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Socio cultural and traditional practices on breastfeeding

It is a good established fact from assorted extended researches since old ages that suckling patterns have extended consequence on immature kid ‘s wellness and mortality particularly in developing states. “ Assorted life-long effects such as impaired cognitive development, intelligence, strength, growing and development are associated with Undernutrition due to hapless breastfeeding patterns at the initial stage of kid ‘s life. ” Harmonizing to WHO, major proportion of deceases under 5 old ages of age are associated with malnutrition.

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From assorted researches published in Lancet in the twelvemonth 2003, it is revealed that there would hold been a decrease of about 13 per centum of child deceases if the per centum of sole suckling up to six months reaches to 90 % and breastfeeding is continued thenceforth for around two old ages of age.

India has a really high Infant Mortality Rate of 57 % and the major ground for this high mortality rate is malnutrition which is a common issue here. Uttar Pradesh ranks 2nd with Infant mortality rate of 81 per 1000 unrecorded births. National Family Health Survey study shows that Uttar Pradesh stands at 2nd place to Bihar in figure of malnutrition instances amongst kids less than 5 old ages of age. This substantiates why there are lower rates of kid endurance in Uttar Pradesh. The breastfeeding indexs for India ( harmonizing to WHO guidelines ) are far from the optimum mark. Harmonizing to the DLHS-3 in twelvemonth 2008, per centum of kids in India having suckling within an hr after birth is 40.5 and it is farther really low in UP with merely 15.4 % . Similarly, sole breastfeeding rate upto 5 months amongst Indian kids is 46.8 % while its lowest in UP with merely 19.4 % . A survey conducted by Sinha et.al reveals that in Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu breastfeeding patterns and abstention are greatly influenced by the societal, cultural and traditional patterns and coevals age difference.

Through this survey, it is aimed to research the socio-cultural and traditional beliefs and patterns act uponing the breastfeeding patterns in rural portion of Uttar Pradesh ( India ) in order to do recommendation for effectual schemes to better suckling index.

Study capable and method: The method used for this survey will be ethnographic qualitative research methodological analysis. This survey is proposed to be conducted in four small towns of UP, India. The survey population comprises of female parents of kids with age group of 0 to 23 months and their mother-in-laws. Besides a group of small town wellness commission members, ASHA workers and traditional birth attenders will be a portion of this survey. Triangulation of two research informations aggregation techniques i.e. FGDs and In-depth interviews will be preferred for informations aggregation. Data analysis will be done by integrating it in qualitative research packages such as NVivo or Atlas utilizing thematic analysis.

This survey will be for merely a short continuance of 6 months with the attempts to accomplish the maximal consequences with minimum resources. The budget for this complete survey along with the airing of cardinal findings comes to US $ 41,087.

Background:

Introduction to the subject

Breastfeeding patterns impacts well on the wellness of an baby and immature kid as he/she grows. Relation between the breastfeeding patterns with wellness and mortality rate of baby and immature kid is good established through assorted extended researches since old ages. It is the best alimentary and immune fluid the babe receives in its natural signifier which is most suited for babe ‘s metamorphosis. Particularly in developing states where hygiene and sanitation is one of the major concerns, sole chest eating helps in minimising the hazard of consumption of disease doing agents ( Anandaiah, R. et al. , 2000 ) .

Adequate proportion of chest milk satisfies about all the nutritionary demand of an baby for atleast the first six months of babe ‘s life ( Reddy, S. 1995 ) . Children who are breastfed have better neurodevelopment results, and the continuance of suckling besides affects a kid ‘s intelligence. ( IBFAN et al. 2005 ) . Assorted researches have proved a positive impact of chest eating on baby and immature kid survival particularly among the population with elevated baby mortality and deprived socioeconomic status peculiarly among rural kids with hapless households and deficiency of safe imbibing H2O and sanitation installations ( Cited by Anandaiah, R. et al. , 2000 ; Palloni et al. , 1986 ; Retherford et Al in 1989 ) .

A set of guidelines is recommended by WHO for infant eating patterns in developing states on the footing of assorted researches that provinces:

“ Breastfeeding should be initiated instantly after childbearing.

Babies should have merely chest milk up to 4-6 months of age. At such immature ages, no other nutrients or liquids are recommended.

