A non-probabilistic sampling technique - the convenience sampling method, was utilized in this research. Since there was only one group, the issue of subject assignment to groups did not arise. Even though the convenience sampling method is easy to organize, cheaper and fast to carry out, the subjects chosen are usually not representative.
Therefore, it is virtually impossible to generalize the outcomes of this study. Since the outcomes cannot be generalized then the study can be thought of as lacking in validity. Besides, the convenience sampling method enhanced the possibility of bias in the study.
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Data was collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a 14 question survey instrument. The instrument was sectioned into 3 parts with 6 questions in part 1, 4 questions in part 2 and 4 questions in part 3. The type of data collected was primary data and was qualitative in nature. A major flaw in this research is that calculation of the validity and reliability of the test instrument was not conducted. No controls were used
In terms of the research methodology and design used, the research was an empirical, qualitative study. As it was conducted in the real world setting, it cannot be easily replicated, and lacks internal validity as well. Lack of internal validity is indicated by the absence of alternative explanations to the outcomes obtained.
Besides, the study is more prone to subjective interpretation, lacks external validity since the data was particularized to one case, and it is not possible to generalize the findings to other settings. Other flaws in the design include the possibility of bias in the survey instrument, interviewer bias, bias in the questionnaire design, learner bias and bias in the administration of the questionnaire.
The investigators made use only of descriptive statistics. Since no inferences were being sought, no relationships were being examined and the data was qualitative, the statistical method chosen was very suitable for the study. The data analysis is appropriate to answer the specified research question.
Critique of article
The study is presented in a simplified manner, has logical flow, and the reader is able to follow the article with relative ease. Even so, the researcher could have made better use of graphics by using graphs, pie-charts and bars to present the outcomes.
Since it was devoid of recondite terms and terminology, the writing style is deemed to be appropriate for the target audience. Flaws in the structure of research pertained to the design and include lack of validity and bias.
To reduce the errors and flaws identified in the study, the researcher can use randomized sampling methods. To eliminate bias in questionnaire design, appropriate formatting should be done and redundant and lengthy questions avoided. Bias due to administration of the questionnaire can be eliminated by blinding the interviewer. This will also help to ensure the objectivity of the interviewer.
The test-retest method can be used to enhance the validity of the outcomes and culturally sensitive questions formulated. Language used should be consistent, unambiguous and devoid of jargon. Finally, respondents should not be asked to answer attitudinal, behavioral or knowledge questions for others.
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