative and qualitative methodologies and helps individuals to identify and better articulate their unique interests, values, and skills. These type of advisors evaluates major interests, values and skills, of the client and also help them explore career options and research graduate and professional schools. This field is vast and includes career placement, career planning, learning strategies and student development.
Typically when people come for career counseling they know exactly what they want to get out of the process, but are unsure about how it will work Career counselors work with people from all walks of life such as adolescents looking to explore career options or with experienced professionals looking for a career change. Career advisors normally have psychology, vocational psychology, or industrial/organizational setting. The approach of career counseling varies by practitioner, but generally they include the completion of one or more assessments. 1.
8 Credit counseling It is also known as debt counseling. This is a process offering education to consumers about how to avoid incurring debts that cannot be repaid. This process is actually more debt counseling than a function of credit education. This type counseling involves discussing with lenders in ascertaining a debt management plan (DMP) for a consumer. A DMP may help the debtor repay his or her debt by working out a repayment plan with the creditor. DMPs, set up by credit counselors, usually offer reduced payments, fees and interest rates to the client.
It merely gives a fresh start and an opportunity for the client to begin building a positive credit history. Criticism for credit counseling These sharp increases of credit counseling activity also created other, more serious issues in the industry and they include: a) Exploitation by most credit guidance organizations are so significant which leads to criticism of the entire industry. b) Another common criticism of credit counseling is the assertion that participating in a Debt Management Plan will ruin a consumer’s credit.
d) Severally many credit advice firms hire untrained staff to do credit counseling. References 1) Swanson, J. L. and Parcover, J. A. (1998). Annual Review: Practices and Research in career counseling and development — 1997. The Career Development Quarterly. 47, 2, 98-135. 2) Kim, B. S, Li, L. C. , and Lian, C. T. (2002) Effects of Asian American client adherence to Asian cultural values, session goal, and counselor emphasis of client expression on career counseling process
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