Get downing at age of 6 months, equal and appropriate auxiliary nutrients should be added to the baby ‘s diet in order to supply sufficient foods for optimum growing.

It is recommended that suckling continues, in combination with auxiliary nutrients, up to the 2nd birthday or beyond ( World Health Organization. 1991, P. 4 ) . ”

Situation/ Problem Analysis.

Malnutrition during the initial stage of kid ‘s life leads to life-long serious growing and developmental effects and its consequence becomes about irreversible if occurs during the first two old ages of important stage of kid ‘s growing. The steep rise in malnutrition amongst kids during first two old ages of life reflects upon hapless infant eating patterns. Adequate and proper eating in the initial stage of kid ‘s life helps in forestalling malnutrition and ensures proper growing and development of kids. As per WHO study, malnutrition histories for more than half of all under five deceases. Improper eating had lead to two-third of all deceases under five old ages of age. As mentioned above researches published in Lancet in 2003 shows that 13-16 % child deceases can be prevented by increasing the coverage of sole breastfeeding for first six months to 90 % and so continued feeding for about two old ages ( BPNI, 2006 ) .

Malnutrition being widespread in India, it is accountable for about 55 % of the kid mortality. It can be prevented by advancing sole chest eating upto 6 months and uninterrupted breastfeeding for 2 old ages and beyond as per the WHO guidelines for developing states and recommended by planetary public wellness ( Gupta, A. et al. , 2004 ) . In India babes are normally breastfed but the rate for early induction of chest eating and sole chest eating upto 6 months is rather low ( Oommen, A. et al. , 2009 ) . After birth about 49 % of the babes are given prelacteal provenders such as honey and farther sugar H2O ( normally used ) , apparent H2O, unreal milk, etc as per the cultural and traditional beliefs and rites. Around 20 % of babes are besides given solid nutrient addendum along with the chest milk during the first four to six months of the life.

Some of the Key suckling Indexs of India as per DLHS-3 and its comparing with UP province is as below:

Child feeding patterns as per DLHS-3 ( Year 2008 )

India ( % )

Uttar Pradesh ( % )

Rate of suckling within one hr in kids upto 3 old ages

40.5

15.4

Rate of sole breastfeeding for 0-5 months kids

46.8

19.4

Rate of sole breastfeeding for 6 months for kids of 6-35 months

25.5

8.2

Rate of 6-9 months kids having solid/semi-solid nutrient and chest milk

57.1

54.5

Indian cultural and traditional beliefs have strong influence on wellness related patterns of its population. A survey conducted by BPNI showed that due to the traditional and cultural belief ‘s influence, sole breastfeeding rate is low and the usage of supplying pre-lacteal provender is widespread. The above given figures reflects that infant eating patterns in India are far from range of recognized rates. ( Gupta, A. et al. , 2004 )

A survey was conducted by R. K. Sinha and A. Pradhan on cultural impact of suckling patterns and abstention in Uttar Pradesh and Tamilnadu, India. They found that in Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu breastfeeding patterns and abstention are greatly influenced by societal, cultural and traditional patterns and coevals age difference ( Sinha, R. et al. , 2000 ) . I want to further research the socio-cultural and traditional beliefs and patterns act uponing the breastfeeding patterns in rural Uttar Pradesh ( India ) in order to do recommendation for effectual schemes to better suckling status/indicator.

Research inquiry or hypothesis:

What are the socio-cultural and traditional beliefs and patterns act uponing the breastfeeding patterns in rural portion of Uttar Pradesh ( India ) ?

Already Known:

India has a really high Infant Mortality Rate of 57 % . ( NFHS-III, Jan 2008 ) . Uttar Pradesh has 2nd highest Infant Mortality Rate of 81 per 1000 unrecorded births. It besides has highest less than five mortality rate. ( Indicus Analytical, 2008 )

Malnutrition is the most common cause of immature kid mortality in India accounting for approximately 55 % of entire child deceases. National Family Health Survey study shows that Uttar Pradesh stands at 2nd place to Bihar in figure of malnutrition instances amongst kids less than 5 old ages of age. This substantiates why there are lower rates of kid endurance in Uttar Pradesh. ( NRHM, 2010 )

As per District Level Household and Facility Survey indexs for the kid feeding patterns in Uttar Pradesh is highly hapless and unacceptable ( informations shown in table above )

My Study Will Add:

This survey aims to look into assorted single, experiential, socio-cultural and traditional beliefs and patterns ‘ influence on breastfeeding patterns

By the results of the survey recommendations can be made for effectual schemes to better the position of chest eating in rural Uttar Pradesh, India

Aim and aims:

Purpose: This survey intends to research the socio-cultural and traditional beliefs and patterns act uponing the breastfeeding patterns in rural portion of Uttar Pradesh ( India ) in order to do recommendation for effectual schemes to better breastfeeding index

Aims:

To look into single, experiential, socio-cultural and traditional beliefs and patterns ‘ influence on breastfeeding patterns

To urge effectual schemes sing the findings of the survey to better the position of chest eating in Uttar Pradesh, India

Proposed research methodological analysis:

The research method to be used to reply this research inquiry is qualitative research method.

Study Design:

“ Ethnography is a qualitative research methodological analysis used for descriptive surveies of civilizations and people. ” Hence, Ethnographic survey design will be used here to look into the socio-cultural and traditional beliefs and patterns act uponing the breastfeeding patterns as there is a call for inductive qualitative research to understand the socio-cultural and traditional beliefs related to suckling and research that identifies beliefs and patterns that may be hinderance for early induction of chest eating, foremilk eating and care of sole suckling harmonizing to WHO guidelines for developing states.

Study Area:

Uttar Pradesh province of India has a population of 90,415. Number of kids age 12-23 months are 11,990 out of which 10,181 of these kids lives in rural portion of Uttar Pradesh. There are 62.5 % of married adult females who are non-literate ( non able to read and compose ) and 65.4 % of them reside in rural countries. Actually major proportion of Indian population resides in rural parts in smaller units called small towns where literacy rate is low particularly amongst females as compared to males. This survey is proposed to be conducted in two small towns of Barabanki and two small towns of Sultanpur territory of Uttar Pradesh ( Maps of Uttar Pradesh, 2010 ) .

Study Population:

India has cardinal authorities at national degree and farther province and local authorities. Within Local Government there are two bifurcations: ‘Panchayats ‘ ( rural ) and ‘Municipalities ‘ ( urban ) . The Panchayats are formed by locally available resources and is divided into “ small town panchayets ” , “ panchayet samities ” , and “ territory panchayets ” .

An enterprise called National Rural Health Mission ( NRHM ) is started by wellness ministry to guarantee effectual health care at single, family, community, and wellness system degrees. National Rural Health Mission makes proviso of “ ASHA or Accredited Social Health Activist for every 1000 people ” . ASHA worker is chosen from small town and trained to work as a nexus between community and wellness system. ( NRHM, 2010 ) At small town degree there is a small town wellness commission.

The survey population for this survey comprises of female parents of kids with age group of 0 to 23 months and their mother-in-laws. Besides a group of small town wellness commission members and traditional birth attenders will be a portion of this survey.

Sampling Technique and Sample Size:

Two qualitative research techniques will be used for this research survey.

Focus Group Discussion: Focus Group Discussions will be done to be cognizant of the socio-cultural and traditional beliefs and patterns most prevailing among this population that is act uponing the breastfeeding patterns. Entire 12 FGD ‘s are proposed to be conducted with each dwelling of a little group of 6-8 members.

In-depth interviews: Purposive and convenience trying method will be used for in-depth semi-structured interview. It is proposed that about 32 interviews will be conducted in four small towns ( eight interviews in each small town ) selected indiscriminately within Uttar Pradesh province. But farther alteration in Numberss can be applicable depending upon the impregnation point for the informations aggregation.

Data Collection Method:

A ‘question matrix ‘ will be developed at the really beginning of planing the information aggregation tool. “ A inquiry matrix is a tabular array that allows you to put out the subjects ( frequently matching to the aims of your research ) , more item on the information required, the informations aggregation method, the beginning ( i.e. the participant / papers ) and, eventually, some bill of exchange inquiries. ” ( Designing informations aggregation tools by Dr Rebecca King )

Data will be collected by triangulation of two informations aggregation techniques i.e. FGDs and In-depth interviews. Initially FGDs will be conducted followed by In-depth interviews as the subjects and cardinal findings emerged from FGD ‘s will be used for farther geographic expedition under the in-depth interviews. Field proving or navigation of the informations aggregation tools will be done to look into its pertinence and relevancy one time before originating the full-fledge survey.

Focus Group Discussion: Three FGDs will be done for each small town selected indiscriminately with three different groups – female parents ‘ group, mother-in-laws ‘ group and the 3rd group consisting of few small town wellness commission members and traditional birth attenders. It will be arranged at topographic point where small town wellness commission meetings are held with their anterior permission. Altogether 12 FGDs will be done, each dwelling of 6-8 members. FGD ‘s will be conducted by adept qualitative research workers sooner from the same part as being good versed with local linguistic communication. Each FGD will prosecute two individuals ; facilitator and note taker. With informed consent voice recording equipment will be utilised to enter the FGDs along with the notes from the note taker who will concentrate on the of import subjects, issues to follow-up through an in-depth interview, organic structure linguistic communication and looks of participants. The estimated continuance for one FGD would be around two hours including the ice-breaker activity at the beginning of FGD. These FGDs will research the socio-cultural and traditional beliefs and patterns most prevailing among this population that is act uponing the breastfeeding patterns and is responsible for the lower chest feeding index in the province. Single FGD will be held in a twenty-four hours, followed by written text and interlingual rendition of informations collected on the same twenty-four hours. Accuracy of the quality of informations translated will be ensured by back cheque of the interlingual rendition.

In-depth interviews: A semi structured questionnaire with unfastened ended inquiries will be developed to carry on the in-depth interviews utilizing the identified subjects and cardinal information from the FGD ‘s conducted and besides from the findings of relevant old researches/literature. An interview inquiry usher will be developed dwelling of general clear ended inquiries on the chief subject followed by a scope of examining inquiries based on that peculiar subject to be explored. Interviews will be done by sing the interviewees in their ain house clasp puting but taking attention that a complete interview can be held without an external disturbance/interference. A tape recording equipment ( verbatim ) and field notes will be collected. It is intended that entire 32 interviews will be conducted, spliting it every bit into 8 interviews for each of the four small towns under survey. Further bifurcation of these eight interviews for each small town is made between female parents, mother-in-laws, village wellness commission members, ASHA worker, traditional birth attenders, etc. It should be exhaustively considered that this is an estimated figure and it can alter based on the impregnation point of the informations retrieved. Interviews will last for 1 to 2 hours and it would be made certain that no more than 2 interviews will be done by each informations aggregation officer on a individual twenty-four hours so that collected informations can be transcribed sooner on the same twenty-four hours to maximise the retrieval of informations collected.

During the procedure of the interview, ab initio the respondent will be made comfy, explained the purposes and aims of this survey, provided the information sheet and informed consent and eventually informed that they can halt at any clip if they wish and ask if they have any farther inquiry in their head. [ Green and Thorogood 2004: 97 ]

Datas Analysis Plan:

If possible informations will be transcribed on same twenty-four hours of informations aggregation in order to obtain a written ‘script ‘ of the FGD and interviews to analyze. Transcribed informations will be farther translated from local linguistic communication to English. This information will be incorporated into qualitative research informations package such as NVivo along with the natural information in the signifier of voice recording and farther reviewed by an expert research worker. The information of the transcript will farther be organised, indexed and chief subjects will be identified from it. A cryptography frame will be developed and the informations will be rearranged harmonizing to this cryptography frame. Further by incorporating expertness, reading of informations will be done and happening will be reported. Analytic method to be used here will be thematic analysis utilizing thematic webs.

Potential hazards:

Inappropriate clip for informations aggregation: Data will be collected from females due to its relevancy to the research survey. Women in rural countries are really much occupied by their family jobs and work. It is really hard for them to be available at a peculiar clip. Hence anterior assignment will be made and interviews and FGDs will be conducted at their convenience.

Unsuitable topographic point for informations aggregation: Due to sensitiveness of the subject and to avoid any intervention or biased responses, FGDs will be conducted off from their place at a peculiar suited topographic point where the group of female participants can talk up/open up. For interviews it is hard for them to name up at a peculiar topographic point, hence it will be conducted by place visit but attention will be taken about avoiding any intervention by keeping privateness.

Trouble in placing right age of kids and remembering the exact continuance: Due to take down literacy rate it is hard to remember or right place the age of their kids. Therefore local calendar, festivals, fasting months, raining or reaping seasons will be used to assist female parents remember right clip.

Garbage to talk or halt the interview: Look at the sensitiveness of the subject ; it will take some clip for them to open up. In Indian society many rural adult females are still really submissive and would some clip garbage to talk on a peculiar sensitive point or would likely non like to farther go on the interview or treatment. In that instance the interview will be discontinued as per the involuntariness.

Cultural stigma: In the Indian civilization adult females would non discourse on subject such as chest eating patterns with a male so lone female informations roll uping forces will be used.

Data aggregation prejudice, misunderstanding and incorrect paraphrasing: Interviewers good versed with the local linguistic communication and civilization will be appointed to avoid such errors.

Missing or uncomplete informations: The questionnaires will be reviewed by supervisor before go forthing small town or block so as to maintain a cheque on any lost or ill-defined informations.

Refusal for entering the interview or FGD: It is expected that some respondents particularly adult females can decline to enter the FGD or interview harmonizing to Indian traditions. In that state of affairs note-taker will observe the treatment with the aid of another individual who facilitates the treatment easy and non hotfooting, reiterating the responses to do certain that the note-taker note everything and the transcripts will be reviewed by both to finish any lost informations.

Early feedback by ongoing informations analysis will assist minimising the opportunities of reiterating the same errors in informations aggregation.

Ethical and Gender Equity issues:

At state degree: Ethical blessing will be sought from MoHFW, MCH and secretariat general. Besides a descriptive missive will be provided to local authorities and small town panchayet to acquire their permission for transporting out the survey.

In the Interview on family degree: At the beginning, the participant/respondent ( female parent, mother-in-law, ASHA worker, traditional birth attender, small town wellness commission member ) will be explained rationale behind the survey and permission will be sought from the caput of the household and the adult females take parting. They will be ensured about the namelessness and privateness of their responses. If agreed, further their informed written and verbal consent will be taken. They will besides be informed that they can halt at any clip if they wish and ask if they have any farther inquiry in their head.

The participant will so be interviewed in her house with no 1 else around to maintain the responses confidential. During the note pickings, each respondent will be given a figure and respondent ‘s designation will be noted down in separate sheet along with the codification to acknowledge them for finishing losing informations. By making this their namelessness will be maintained.

After completing the interview, if the respondent asks for any information or aid, interviewer can assist with that and suggest referral when needed.

In the Focus Group Discussion: Consent will be obtained from all the respondents for audio recording of the FGD, after explicating them the intent of the survey. On understanding the treatment will be recorded but in instance of refusal, which is expected, the note-taker will take notes on the treatment.

Gender Equity:

As this survey is related to female and child wellness, the major engagement of will be of female respondents. Although it will be taken attention of that gender equality is maintained by equal engagement of both groups in survey design, informations aggregation and supervising, information analysis, drumhead readying and airing.

Dissemination Plan:

To do certain that the result of this survey will be utilised to better the chest eating patterns and highly low index in the Uttar Pradesh, following stairss will be taken ;

In order to hold better acceptableness and integrating of the findings in the bing national enterprise for bettering the chest eating patterns, MOH and authorities governments will be involved in the research planning and processing. It will ease the procedure of acquiring their averment to program and implement schemes and put the recommendations in to pattern.

Aga Khan Health Service India is presently implementing a “ Maitreya Project ” funded by World Bank on ‘Social Capital: A slingshot for bettering infant feeding ‘ in Gujarat part. Findingss from this survey can assist in developing effectual schemes and can be incorporated in the bing undertaking and farther replicated in Uttar Pradesh and other similar provinces with low index

There is a Breastfeeding Promotion Network of India and besides some NGO ‘s which are working for the baby and kid wellness which will be indulged in be aftering for better committedness to work on bettering this.

On completion of this research, the consequence will be disseminated by:

Summary of the cardinal findings will be distributed to UNICEF, WHO, MoHFW, BPNI, AKF, AKHSI, and assorted other administrations working for the baby and kid wellness in order to guarantee that they are made cognizant about the consequence of this survey.

Transcripts of the survey results will be circulated in assorted institutes for community medical specialty and pediatric sections to portion the findings with the academic staff.

Provision of the transcript of the research result will be made available to assorted libraries in MOH, UNICEF, modules of medical specialty and wellness institutes and besides to free databases to do certain that it can be assessed by pupils and wellness professionals.

Seminars and Workshops will be conducted aiming assorted stakeholders such as NGOs, MOH, international organisations, and faculty members to show the research outcomes and to discourse the recommendations made for possible intercessions.

Findingss will be shared in the regional workshop “ Promoting Child Survival, Nutrition and Health by accomplishing optimum IYCF patterns ” held in India every twelvemonth.

Health Promotion squad will be encouraged to concentrate on the wrong socio-cultural and traditional beliefs and patterns act uponing the breastfeeding patterns through wellness instruction massages by mass-media and wellness consciousness runs.

The airing program besides requires peculiar budget and clip reflected in the budget and activities timetable given below.

Forces and stuffs:

Particulars

Number required

Senior Researcher or Senior Research Manager

1

Research Coordinator

1

Field Supervisor for Research

2

Research Assistant

8

Research Trainer

1

Data entry/typing clerk

4

Administrator

1

Room and projector

1

Training Material

16

Refreshments

16 ten 6 yearss

Flip Charts

8

Stationary sets ( Pens, pencils, sharpener, eraser, highlighter, cartridge holders, etc )

8

Transcripts of the usher for carry oning FGDs

16

Transcripts of the usher for carry oning Interviews

35

Transcripts of written consent signifiers

40

Tape recording equipments

10

Field note books for taking notes

50

Bags for field staff

10

Envelops

50

Log Books

8

Computers

4

Printer

1

Printing documents

6

Ink Cartilage

2

Rental auto and fuel

2

Human Resources

Training Resources

Materials

Traveling

Timetable for the research:

Undertakings

W1

W2

W3

W4

W1

W2

W3

W4

W1

W2

W3

W4

W1

W2

W3

W4

W1

W2

W3

W4

W1

W2

W3

W4

Literature reappraisal

Search for Research squad

Develop research protocol

Data-collection tools development

Pretesting data-collection tools

Recruitment of Research squad

Develop preparation Faculty

Prepare developing Kit

Traning agreements

Train Field squad

Booking for travell

Pilot-testing field vist

Purchase field demands

Reaching the local governments

Data aggregation

Advancement studies

Review the collected informations

Feedback to the squad

Datas Entry

Translation

Datas Analysis

Report composing

Drumhead authorship

Drumhead distribution in cardinal

stakeholders & A ; libraries

Behavior Workshops/Seminars

to circulate the findings

Research Time-table

September

October

November

December

January

February

Budget

Budget Class

Per Unit Cost in US $

No.of Unit of measurements

Budget Required

HUMAN RESOURCES

Senior Researcher

3000

1

3000

Research Coordinator

2500

1

2500

Field Supervisor for Research

60 X 1 = 60

60 X 60

3600

Research Assistant

40X8 = 320

320 X 60

19200

Research Trainer

500

1

500

Data entry/typing clerks

150 X 4 = 600

600 X 3

1800

Administrator

1500

150 X 4

600

Sub Total

31200

MATERIALS & A ; EQUIPMENTS

Stationary sets ( Pens, pencils, sharpener, eraser, highlighter, cartridge holders, etc )

2

8

16

Transcripts of the usher for carry oning FGDs

0.5

16

8

Transcripts of the usher for Interviews

0.5

35

18

Transcripts of written consent signifiers

0.5

40

20

Tape recording equipments

20

10

200

Field note books for taking notes

1

50

50

Bags for field staff

5

10

50

Envelops ( for tapes and note book )

A

50

5

Log Book – day-to-day study to supervisor

A

8

8

Computers

300

4

1200

Printer

160

1

160

Printer documents box

10

6

60

Printer Ink Cartilage

50

2

100

Sub Total

1895

Training COSTS

Training Room / projector

50

1X6X50

300

Training Material

5

16

80

Refreshments

6

16 ten 6 yearss

96

Training somersault charts

A

8

16

Sub Total

492

Travel COSTS

Car lease and fuel

25

25 X 60

1500

Sub Total

1500

Operating expense COSTS

A

Sub Total

5000

DISSEMINATION OF RESULTS

A

Sub Total

1000

GRAND TOTAL

41087